According to the M.S Dictionary, a spy is a person employed by a nations government to see, observe and gather information about another nation’s activities, plans, defames and the like. This is often done for hostile reasons. Espionage or spying involve obtaining information that is considered secret or confidential without the permission of the holder of that information. Espionage is a clandestine activity hence the legitimate holder of useful information would automatically change his plans and courses of action by taking counter measures once it is known that the information has filtered into wrong hands.

            Espionage organisations conduct clandestine operations for a number of reasons-This may include the assessment of national capabilities of the strategic level, wearning about the morement of security and military personnel, financial system, industrial capabilities and protective measures around personalities and targets of attention.
            Apart from simply gathering information, spies may be used to spread information in the organisationor establishment where they are planted. This may involve providing false reports about their country’s military capability and morement, or about the ability of a competing firm to bring a product into the market. Furthermore, due to the highly skilled infiltration tactics required for espionage purposes, spies may be provided other roles that require infiltration such as sabotage and destabilisation. It is necessary to point out here that all information gathering are not espionage. There are legitimate means though which government agencies gather information considered necessary for policy decisions.
            Espionage is very risky and dangerous. The risks vary depending on he country involved and the specific espionage laws in place. A syp breaking the host country’s laws may be deported, imprisoned or executed. If he has a diplomatic cover, he could be declared persons non grater and expelledtion the country. A Spy braking his own country’s laws would most certainly be tried for treason and if found guilty would either face long term imprisonment or the death penalty. Most countries regard spying by their own citizens as treason and  the punishment is often very heavy.
            Many organisation, both national and non-national conduct espionage operations against various interests. Terrorism organisations, bit business and other actors in the international system also seek to infiltrate their gents and operatives into target areas to learn their security routine and exploit available intelligence material. Terrorism organisations and organised crime syndicates also need to learn secure means transferring money form one point to the other. Communication is very vital to espionage and clandestine activities. The success of the adversary and the vulnerability of the target is determined by the sophisticated nature of the former’s SIGINT detection and interception capability.

Historical background- Acts of espionage are well documented through out history. The ancients philosophies of the Chinese and Indian military strategists such as Sun Tzu and Chanaky contain information on deception and subversion. Chandragupta Maurya. Founder of the Maurya Empire made use of associations, spies and secret agents in his dealings, with adversaries. The ancient Egyptians had a thoroughly developed system for the acquisition of intelligence and related information. The Hebrews also used spies in their dealings with their enemies. The story of Rahab and Joshua and Caleb quickly comes to mind.
            Spies were also very much in use in the Greek and Roman empires. During the 12005 and 1300s, the Mongols relied heavily on espionage in their conquests in Asia and Europe. Fendal Japan often employed the services of the Ninja to gather intelligence. More recently, may modern espionage methods were well established centuries ago.
            The cold war involved serious espionage activities between the US and its allies and the soviet union and the PRC and their allies. Intelligence information this time was concentrated particularly on nuclear weapons and nuclear capability. Recently, espionage e agencies have targeted the flourishing illegal drug trade and the activities of terrorists around the world.

Methods of Operation: 
Different intelligence services value certain intelligence collection techniques over others, the former soviet Union, for instance, preferred human sources (HUmint) over research in open sources while the US placed emphasis as technical methods (SIGINT and IMNINT). Both the soviet political (KGB) and military intelligence (GRU) agencies were judged by the ability to recruit and run new agents.
            Espionages usually involve accessing the place where the desired information is store, or accessing the people who know the information and may possible divulge it through some kind of subterfuge.
            The US defines espionage towards itself as … the act of obtaining, delivering, transmitting, communicating or receiving information about the national fense with an intent, or reasons to believe that the integration may be used to the injury of the United states or to the advantage of any other nation…2
            Espionage is a crime under the law of the United States. This is a similar case with all other nations. The US, like most states, conduct espionage against other nations modern the control of the National clandestine service. British espionage activities are controlled by the secret intelligence service (SIS). Espionage is usually part of an institutional efforts targeted against foreign governments and corporate bodies. Although espionage is readily associated with states, spying on potential or actual enemies primarily for military purposes, espionage has been extended to corporate and large business interests. This is known as industrial espionage. This has led to huge loss of money and desired profit by firms and national economies. In the last two decades. Or move, china has activity involved itself in industrial espionage as a means of boosting its economic level and improving its position in the areas of manufacturing large scale production.3
            Many nations routinely spy on both their enemies and allies although they maintain a policy of silence on this. Israel is an expert on friendly espionage, with the US as one of its biggest victims.
            In addition to utilising agencies with in a government, many countries also employ private companies to collect information on their behalf. As earlier noted, all intelligence in for generation gathering are not espionage. All espionage activities may fall under intelligence but not all intelligence are qualified as espionage, while espionage is a specific activity aimed primarily for that purpose, information gathering involve a lot more than this. Intelligence deals with information gathering, data collection, plans, and analysis. Various governments have created hugely sophisticated and elaborate intelligence organisations; gulping billion of dollars, for the acquisition of relevant information and data elaborate intelligence organisations, gulping billions of dollars, for the acquisition of relevant information and data about others. The gathering of intelligence materials involved a lot of processes. These may include the use of satellite photographing equipments, spaceships orbiting the airspace and other reconnaissance gadgets stationed in outer space for the purpose of transmitting information to receive centres where such materials are descripted and analysed code breaking and cypanalysis (COMINT) air craft and satellite photography (IMINT) and research in open places (OSMINT) are all intelligence gathering methods. These are not espionage. Many HUMINT activities such as prisoner interviews, reports from diplomats are not espionage.

