1.1       Background to the Study 
Adolescence is a time when young people are learning a great deal about themselves and adjusting to rapid change in their bodies: During early adolescence, many experience a new uncertainty about their bodies and how they function. They need information and assurance about what is happening to them. As they mature, some feet confused about what they are supposed to do in a variety of situation-including making sense of evolving relationship with family and peers, coping with new sexual feeling and trying to assess conflicting messages about who they are and what is expected of them.

            Parents, educators, and communities all face the challenge of creating environments that support and nurture good sexual health. Young people need sexual education programmes that model and teaches positive self worth, responsibility, understanding and acceptance of diversity and sexual health. Many people still believe that sexual education would encourage “sexual experimentation and several studies have been conducted to determine whether sexual education actually increase young people’s sexual involvement.
            On of these is the Landmark study commissioned by the World health organization (WHO) in 1993, which conclusively showed that contrary to long-held beliefs --- no significant relationship exists between receiving formal sexual education and initiating sexual activity. Rather, sexual education results in postponement or reduction in the frequency of sexual activity and more effective use of contraception and adoption of safer behaviour.
            Instead of informing adolescents only about the health risks and potential negative consequences associated with sexual activity, adults need to provide young people with more balanced messages. Adolescences need receive clear, protective messages about sexual decision-making, but the also need to hear affirming message about healthy of relationships and healthy sexuality. Sexuality is more than sexual activity. If deals with many aspects of life, including biology, gender roles, body image and interpersonal; thoughts beliefs, values, attitudes and feeling and sexual behaviours.
            Young people should be assisted to develop a positive sense of their own sexuality by creating opportunities for them to consider all aspects of sexuality, to ask questions, and understand that there are adults who support them as they learn about this part of themselves. Understanding the elements of one’s sexuality is a life long process. It involves acquiring information and forming attitudes and values about identity, relationship, and intimacy. Comprehensive sexual education is broad-based and addresses all aspects of sexuality and sexual health.
            In the past, it was normal to protect adolescents form receiving education on sexual matters as it was falsely believed that ignorance would encourage chastity; yet the rampant unprotected sexual activities among adolescents and the devastating consequences is evidence of the failure of this approach. Studies of the sexual and reproductive health behaviour of Nigerian youth confirm that they had not been formally taught properly about sexuality. Their information on this important subject comes from peers, news magazines and biology classes. Though a high percentage expressed the view that they should not engage in premarital sex activity, 25% to 50% disclosed that they were already sexual active. According the Broderick C.B (1999). Almost 25%, of youth girls in questioned stated that their first experience of sexual intercourse through rape or one in which they were forced to have sexual intercourse.
            In Nigeria, like many other developing countries, adequate attention had not been given to adolescent reproduction health, despite the fact that recent data has shown that age at menarche is dropping; there is early initiation of sexual activity; there is a high incidence of teenage pregnancy: and that teenager’s account for 80% of unsafe abortion complications treated in hospitals. Generally speaking, arising from our Socio-cultural heritage issue relating to sexuality are usually not openly discussed. However, documented evidence shows that there has been a break down of other socio-cultural norms, values and practices that used to as checks to premarital sexual activity.
            Although we see sexuality around us every day, sexual education and services for adolescents remains controversial issue in Nigeria. According to Dawkina. J(1994) surveys conducted nationally show that Barents who ought to be the primary sexual educators of their children and the communicate to them specific values about sexuality play the least role in this area – schools, too provide little or no sexual education for young people, leaving their equally misinformed pears as the primary source of information on this issue.

1.2       Statement of the Problem
            Sex education-a tool for reducing HIV/AIDS among secondary school Students in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State is a problem; its controversy has made many to learn to sit up through hard experience. AIDS a killer disease has become a serious problem in Ebonyi State and in Ikwo Local government Area in particular. Each time, a man/woman is dead or a child is lost through this deadly disease. Some children become 0rphans, a woman become a widow and family head. She is ill-prepared for  or some parents become childless. Each time HIV/AIDS infection leads to the death of a family member, social life and psychological well-being are affected. In order to curb the ever-increasing transmission of HIV/AIDs infections, there is the need for all agents of education to socialize all and agents of education to socialize all and sundry to develop positive sexual behaviour that will result in prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State;
1.3       Purpose of the Study
            The main purpose of this study is to investigate Sex education as a tool for reducing HIV/AIDS among secondary school students in Ikwo Local government area of Ebonyi State. On the specific, the study finds out the target  of achieving the following objectives:
1.         To determine to what extent has sex education reduced HIV/AIDs among secondary school students in Ikwo Local Government area of Ebonyi State.
2.         To find out the effect HIV/AIDS among secondary school Students in Ikwo LGA.
3.         To examine parent’s contribution towards sexual education of youths in Ikwo Local Government Area.
4.         To suggest possible ways of reducing or preventing of such social ill of HIV/AIDS scourge in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

1.4       Significance of the Study
            The pertinence of this study is backed up with its attendant contribution to up date teachers knowledge, the parents, educational stake holder and learners the value sex education to youths and adults in our society. It is also fascinating to recall that this research work assist curriculum planers to plan more appropriate the learning and teaching of sex education in junior and senior secondary schools.
            The study is also, useful for married couples who would learn more the need to teach their children sex education in respective of their misconception, cultural norms and religious beliefs about sex education. This work is also in no small way useful to marriage counselors who would learn more on ho to teach newly wedded couples the importance of sex education in Ikwo Local Government Area.
            Government on its own should make sex education as one of the compulsory subjects to be taught at secondary and teacher’s training institutions in the country. Finally this study has a focus on the entire community of Ikwo Local government Area needs to be involved to help young people develop a healthy sexuality.
1.5       Scope of the Study
            The study of sex education, a tool for reducing HIV/AID among secondary school students is limited to Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, which would among others strive to find out the extent, sex-education has reduced the spread of HIV/AIDS scourge, which its increase is at alarming rate at present. The study also focused on the sex education a tool for reducing HIV/AIDS among secondary school students in Ikwo Local government Area of Ebonyi State.
1.6       Research Questions
            Following the Basic of researcher work four research questions were formulated to guide the study as follows:
1.         Does Sex education reduce the rate of HIV/AIDS spread in secondary school?
2.         Do parents contribute to educate youths on Sex education?
3.         In what ways has HIV/AIDS affect the health of secondary school students in Ikwo Local Government Area.
4.         What is the role of church to reduce the HIV/AID infections in Ikwo Local Government Area.
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