The total dietary fibre and proximate compositions of five (5) selected legumes (groundnut, bambara groundnut, cowpea, soybean and breadfruits) were studied. The proximate analysis included ash, crude fat, proteins, starch and sugar contents. A statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was observed among the five selected legumes regarding the ash, crude fat, proteins, starch and sugar contents.
The five selected legumes (breadfruit, soybean, groundnut, bambara groundnut and cowpea) were also found to be significantly different (P<0.05) on the basis of dietary fibre analyzed including soluble dietary fibre (SDF) (1.66%, 2.06%, 1.87%, 1.95% and 2.04%). insoluble dietary fibre (IDF). (40.37%, 40.23%, 39.87%, 69.98%,(40.16%) and total dietary fibre (TDF) 42.02%,42.28%,41.93%and 42.20%). The results obtained from the present studies could be a source of valuable information and a guideline for the food scientists, researchers and even the nut consumers not only in Nigeria but all over the world.


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1.0                                                       INTRODUCTION
The continuous rise in population coupled with increasing demand for food has already become a global threat, if efforts are not made towards finding alternative and chapter sources of food such as the underutilized indigenous plants, food insecurity in Nigeria and Africa in general will remain.
Underutilized food plants are good sources of protein, fat, minerals and vitamins, and are available at certain critical periods of the year when the common food sources are very scarce or completely unavailable (Okigbo, 1986: Salih et al., 1991; Tewari, 1993; Martinello et a!; 2006). Several studies on African indigenous plants confirm both their richness in nutrients and their health promoting and protecting properties (Onyechi et al, 1998, Sandhya and Vijayakshmi, 2000 Mbofung et a!; 2002: Ellamissang et a!; 2003 Ojewole, 2003, Ajodele, 2005, Dahiru et al; 2006).
Furthermore, carbohydrate rich food plants are important, n that plants containing high proportions of free sugars are not
good for diabetic patients. However, polymeric carbohydrates forming the major part of the dietary fibre are beneficial to patients suffering from diabetics and coronany heart disease. This is due to the fact that dietary fibre lowers both sugar and serum cholesterol’ (Nahar et al; 1990).
Dietary fibre is considered to be plant cell wall component that are resistant to digestion. It includes soluble polysaccharides such as pectin, plant gums, and mucilages. Crude fibre is the residue remaining after sequential digestion with acid and base solutions under specific conditions. The crude fibre method cover 50-80% of cellulose, lO-5O% lignin and 20% hemicellulose. it is clear that there is no fixed relationship between crude fibre and dietary fibre because plant cell walls vary in the proportions of their basic constituents. The continuous use of the crude fibre methodology which may be realistic in human nutrition due to an important effect such as age of crops Unfortunately, the database on the dietary fibre content of foods and food ingredient is very sketchy at present. Also, the methodology for analyzing dietary fibre is still being development and on consensus on a single method for use with human foods has yet emerged.
At present, the major methods recommended for dietary fibre analysis include, neutral detergent fibre (Hopkins et al; 1995). Acid detergent fibre (Sauracalixto et a!; 1983). These procedures are technically more difficult and hard, than the crude fibre determination, therefore researchers still prefer to publish crude fibre data not minding its interpretative defects in human nutrition. Due to the importance of dietary fibre in human diet, it is important that the quality of fibre in food should be quantifiable by a method which is easy and consistent.
 The aim of this study is to contrast the current crude fibre and dietary fibre method by simple method used in the proximate analysis of food to produce a data base of dietary fibre in developing countries and globally. 

3.0                                           MATERIALS AND METHOD
The five local legume samples (Dehulled) such as Bambara groundnut, Soybeans, Cowpea, groundnut, Bread fruit was procured from meat market in Abakaliki, Ebonyi state Nigeria.
The sample seeds was sorted and cleaned to removed damaged seeds, metals, stones, and chaff their shell was removed and dehulled there after and was Sundried. The sundried legume seeds was milled into flour using attrition miller and sieved with a wire mesh to achieve the finest particles size and was stored at airtight container, and was subjected into proximate analysis to determine ash, CHo, protein, eat, sugar, fibre, starch, Dietary fibre.

Mouldy, shrivelled nuts and stones was manually removed from groundnut grains. Dust was removed by winnowing. The grains was sundry to facilitates dehulling and the hulls was  manually remove by rubbing between palms. The groundnut was milled with attrition milling machine and stored.

Groundnut flour -----Cleaning ------ Drying ------Shelling/  dehulling----- Milling into flour
Bambara groundnut seeds was sorted, cleaned the sample was subject into loose milled attrition machine for easy dehuling. Dry milled and sieve into fine flour. The flour was stored in an airtight container prior to milling.
Bambara groundnut flour
The bread fruit seed was sorted and cleaned. parboiled for 5mins at 100°c, drained, the seed was dehulled by manual method, winnow out the seed coat and sundried for 3 days and milled into fine flour.
Bread fruit
Parboiling (5mins at 100°c)
Sun drying
Bread fruit flour