Recruitment of Agents
In espionage, there are four major ways of recruiting an agent for the purpose of infiltration into the high council of a target country.
1.         The first method is to use your own national that is some one trained to an extraordinary degree to pass for a national of the target country right in the heart of the target. This method is very difficult except when the infiltration was born and raised in the target country and can be eased back in with a cover story provided to cover his period of absence.
2.         the second method of infiltration is to use a national of the aggressor agency, posing as someone from a third nation. The target country knows that the friendly. Sympathetic foreigner, or at best a neutral non committal visitor.
3.         the third method which is probably the most common is to recruit a man who is already in place. Recruitment here can be slow and tedious or surprisingly fast depending on a number of factors. In this method, “talent spotters” patrol the diplomatic community looking for a senior official from the other side who may appear disenchanted, resentful, dissatisfied, bitter, or in any way showing signs of disgruntlemcay. This sign points him out as susceptible to possible recruitment.
            Delegations visiting foreign parts are scrutinised to see if someone can be take aside, treated to a fine old time and approached for a possible change of loyalty. When the talent spotter has tabbed a possible assert”, the recruiters more in. they may start with a casual conversation, a launch or dinner, develop a friendship that  becomes deeper and warmer. Eventually, the friend will suggest the need for a small favour, a minor inconsequential piece of information and so as. Once the trap is sprung, there is no going back. For the asset, the options are very limited. He cannot go back to the regime he serves to confess what had taken place. Doing so will fetch death or punishment depending on how ruthless the regime is. On the other hand, he cannot carry on as if nothing had happened. The motives  for this sort of recruitment vary. The recruit may be in debt, in a bitter marriage, possed over for promotion, revolted his own government, reasons convenience or is imply a lust for new life and money. He may be supporting an expensive but secret habit or he may be a victim of his own weaknesses, sexual depravity, homosexuality or some abhorrent secret which if exposed will have negative impact as his life.
4.         The fourth method is by far the most bizarre and yet the most rewarding to the recruiting country. This is called the “walk in” method. Here, the recruit simply walks in unexpectedly and unannounced and offers his services. The reaction of the receiving agency is often one of one of extreme scepticism and disbelief. The thinking is that this must be a plant by the other side and should be turned down. The walk in method may turn out either way. He could be a plant or he could be genuine. However, each agency has its own cleverly devised methods of establishing the agents authenticity.
In Igbo, a Russian agents, a full colonel of the soviet military intelligence arm, the GRU, approached the Americans in Moscow and offered his services to the west. He was rejected. He approached the British who gave him a cautious reception. He was put on a test which he passed and went on the provide outstanding intelligence information for Agbo. American operations. Analysts believe that the High level information provided by col oleg penkoreky determined the out come of the Cuban Missile crisis. His information was seen to have served as a mirror behind Nikita Khrushchev’s back through out the chilly period of the crisis.
The “Iralkins” are often motivated by a desire to hurt the regime they serve. In some cases however, they act parley as mercenaries-working for financial profit and nothing else. In such situation, there are no fortuned feelings of regrets, no self vilification, no fragile ego to be massaged and flattered. In the intelligence world, a mercenary is like a prostitute. Candle-lit dinner, flowers and sweet nothings are not necessary, It is purely a cash and carry business. You pay for the services and you get the satisfaction.

