The F.C.T (Abuja) is almost predominantly underlain by high grade metamorphism and igneous rocks of Precambrian age generally trending NN-E-SS-W, these rocks consists of gneiss, migmatites, granites and schist belt outcrops along the eastern margin of the area. The belt broadens southwards and attains a maximum development to the southeastern section of the area where the topography is rugged and their relief is high. In general the rocks are highly sheared (kogbe, 1978).the rocks of the area can be divided into 5 major groups as follows.

·        Metamorphosed Supra Crustal
·        Exogenic Rock: mica schist,(sh), marble(m), amphibolite and amphibole schist (a) fine medium grained gneisis.
·        Migmatitic Complex: migmatite (mi)migmatitic gneiss (mg), granite gneisis, (gg), porphyroblastic granite gneisis (pg), leucocratic granite gneiseis (lg),intrusive granite coarse grained granite (eg).
·        Minor Intrusion: Rhyolites (ry), quartz feldspar porphyry (py), Daca titea and desties (an), dolerites and basalts (b).
·        Other Formations: quartzite (qz), pegmatite (p), quartz vein (q).

The lowest elevation in the Federal Capital Territory (Abuja) is found in the extreme southwest where the flood plain of the river Guraja is at an elevation of about 10mabove sea level from there, the land rises irregularly eastward, northwards and north westwards. The highest part of the territory is in the northeast where there are many peaks over 760m above sea level. Hills occurs either as clusters or form long ranges.
The most prominent of these include the Gawa range in the northeast, the Guarfata range southwest of Suleja; the Bwari-Aso range in the northeast, the Idon-Kasa range north-west of Kuje and the Wuna range north of Gwagwalada. Elsewhere in the territory, there are many rather roundish isolated hills usually called ISELBERGS in between the major hills are extensive plains, the most important of which are the Gwagwa plains and the Rubochi plains. Indeed about 50% of the Federal Capital Territory (Abuja) consists of plains. Out of these plains, the Gwagwa plain was selected for the building of the Federal Capital Territory City (F.C.T).

The F.C.T (Abuja) has 2 main seasons, rainy (April – October) and dry (November – March) seasons. The high altitude and undulating terrain of the territory act to provide a regulating influence on its weather. During the dry season, the typical month being March, the temperature varies between 300 C in the north east to about 370 C in the southwest. This period is characterized by high diurnal ranges when drops as low as 170 C may be recorded between the highest and lowest temperature in the dry season. During the rainy season, temperature drop considerably due to dense cloud cover. The annual range also drops to around 70 C, especially between July and August. The F.C.T records a relative humidity in the dry seasons of some 20% in the afternoon at higher elevations and at more northern locations but also 30% in the extreme south.

2.3 soils and vegetation
The soils of territory (Abuja) are generally shallow and sandy in November, especially on the major plains such as iku-Gurara, Roboes and Roubochi. The high sand content makes the soils to be highly erodible. The shallow depth is a reflection of the presence of strong lower horizons. Those on the famous Gwagwa plains are however deep and clayey, perhaps reflecting the influence of parent materials gabbro and fine to medium textured biotite granite.
 Thus, the soils rich of the Gwagwa plains are the most fertile and productive. In addition, their being more or less from all exposed interfluves summits, makes them ideal for urban development. The F.C.T (Abuja falls within the guinea savanna vegetation zone of Nigeria.
Patches of rain forest, constituting about 7.4% of the total mass of the vegetation, however, occurs in the Gwagwa plains, especially in the gullied terrains to the south and rugged southeastern parts of the territory. Patches of the rainforest certain trees such as Antirisem Africana, Anthocleista noblis, ceiba, pentandra, cola the gigantean, celtis spp, chotorophora excels, khaya grandifondlia , terminnala superb, piptadenianum africanum, Triplochiton sceroxylon and Dracaena arborea. The dominant vegetation of the territory is classified into 3 namely.
·        Park or grassy savanna – about 53%
·        Savannah woodland  - about 12.85%
·        Shrub savannah – occurs extensively in rough terrains close to hills and ridges in all parts of the territory and covers about 12.9% of the total area.
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