PREVALENCE OF TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN


OUTLINE
INTRODUCTION
MORPHOLOGY
TRANSMISSION
EPIDEMIOLOGY
SYMPTOMS
CAUSES OF TRICHOMONIASIS IN PREGNANT WOMEN
DIAGNOSIS
TREATMENT
PREVENTION AND CONTROL
CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION


INTRODUTION
Trichomonas vaginalis, an anaerobic, parasitic, flagellated protozoa. It is the causative agent of Trichomoniasis and is the most pathogenic protozoan infection of humans in the industrialized countries
 The flagellate was originally considered a commensal organism until the 1950s when the understanding of its role as a sexually transmitted infection (STI) began to evolve. 

MORPHOLOGY

 
 Two T. vaginalis trophozoites obtained from in vitro culture.

Two T. vaginalis trophozoites obtained from in vitro culture.

TRANSMISSION
Trichomonas vaginalis is usually a sexually transmitted disease. The flagellates are the infective forms.
Transmission is primarily through contact between genital membranes, although it can on rare occasions be transmitted through communal bathing use of infected public facilities, and from mother to child. The incidence of the infection is highest among promiscious young women already infected with other sexually transmitted disease such as Gonorrhea or Chlamydia.

EPIDERMIOLOGY
Trichomoniasis has a world wide distribution. Man is the reserviour of the infection. The infected genital discharge being the source of infection.

 
SYMPTOMS

 Symptoms and signs of trichomoniasis in  the female includes a frothy, foul-smelling green to yellow vaginal discharge vulvities; cervitis and painful urinary frequency, severe inflammation of the infection site, tenderness edema, Chating and Itching.

CAUSES OF TRICHOMONIASIS IN PREGNANT WOMEN
Age related prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis indicated the highest occurrence among pregnant women of 21-30 years old.
Literacy level and pregnancy trimesters were found to be related to Trichomonas vaginalis infection.

DIAGNOSIS
v Cultural methods
v Wet mount
v Serological method
v Biochemical test
v Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

 TREATMENT
Treatment is by administration of metronidazole given orally.
Reinfection is common if sexual partners are not treated at the same time.

PREVENTION AND CONTROL
The most effective prevention method is abstinence that is refraining from sex completely.
No sexual contact means no risk of developing an STI. Practicing monogramy, in which
two partners do not have sexual relations with anyone but each other, also greatly reduce
the risk of spreading and contracting STIs.
Latex condoms are an effective, although not perfect, form of protection from STIs.

CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION

The prevalence observed in this study appeared to suggest the existence of relatively high rate of this infection among pregnant women which in effect indicates that the organism is still largely present in the population. It further suggests that trichomoniasis has neither been the focus of intense study nor active control programs probably due to the relatively mild nature of the disease.

Basic clinical services must be readily available to all sexually active adults and adolescents. Health care providers must be educated about the disease and the symptoms or lack of symptoms that occur. 

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