Malnourished is diagnosed by anthropometric measurements and physical examinations, correlation of malnutrition and growth retardation allows assessment of the individual nutritional stage, which is usually measured by as body mass index (MBT) BMTS are given as weight-for-height [Schaible, U. E.; and Kaufmann S. H. E. 2007]. PCM is defined by measurement that fall below 2 standard deviations
2. height-for-age (Stunting) and
3. weight-for-height (Wasting)
[Pinstrup-Andersen, et al., 1993].
Wasting indicates recent weight loss, whereas Stunting usually result from being chronically underweight of all the children under 5 years of age in developing countries about 31% are under weight 38% have Stunted growth and 9% show Wasting [Muller, O.; and Krawinkel, (CMAJ, 2005].
Underweight, Stunting, and wasting form PCM. Each represents different histories of nutritional deficits. Occurring primarily in the first 2-3 years of life, linear growth retardation (Stunting) is frequently associated with repeated exposure to adverse economic conditions, poor sanitation, and interactive effect of poor energy and nutrient intake and infection low weight-for-age indicates a history of poor health or nutrition deficiencies, including recurrent illness and/or starvation. In contrast, low weight-for-height is an indicator of wasting or thinness and is generally associated with recent illness, weight loss or a failure to gain weight [Bloss, E.; et al., 2004].