MANAGEMENT OF MALARIA (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF MALARIA)

Proper management of sickness is a cost effective health intervention strategy, which according to WHO, has been estimated to have a large positive impact on the global burden of disease in the developing world.
In modern times, managing malaria could mean treating the infection using anti-malarial drugs. A number of measures should be applied in the management of malaria. In Nigeria, there is no adequate information on studies of the malaria management of the
people. However, various anti-malarial abound both local and scientific preparations, are used by people to combat malaria.

PREVENTION/CONTROL   
 Prevention may be carried out either by attacking the victor and the parasite or by giving the patient prophylactic drugs. Victor control effectiveness has declined in recent years due to lack of personnel mass population and other factors (Zucker Jr.1992).
The possible way of attacking the vector is by environmental modification, use of insecticides treated nets and use of insecticides which includes orgaanochloride (they are environment stable and non poisonous). Carbamate (no poison and less toxic), ryrethrods and organnophoshate (non poisonous but not as stable in environment as organochloride ethrods are from natural sources. i.e from plants. They are the safest of all and least resistance and it is used in most insecticides. It is also used in nets. It’s disadvantage is that It is highly unstable in sunlight. 

However, in attacking the parasite is by home management of malaria strategy. This strategy of home management of malaria (HMM) aims to improve the ineffective of medication practices that are very common in malaria-endemic countries. It’s overall goal is the early recognition and prompt, and appropriate response to malaria illness especially in children under five (5) years of age, in the home or community. It empowers communities to respond to malaria illness using effective, good-quality anti-malaria medicines (WHO, 2005a). The anti-malaria medicines used for HMM usually come in the  from of pre-packaged drug.

There are several considerations when presenting Chemopeophylatic drugs such species of parasite and parasite transmission intensify in the specific area. It is very hard to advise proplylactic drugs for south Asia to the high level of resistance there (Bradley, 1994).

Malaria control in Nigeria is based almost exclusively on chemotherapy, mainly with chlorioguine, the cheapest anti-malaria drugs. The control of falciparum malaria is becoming increasing challenging in many endemic areas of the world including Nigeria, not only because plasmodium falciparum has developed resistance to commonly used anti-malaria drugs, but also due to individual and house hold drugs use pattern. In West Africa including Nigeria, chloroquine resistance is firmly established. Alternative drugs like amodiquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine were being used in other parts of Africa. However many Africa countries are seeking evidence to change from even these alternatives to perhaps combination therapies. Chloroquine was the official first line antimalarial drug in Nigeria until February 2005, when the Federal Ministry of Health announced the change to artemisinin (Cotexcin and artemisinin combination therapies.    
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