2.0                               REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
            This chapter is reviewed under the following sub-heading.
*          Theoretical frame work of sex education.
*          Conceptual framework of sex education.
*          Sex education a tool for reducing HIV/AIDS among secondary school students.
*          Review of Empirical Studies
*          Summary of Literature Reviewed

2.1       Theoretical framework of Sex-education
            The following theories are applicable to sex education as a tool for reducing HIV/AIDs among secondary school students.
-           Evolutionary theory (social Darinism)
-           Structural function theory (functionalism
-           Conflict theory (Marxism)
-           Symbolic interaction theory (Interactionalism)
Evolutionary theory (Social Darinism)
            Evolutionary theory or social Darinism is associated with the biological conceptions with long term change (Eshleman and Cashion 1993); social Darinism is biological theory transformed from Charles Darwin’s biological idea that all living things tend to improve and become complex more and more as they develop and transformation was done by Auguste Comte Herbert Spencer, etc.
            Therefore in this researcher work sex education and the practice has become a problem as man has just discovered hence a long term evolution in man has made. Some people who ordinarily would face with the problem of Sex education in their society or environment.
            The assumption of evolutionary theory is that evolution bring about change and not just mankind, hence this change embodies in itself both good thing and bad one respectively.
            This is why, this phenomenon of Sex education as a tool to reduce HIV/AID scourge in society has to be looked as monster as it continues to breed in human being day after day. 

2.2       Structural functional theory (functionalism)
            Situational functionalism is sometime referred to as functionalism, equilibrium theory or social system which simple means the contribution that each part of the family community makes to the whole.
            Thus functionalist theory is a very popular one in sociology and anthropology found useful in explaining issues.
            Obidike (1998) cited by James (2005) explains that the function of a particular social life as the functioning of the total social system. An example is given by Nwankwo of religion, who sees it as promoting social solidity. In the same vain people consider sex education as an institution that performs a useful role or function in society. On that note, according to Gladdys B and Stephanson N.I. (1990) are of the view that sex education is prone to misrepresentation or misinterpretation probably because some writes have used it interchangeably for venereal disease, education; family life education and even population education.
            Sex education, according to MCNab (1981. p 22) is the teaching and learning to recognize and others, in hope of using the knowledge towards the greatest creativity and fulfillment in our live. This implies that there is conscious effort to teach and learn Sex-related issues. The definition further holds that sex education aims at helping people first to recognize and than to accept the reality of their sexuality.
            The definition is however vague on what the knowledge is however vague on what the knowledge gained will be used for. In what seems as a correction of the defect of above definition, Illinois sex Education advisory Board (1971) maintains that sex education is a cooperative efforts by home, school, church and community to provide selective learning experience and guidance for young people in and outside schools. Concerning the need, interest problems and goals that arises out of human psycho-sexual development, primary as related to love marriage, parenthood and family life.
            It is important to note here that sex education is not restricted to schools only rather it is extended to the home, church, Community etc. It is note worthy that this kind of education must be selected. Selectivity here is in re-cognition of the age culture and interest of the educated (or the recipient) looking at the functionality of sex education at personal and interpersonal levels Okafor (1983 P. 50) says that sex education aimed at helping young people to develop attitudes, values, goals and practices that are based on sound knowledge and which will enable them express sexual and matting impulses as a constructive force in modern democratic living that is sexually and ethically acceptable as well as personally satisfying.
            Sex education is not therefore a concealed route to inducting teenagers into sexual activities, it is not a means of encouraging unbridled sexual intercourse; it is not an indirect way of recognizing illegal sexual acts as the opponents and antagonists of sex education propound.
            Sex education recognizes the child as a special being who must be prepared psychologically and physically to face the challenges of the society realistically and successful. Watson in win and Jacks (1967 P. 71) advises that the young should be educated not only as individual but also as cooperative members of a society. According to him “among the broadening conceptions dominating modern education, none is more significant than that which recognizes the child as a social being with claims beyond those met by a curriculum in ordinary academic studies. Sex education accords this recognition not only to the children but also to the adults.
2.3       Conflict Theory (Marxism)
            The conflict theory can be called or be reformed as the radical theory or the Martist theory because it sees society as being always in conflict and change. In the communist manifesto (1845) referred to earlier, a document by Marx and Engels, they asserted that the theory or history of all hitherto existing society. Sex education is institution about sex and related issues in our society cultural prices often prevent parents form introducing their children to sex education.
            Children are thus left to obtain incorrect information about sexuality from their friends, magazines, novels etc. if adolescents are to develop health attitude towards sex and sex differences, they most be given accurate information about sex.
2.4       Symbolic Interaction theory (Interactions)
            Contrary to radical theory (Maxism) and functionalism which deals on macrosocilogical, human orientations, symbolic internactonism is the most influential approach to interactionism which is based on mutually understanding objects, concept, and ideas about sexuality education.
            According to Denga (1988) has the view that “the period of adolescence is thus prone to sexuality. It is trying period for both girls and boys in matters concerning male-female interaction ship”. Therefore sex education is desperately and indispensably need at this period to enhance the adolescents self-control, increase their awareness of the dangers of reckless sexual relationship (HIV/AIDS) and instill values and norms especially in relation to sex-related issues.

