Sound nutrition throughout life ensures good health and long life this is because there is a relationship between what people eat and their health. Nonetheless, most people chose foods for reasons other than their nourishing values. Because food choices become an integral part of people’s lifestyle, they sometimes find it difficult to change eating habits. Some factors influencing food choices includes preferences, ethnicity, health and nutrition. Regardless of the factors influencing dietary patterns, adequate food in take is essential as nutritional well being plays an important role in health promotion and maintenance diet may influence the risk of developing certain chronic diseases and plays a role in preventing morbidity and mortality.

Besides, the health and nutritional stratus of the mother, who is mostly the primary caregiver, has been found to affect her ability to care for her children effectively (Engel et al, 1997). According to Tourun et al (1989), chronic energy deficiency activity pattern.
A significant proportion of the women were nutritionally at risk of being either underweight, overweight or obese.
Nutritional education intervention in programmers aimed at nutrient intake through improvising improved diet diversity and increased use of local foods rich in iron, calcium and the B – vitamins needs to be undertaken. There is also the need to intensify education on excessive weight gain and its attendant health problems in Nigeria.
Many developing country governments are increasingly concerned with the basic needs of their population and health and nutrition project account for rising public sector expenditures. However, under tight budget constraints choices need to be made where resources are best spent. The key challenge of ensuring consistency of policies and strategies to promote long – term economic growth raise smallholder productively, achieve food security, and reduce poverty, while providing the social services that meet immediate welfare needs.
Theatrically, from the significant role of health and nutrition among the rural household on the productivity have a convincing proofs without any element of doubt or bewilderment.

            Nutrition and health are fundamental pillar of human development across the entire life-span. Globally, nutrition and health have improved in recent decades but malnutrition, including deficiencies in micro-nutrients, is still widespread, particularly in developing countries. In recent years, increased attention has been focused on the potential role of world bank and other organization in reduction of poverty. In improving nutrition and health.
            Despite this vital role of these organizations, their potentials contribution to food security, nutrition, health and sustainable livelihoods tend to be overlooked by policy-makers in some countries.
            Therefore, health and nutrition are the fundamental pillar of strength and, strength itself is the pillars of productivity. This is because better health and nutrition, as related to productivity or better production organization (since deciders in good health generally have better intellectual capacities) can increase household income and economic growth poor health will result in a loss of days worked or unreduced worker capacity, which, which family and hired labor are not perfect substitutes or when there are liquidity constraints is likely to reduce output. The elasticity of agriculture output or wages with to nutrition and health status is an indication of the productivity-nutrition and health relationship. Many developing country governments are increasingly concerned with the basic needs of their populations, and education and health projects account rising public sector expenditure choices need to be made where money is best spent. Human capital expenditures can be more easily justified in terms of promoting economic development and, this, generate large increase in productivity.
            However, it is reasonable to think that positive effects of health and nutrition on productivity are necessary conditions for wage efficiency mechanisms. Thus, large elasticity’s of productivity with respect to health and nutrition status with benefit the implementation of policies related to be wage efficiency frame work such a food aid or land redistribution as instrument to increase production and lower unemployment. The open the way to polices designed to increase production levels. And indirectly to improve the welfare of the populations.
Definition of productivity
            Productivity is a measure of the rate at which outputs of goods and services are produced per unit of input (labour, capital, raw materials etc). It is calculate as the ratio of the amount of outputs produced to some measure of the amount of inputs used.
            Productivity measures are used at the level of firms, industries and entire economies. De pending on the context and the selection of input measures, productivity calculations can have different interpretations. Improving productivity can have connotations of economizing on the use of in puts for example, adopting efficient production processes that minimize waste. Equally, improving productivity can have connotations of yielding more output. For example using resources in activities or with technologies that generates more output. Conceptually, productivity is a supply-side measure, capturing technical production relationships between in puts and outputs. But, implicitly,, it is also about the production of good and services that are desired, valued and in demand.
            Productivity can be expressed as a physical measure (for example, number of cars produced per employee), a monetary measure (for example, thousand of dollars of output per hour worked), or an index (for example outpour per unit of labour).
            In principle, inputs can be broadly defined to cover people’s time, their skills, land, raw materials, machinery and equipment, energy 9for example, electricity) and so on. But, most commonly, inputs are defined in terms of labour (number of employees or hours of work) and capitals (building, machinery and equipment etc).
            Productivity according to the dictionary of economics and commerce is the amount of production in relation to the labour employed. In fact, efforts are constantly being made to increase the productivity of labor by increasing its efficiency through education and training, by improving capital, and by better organization. Agricultural productivity, therefore, means amount of agricultural production in relation to inputs (land, labour, capital, material and techniques or technologies, etc). to increase agricultural productivity therefore, issues relating to the improvement in quality and quantity of agricultural inputs should be tackled.  