Classification of Agents
In the intelligence community, agents are classified according to the functions they perform or are intended to perform. The intelligence community is not an open society. Their activities are conched in clouds and shadours in order to succeed in the goals of short-circuiting the opponent.
1.         An agent is someone that has been authorised to function on behalf of another. This is more often a covert human intelligence source.
2.         Double agent – this is a person who engages in clandestine activities for two intelligence or security services or more in joint operations. He provides information about one or about each to the other and withholds siquiticant information form one on the instruction of the other or is unwittingly manipulated by one so that significant facts are withheld from the adversary.
3.         Peddlers also known as fabricators are largely mercenaries. They work for themselves rather than any one and are primarily motivated by financial gain.
4.         Penetration – this is a process of planting a target in the staff or officer capacity of the other side.
5.         Re-doubled Agent- this is an agent who gets caught as a double agent and is forced to mislead the other side. The double agent usually has the knowledge of both intelligence services and can identify operation techniques of both sides.
6.         Triple Agent – an agent that is working for three intelligence services.
7.         Access Agent – one who provides access to other potential agents by providing profiling information that can help lead to recruitment into an intelligence service.
8.         Agent of Influence: One who may provide political influence in an area of interest or may even provide publications needed to further intelligence service agenda that is, the use of media to print a story aimed at misleading a foreign service into action. They may in the process expose their operation while under surveillance.
9.         Agent provocateur – this type of agent with instigate tremble or may provide information in order to gather as many people as possible into one location or an current.
10.       Facilities agent – One who provides a cess to buildings staying operations, supply etc.
11.       Principle agent – This one function as a handler if other agents for an established net work of agents usually blue chip.
12.       Sleeper Agent: Is one who is recited to an intelligence service to make up and perform a specific  of task or functions while living under cover in our area of interest. This type of agent is not the same as a deep cover operative who is continually in contact with their case officers in order to file intelligence reports. A sleeper agent will not be in contact with anyone until he is activated. 
13.       Illegal Agent: this is a person who is living in another country under false credentials that does not report to a local station. A non official cover operative is a type of cover used by an intelligence operative and can be dubbed an “illegal” when working in another country without diplomatic protection.

Techniques of Espionage
Espionge is an aspect of human activity often surrounded in the highest form of secretary. A spy often has a cover profession or employment such that his colleagues of work and neighbours and in many cases family members do not know the real business he was involved in . However, the second half of the 20th century has witnessed many spy scandals as explosive sensational stories especially in the media and government circles that have brought many pieces of information out in the open about national spy agencies and real – life secret agents. These sensational stories have piqued public interest in a profession lither. Off-limits to human interest. This new interest in a profession that was largely unknown to the society has led to a need to fill in the gaps. The need to fill in these gaps has led to a popular concept of the secret agent as created by literature, cinema and the media adding much trills and glamour to the game of espionage.
1.         Secrecy – this is the practice of hiding information form certain individuals or groups while perhaps sharing it with other individuals or groups. That which is kept hidden is known as the secret. Secrecy is often controversial depending on the content of the secret, the group or people keeping the secret and the motivation for secrecy. Secrets by government entities is often decried as excessive or in promotion of poor operation. Governments often attempt to conceal information form other governments, their operatives and the general public. These are known as state secrets. The include weapons designs, military plans, diplomatic negotiation tactics, and other secrets tht may have been obtained through illicit intelligence. Government secrets, often known as “classified information” is not easily accessible. One needs security clearance to have access to such information. Organisations ranging MNCS and NGOs keep secrets for competitive advantage, or to meet legal requirements, or in some cases, to conceal notorious behaviour. New products under development, unique manufacturing techniques or simply a list of customers are also protected from competitors. These information are protected by trade secret laws and patent systems which allows inventors monopoly of information for a period of time.
2.         Clandestine Operation – is unintelligence or limitary operation carried out in such a way to the operation goes unnoticed. The essence is to ensure secrecy on concealment. A convert operation on the other hand places emphasis on the concealment of the operation rather than the concealment of the identity of the sponsor. In special operations, an activity may be covert and clandestine and may focus equally on operational consideration and intelligence related activities.
            The bulk of clandestine operations are related to the gathering of intelligence by both persons (HUMINT) and by hidden sensors (SIGINT). Placement of underwater or land based communication can be. Taps cameras, micro phones, traffic censors and monitors such as snifters and similar systems require that the mission go undetected and unsuspected. Clandestine censors may also be on unmanned underwater vehicles, reconnaissance satellite, low observability unmanned aerial vehicles, or unmanned detectors. The terms clandestine and covert are synony-mous. In a covery operation, the identity of the sponsor is concealed while in a clandestine operation, the operation itself is concealed. To put it were bluntly, clandestine means “hidden” while covert means “derivable”. The term stealth refers both to a broad set of tactics aimed at providing and preserving the element of surprise and reducing enemy resistance. It can also be used to describe a set of techniques aimed at aiding those tactics. Some operations may have both clandestine and covert aspects, such as the use of concealed remote censors or human observers to direct artillery attacks and air strikes. The operation obviously covert since the attack will alert the target that he has been located by the enemy, but the targeting component denoting the execution method that was used to locate the targets can still remain clandestine.
            Until the 197os, clandestine operation were largely political in nature. It was generally aimed at assisting groups or nations favoured by the sponsor. Today, these operations are numerous and include techno-related clandestine operations.
3.         Special reconnaissance (SR) is an operation conducted by small units of highly trained military personnel usually from special operations forces (SOF) who avoid canbat with and detection by the enemy. In the US special reconnaissance is recognised as a key special operation capability at the level of the US secretary of Defense.
…special reconnaissance is the conduct of environ mental reconnaissance, target acquisition, area assessment and recovery of sensors or support of Human intelligence (HUMINT) and signals intelligence (SIGINT) operations…6
            The special operations units that carry out Sr missions include paramilitary operations teams from CIA’s special Activities division, US Army Special Forces. US Air Force office of special investigation, strategic irregular tactics teams, Marine Corps force reconnaissance, US marine corps forces special operations command, NAVY seals, British special Air services special Boat service, Israeli sarayet mortal, Russian spetsnaz, Canadian special operations Regiment, Australian special air service Regiment, French 13th Paradute Dragon regiment, plish Gran and 1st special commands regiment, to mention but a few.
            From the intelligence perspective it is a HUMINT collection discipline. The ST mission is not espionage if the are in uniform according to the language of the heneva convention of 1949. increasingly, the SR role is broadening beyond information gathering. The most common addition is to direct air and possibly missile strikes into areas deep in enemy territory. Sr may also include placement of remotely motivated sensors, and specific preparation for other SOF actions such as direct action and unconventional/generally warfare. The factor that makes a mission special are as follows:
(a)       Physical distance – the area of operation may be situated well beyond the forward line of troops and require special skills to get there.
(b)       Political consideration – clandestine insertion may also be a requirement. If there is a need to work with local personnel, language skills and political awareness may be critical.
(c)       Lack of required special skills and expertise – the most basic requirement for SR is to be able to remain unobserved. This may take special skills and equipment. If there is a requirement to collect intelligence skills any where from advanced photography to remote censor operation may be required.