2.5       Conceptual Framework of sex Education
            A lot more orientation on the term sex education has been postulated. This helps to explain the great need for adolescents to be assisted with a well-planned sex education programme and the issues relating marriage.
            In the past, it was normal to protect adolescents from receiving education on sexual matters as it was falsely believed that ignorance would encourage chastity; yet, the rampant unprotected sexual activities among adolescents are the divesting consequence is evidence of the failure of this concept or approach. According to Ajala (1981) he is of the view that our adolescent have not derived much from sex education in schools and so advocated for intensified efforts In this field. He also observed that sex education had no better place in the curriculum of our secondary schools, and called for better integration.
2.6       Review of Empirical Studies
            Many researches have carried out one study or the other on sex education as a tool for reducing HIV/AIDS among secondary school students, under different view. Chimezie (2005) studied Sex education as a tool for reducing HIV/AIDS in secondary school students in Enugu State, using questionnaire as his instrument. The population of study was 500 students who were randomly sampled. This findings are
-           That sex education has reduced the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexual transmitted related diseases.
-           That sex education has provided them accurate information about sexuality.
-           That students were able to ask questions on sexuality issues.
Anyaoku (2008) in his own instigate other reasons of teaching sex education in secondary schools.
-           That students needs an education that would help them channel their sex impulse along responsible and desirable ends.
-           That it enable them understand cultural perception of sexuality and what is means to he male and female in our culture.
-           Students are opportune to participate in learning activities that promoted sexual health.
-           Their understanding of the health terminology and functions for the reproductive/sexual response system will facilitate their comprehension of how to prevent unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections.
2.7       Summary of Literature Reviewed
            There has been a consensus among scholars that sex education is not a concealed route to induct teenagers into sexual intercourse or sexual activities; it is not a means of encouraging unbridled sexual intercourse, it is not indirect way of recognizing illegal sexual act, as the opponents and antagonists of sex education propound.
            Young people today seem to intimate sexual intercourse much earlier than in the past and young mothers suffers from various maternal complications. Two out of every fine secondary school girls have had at least one previous pregnancy; 150 out  of every 1000 women who give birth are 19 years old or under, and 50% of the death recorded in Ikwo Local government Area of Ebonyi State. It’s high maternal mortality figures are adolescent girls, due to illegally induced abortion. The problem of HIV/AID also affects all aspect of the lives of our young people. To tackle the disease effectively, their social environment must be transformed so that they can form relationship between themselves and other peers, parents and teachers the health services and religious groups in order to acquire appropriate knowledge of sexual education, life skill and attitudes.
            The literature concluded by reviewing studies which were carried out on the sex education as a tool for reducing HIV/AIDS among secondary school students. There is no work yet to the researchers knowledge on sex education as a tool for reducing HIV/AIDs scourge in Ikwo Local government area of Ebonyi State. It is the existence of this gap that led to this study. Therefore there is the need for this study to fill the gap.
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