Collective security is a security arrangement in all states, or a number of states co-operate with each other to provide security for through a process unified action by all against any state or group of states which might challenge the existing order or constitute threats to others. It connotes the joining together of states either through treaty making through declaration to reliance the use of force in setting disputes and disagreement with each other.

         To use force against any of their members that may decide to embark on aggression against another fallen victim of aggression from another source.
The underlying motive behind collective security is to gang up against the aggressor, so that the aggressor  would be aggressor would be deterred by the prospects of over overwhelming force. sanctions may also be used in place of force ot persuade the aggressor to abandon his line of action.
While collective security is possible, several prerequisites have to be met in order to make it work. A collective security system offers great advantage to weaker nations who ordinarily may not defend themselves. Such nations easily become victims of aggression unless they are assured of the backing and protection of stronger neigbours and allies.
During the 19th century, Baha’ullah, the founder of the Bahai faith prescribed collective security as a means through which world peace could be established. According to him ---the time must come when the imperative necessity for holding a vast all-embracing assemblage of men will be universally realized, the unless and kings of the earth must needs attend it, and practice in its deliberateness, must consider such ways and means as will by the formulations of  the world’s great peace amongst men. Such peace demanded that the great powers should resolved for the sake of the tranquility of the peoples of the earth to be fully reconciled among themselves. should any king take up arms against another, all should unitedly arise and prevent him…1
His said that if this is done, the nations of the world will no longer require amendments except for the purpose of preserving the security of their realms and of maintaining internal order within their territories. He submitted that collative security would ensure the peace and competitive of every people.
            The failure of balance of power and armaments to secure peace has led scholars and statement to look up to the collective security system as an option particularly after the devastating effects of the two great wards of the 20th century.
            In the collective security arrangement, the problem of security could no longer be the responsibility of one of security could no longer be the responsibility of one nation. Under collective security, the nation of the world jointly takes care of each others security. the security of one state becomes the security of other and a threat to the security of one becomes a threat to all.

Basic Principles of Collective Security
            For collective security to works certain principles have to be met to create a fundamental basis for the guarantee at the future security wellbeing of the world society.
1.         Every state, especially all major states have to belong to the collective security arrangement. These big powers must show enough commitment to guarantee the success and survival of such arrangements. The league of Nations faced major problems because of the absence of the United States.
2.         No state can have the ability to block the decision making process. The league every member to exercise reto powers over its decisions while the UN gave same to fine of its members. Such scenario crease situation where one country can hold the vast majority to ransomed, and there was nothing anyone could do about it.
3.         There is too much reliance on the sanctions regime sanctions do not always move because even some members of the imposing community often collude with the presumed victim to sabotage its effectiveness.
4.         The international economy has to be sufficiently interdependent so that the requisite harm could be done to the intended country without affecting others. Again, sanctions can only work if their application is universal and comprehensive.
5.         For countries to trust their security to collective arrangements, they have to be satisfied when the need arises.
6.         A collective security arrangement may start off with a small number of states and gradually embrace a greater number of countries who share similar sentiments.
7.         A collective security arrangement must be will and able to work together in all occasions despite the sympathies and preferences of member states. collective action must remain the guiding principle at all times.
8.         Despite differences in size, capability and resources decision making must reflect reasonable equality in the status and recognition granted all member.
9.         In a collative security arrangement the big members must always see the need to carry along the smaller members of the group. Their views and reservations must no be ignored without good course. During the second gulf war, George bush’s coalition of the willing lacked the collective impetus arrayed to drive saddam Hussein out of Kuwait in 1991.
10.       Collective security must work in tandem with public opinion especially within the countries who constitute members of the security arrangement.

Collective Defence
Collective defence is an arrangement usually formalized by a treaty between the participating states. Collective defense commits member states to provide support in defense of a member if attacked by another state outside the organization. NATO and the Warsaw pack are the two best known collective defense organizations of the twentieth century. While the Warsaw pack has ceased to exist with the disintegration of he the soviet Union, NATO has continued to grow thronged and with large membership. The commitment to come to the aid of member states when the need arises is however not mandatory. it is based on the nation that an aggressor may not be a find themselves at the receiving end of the aggressors designs. it is also believed that standing shoulder to shoulder against an aggressor or threat provides an overwhelming force, both diplomatically and militantly to subdue the intent.
            After the September 11, 2001 attack on the US, NATO members provided unanimous support for the US to launch and sustain its war on terror. Collective defence has its roots in multi party alliances and entails benefits as well as risk on the parts of member states. On the one hand, collective defence reduce cost when resources are pooled together in a combined effort. Greater results are achieved at a reduced cost in both treasure and human resources. It provides smaller member of NATO the opportunity to invest less on military matters while resources are channeled to other vital areas as education, health, economic development and social services.
            On the other hand collective defence entails risky commitments for its members. Another person’s enemy because your enemy and another war becomes your own. Member states can become embroiled in costly wars in which they were neither aggressor nor the victim. It was a non they would have avoided without a cost. America finds it increasingly difficult to held the alliance over the conflict in Afghamistan as one country after another pulls out of the coalition while some face imminent revolt by their citizens at home.
            The need to balance out each others’ threats by countries in opposing defence alliances noy also dampen the desire for peaceful settlement and propel both sides to won. The first world won. The first world won became inevitable when countries belonging to the Tr-ple Entente-France, Britain-Russia were pulled into man by Russia’s hasty mobilization against Austria-Hungary. Germany subsequently declared war on Russia in response. The second world War also saw Britain and France rusting into war with Hermann in defense of their collective defense arrangement with Roland, the first major casualty of the German Reich.
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