Conversion process
Materials –good quality and right 
when it is needed.
* Increased volume more product/services offered, able to reach bigger market
Tools-The right tools the right job in working order.
*  Improved services better delivery, better quality, better output rate, more benefits for  the customer/consumers
Equipment: Latest technology, few malfunction or breakdowns
Skill-Workers are skilled and trained to do the job well.
People: The right number of people for the work people of right age, gender abilities (good health)
Knowledge: Workers have the experience and expertise.
System: Right procedures to ensures that the conversion can be done effectively.
Management: Competent leaders who are able to manage and solve problems.
Processes: the right processes chosen for the conversion
Reduced cost
Lower cost per unit more sale and so more profit
Attitude: Workers who are motivated, cooperative resources and able to adopt when need be.
Nutrition are substances found in food that nourish your body. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are all nutrition. Vitamin and minerals also nutrition.
            Nutrients are critical for optimal brain development and function. Although maintenance of adequate intake of all nutrients throughout life is important for brain health and function, certain nutrients have a more profound effect on brain development than other.
            Importance of nutrition Good nutrition is fundamental for good health. It is the process by which we obtained food and use it for growth keeping our bodies working properly and warding off disease.
            In constrict, poor nutrition affects the body in a bad way and has been identified as the most significant fact contributing to the decaling health status of indigenous people. It has been linked to heart disease, kidney damage and diabetes, in children, it can stunt growth, cause tiredness and lead to poor concentration at school.
            Nutritional goals are, to make sure nutrition, affordable and quality food supplies is available stores and take ways creating supportive environments where healthy food choices are easier choices and the house holds in which people live supporting the promotion of health outcomes.
            However, the simple theory of nutrition and productivity form the capacity curve; the capacity curve relates income and work capacity (productivity): this means the higher income the better nutrition.
            Higher income-better nutrition.
This simply means when there is higher income the household have a better nutrition used by the body for the masic metabolism. Then only it translates in higher capacity. Thereby, the level of income you get for each task depend on level of performance (productivity).
            The health and income affects productivity negatively. This is because decrease in income decreases health. And poor people are too weak to work that is health affects income. When they cannot work the can’t money and therefore can’t buy food to get healthier and it affect income affects health.

Health: As defined by world health organization (WHO), it is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. It is a dynamic condition resulting form a body’s constant adjustmenent and adaptation in responses to stresses and changes in the environment for maintaining an inner equilibrium called homeostasis.
            It can be also defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well being sand not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Health is metabolic efficiency./ sickness is metabolic inefficiency. Nobody is totally healthy or totally sick. Each of us is unique combination of health and sickness. And each of us has a unique combination of abilities and disabilities, both emotional and physical. While others defined health as the level of functional or, metabolic efficiency of being. In human, it is the general condition of a person’s mind and body, usually meaning to be free form illness, injury or pin.
            According to the world health organization, the main determinants of health include the social and economic environment, the physical environment, and the person’s individual characteristics and behaviours.

More specially, key factors that have been found to influence whether people are healthy or unhealthy include;
1.         In come an social status
2.         Social support networks
3.         Education and literacy
4.         employment/working conditions
5.         Social environments
6.         Physical environments
7.         Personal health practices and coping skills
8.         Healthy child development
9.         Biology and genetics
10.       Gender
11.       Culture.

Core values affect productivity
(i)        Eliminating mistakes
(ii)       Reduced wastage
(iii)     Continuous improvement
(iv)      Quality
(v)       Competitiveness
(vi)      Innovation
*          Eliminating mistakes
Mistakes can be very costly in a business because of time that is wasted also resources.
*          Reducing wastage
            The less resources we use the better because wastage coast money.
*          Continuous improvement: Each person in an organization needs to try to improve on their performance on a daily basis. Each small improvement can add up to greater productivity.
*          Quantity:
            The person who uses the services or product also plays a factor as they are the ultimate consumers. If they are not happy, they may return the product or not but It against. Consumers want the best possible quality at the best possible price.
*          Competitiveness
            Almost all organizations that operate in a capitalist market will have some competition. This also has affect on productivity as a company can manufactures thousand of pens per day but might not stay to sell them because their competition has a better or cheaper product.
*          Innovation
            New ideas and adoptions to current technology, equipment and processes are important for development. Productivity can be increased by using current resources or technology more effectively and to sticking to doing things the way they have always been done.
Types of productivity and how they can be measured
1.         Single factor or partial productivity:
2.         Value added productivity
3.         Total factor productivity
*          Single or partial productivity: this is the simplest type of productivity measure a single type of in put is selected for the productivity ratio. A most well known measure of single factor productivity is the measure of output per work input, describing work productivity.
*          Value Added productivity
            This measure a business ability to create extra value if we think of this in terms of profitability-the business makes a profit because their costs (all inputs) were less than their in come (out put value).
*          Total factor productivity
This is the measure of the efficiency of all input to a production process. Increases usually result the technological innovations or improvements. It looks at the quality of outputs of divided by the cost of inputs.
Note:  Productivity  =          quantity of output of goods and services
                                                                                    Quantity of input
Productivity defines the ratios between the input (resources like people, raw material etc) of an origination and the output (product or services that are produced). Productivity measures, the measure the output from the production processes per unit of input.
            Productivity is measure of economic efficiency tat shows how effectively economic inputs are converted into output.
            Household can be define as a person or a group of person related to unrelated, who live together in the same dwelling unit, who make common provisions for food and regularly take their food from the pot or share the same gain store, or who pool their income for the purposes of purchasing food.
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