Cowpea seed was sorted and cleaned, soak in water for
5rninutes, Dehulled, washed and sundried for 2days then milled
into flour.
Soaking (for 5 mins)
 Sun drying
Cowpea flour
Soybeans seed was sorted and cleaned as well, soaked in water for 8-l2hrs, boiled for 10 minutes cooled in water, Dehulled and sundries, then milled into soya beans flour.
Soybean flour
Soaking (for 8-l2hrs)
Cooling in cold water
Soybeans flour
Proximate composite of the different legumes samples was determined using the method of A.O.A.C (1990).
Two grams of the samples was weighed into already cleaned, dried crucible of known mass. The crucible with the content was evaporated to dryness using water bath at 100°c. The crucible with the content was weighed and the mass was recorded. The crucible with the content was placed into a muffle furnace at 550°c for 3 hours until the sample turned white and free from carbon. At the end of the incineration the ash substances was withdraw and cooled in desiccator and reweighed. The mass of the residual incinerate was calculated as % ash content
ASH (%) =  Mass of Ash   X 100
                  Mass of sample      1
Fat content was determined using the soxhlet continuous extraction Apparatus. A fat free extraction thimble which has been previously dried in an oven was weigh. Three-five grams of the sample was measured into the thimble and weighed. The thimble was placed in an extracted and the solvent to be used was added until the barrel of the extractor is halp-filled. Then the condenser was replaced. It was heated over heating mantle or water bath between the temperature of 50°c-60°c until the organic solvent was evaporated. The thimble was remove and place in a beaker to dry. The drying was done in an oven set at 50°c until a constant weight was gotten. It will now be cooled in a desiccators and reweighed the thimble and the content. The percentage weight of fat in the sample was calculated as.
Lipid fat % = Weight loss of sample (extracted fat) X 100
                              Weight of sample                              1

3.3.3               CARBOHYDRATE (CHO)
The carbohydrate content of the legume flour was determined by difference according to AOAC (1995) as, it was given as carbohydrate by difference that is the percentage of water, protein, fat ash subtracted from 100. CHO(%) = {100 — (M.C.+ protein + fat + ash) }.
3.3.4               PROTEIN DETERMINATION
The protein was determined using Kjeldahl Distillation method as described by AOAC, (1995) and a conversion factor of 6.25. A portion of the sample Containing up to 0.04N was weighed and transferred to Kjeldahl digestion flask. About 5m1 of concentrated H2S04 was added and catalysts which was included about 2.Og of potassium sulphate, Na2SO4 and was heated until the liquid becomes clear. A portion of the sample was converted to ammonia sulphate (NH4)2S04 during digestion.
The digested was diluted with distilled water and alkaline made using excess concentrated (50%) Sodium hydroxide (up to 75m1). The ammonia was distilled into 2% boric acid (5Oml) and the condenser removed as well as the delivery tube after washing into the receiver.
The distillate was titrated with O.1N H2S04 to purplish-gray end point. The percentage Nitrogen (%N) was calculated.
Nitrogen % = Titrated value X 0.1N X 0.014 X 100
                     Weight of sample in grams                   1
%         crude protein = % N X 6.25
Sugars in tamarind pulp samples was extracted with 70% aqueous method, using a soxhlet extractor.
This was followed by concentration of extract to remove the solvent. Sugar standards consisting of glucose, galactose, fructose, xylose and arabinose was separately prepared by weighing 1.Og of each sugar into five beakers and adding l0ml of 50% aqueous methanol (Shorma and 2woig, 19971; Harbone, 1991). 5μl of extract was spotted on what man NO.1 chromatography paper (46cm x 57cm) at 5cm internal along with 5μL of l0% reference sugar standards.
One-way descending chromatography was run for 20hrs using n-butanol-toluene-pyridine-water (5:1:3:3 vlv). After air-drying the chromatogram, the sugar spots was located with saturated AgNO3 in acetone and 0.5m alcoholic NaOH solutions.
In quantifying the sugars, about 0.Olml of each concentrated sample extract with be spotted in quadruplicate on whatman. No 1. chromatography paper at 5cm interval. The chromatograms in air, one of the quadruplicate strips was cut out and the sugar spots on it located with AgNO3 in ethanol. Next, the areas containing the spots was marked out and corresponding areas on each of the remaining triplicates was removed and eluted with 5ml of distilled water for lhr (Faparusi, 1970; 1981).
The method of Mcready (1970) was used, the residue from sugar analysis was added to 7.5m1 of perchloric acid and allowed to stand for 1hour. The hydrolysate was diluted with 1.75m1 of distilled water and fittered, 10mI of the fitterate was diluted with 1.Oml of distilled water, vortexced and read.
The method of Hopkins et al (1995) was used. About 1g pulp placed in 200m1 round-bottomed flask, to which was added to 100ml neutral detergent (Sodium Lauryl sulphate at pH 7.0). The round-bottomed flash was linked to a condenser and refluxed for lhr. The suspension was filtered through a weighed glass fibre filter paper, rinsed successively with 100ml hot water (approximately 60°c) 100ml methanol and 100ml acetone. The glass fibre filter paper containing the residue was then air-dried overnight at room temperature and weighed. The weight of the filter paper was subtracted from the total weight to obtain the weight of the residue (NDF).
The method of saura-calixto et. a!. (1983) was used. About ig of the pulp will he weighed into 250m1 flask containing l00mI acid detergent solution (40g of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide in 21 of 0.5ml H2S04) and the condenser fitted. The flask was
gently boiled and refluxed for lhr after which the solution was filtered, using gentle suction. The residue will then washed with 350ml aliquots of boiling water, followed by washing with acetone until the wash solution was cleared. The residue was sucked dry by vacuum and then dried in the oven for 4hr at 105°c, cooled in a dessicator and weighed the acid detergent fraction was taken as the difference in weight.

4.1                                   RESULT AND DISCUSSION
            The present investigations suggest that soybean was the highest source of dietary fibre, followed by cowpea, bread fruit, bambara groundnut and groundnut seeds. Soybean also contains the highest amount of soluble fibre.
            All the five selected legumes were not good source of soluble dietary fibre (SDF). The legumes contains sufficient amount of nutrients such as fibre, ash, protein, fat, starch and reducing sugars with soybean containing more protein than the others, hence a good source of protein to the body.
            In take of these selected legumes supplies the body with the daily recommended allowance of nutrients. 

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