(d)       Threat capabilities – this usually relates to the need to stay clandestine, potentially against opposing force with sophisticated intelligence capability. Such capability may be organic to a free or be avaialbel form sponsoring third country.
(e)       Follow-on special forces missions – this is the concept of preparing for other functions such as unconventional warfare or guerrilla war fare.
4.         Covert operation – covert operations is a military, intelligent or law enforcement operation that is carried out clandestinely and often outsize of official channels. Covert operations aim to fulfil their mission objectives without any parties knowing who sponsored or carried out the operation under US law, the CIA is the sole agency legally allowed to carry out covert action. The CIA’s authority to conduct covert Action comes from the national security Act of 1947. in 1984, prudent Reagan issued an executive order 12333 defining government Actions as especial activities both political and military that the US government could legally dany.7
5.         Raid A raid, also, known as depredation is a military tactic or operational warfare mission which requires the execution of a plan where surprise is the principal desired outcome of the attack. Within a tactical mission, a raiding group may consist personnel specifically trained in this factices such as commands or guerrilla fighters, regular soldiers or any organised group of combatants. Raids have a specific purpose and are not normally intended to capture and hold terrain but instead finish with the raiding force quickly and retreat to previous defended position prior to the enemy forces being able to respond in a co-ordinated manner. The purposes  of  a raid may include the following.
1.         To demoralize, confuse or exhaust an enemy
2.         To ransack or pillage a location
3.         To obtain property or capture people
4.         To destroy goods or other things with an economic value
5.         To free prisoners of war
6.         To resource kidnap victims
7.         To kill or capture specific person
8.         To gather intelligence  information’s
6.         Sabotage – sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening another entity through subversion, obstruction, disruption or destruction. In a works place environment, sabotage is a conscious withdrawal of efficiency generally directed at causing in sabotage is a saboteur. As a rule saboteurs. As a rule saboteurs try to conceal their identities because of the consequences of their action. In war, sabotage is used to destabilize the activities of individuals or groups not associated with the military or the parties at war such as foreign agents or an indigenous supporter.
            Sabotage aim at the destruction or damaging of productive or vital facility such as equipment, factories, drum, public services, storage plants or logistic routes. Unlike acts of terrorism, acts of sabotage do not always have a primary objective of inflicting casualties.  Saboteurs are usually classified as enemies and like species may be liable to prosecution and criminal penalties instead of detention a prisoners of war. During the cold war, the acts of sabotage were used extensively by all sides against the other.
7,         Assassinations – assassination is the targeted killing of a public figure usually far political purposes. Assassination may be promotion by religions, ideological, political or military reasons Additionally, assassinations may be motivated by financial gain, revenge, as a form of protest or for personal public recognition assassinations may also refer to government. Sectional killing of political opponents or targeted attacks on high profile enemy combatants and insurgents.8
            Assassinations one of the oldest tools of power politics dating back, at least, as far as recorded history, perhaps the earliest account is the murder of the Moabite king. Egbo by elude around 1337 BC9. Other notable examples include Philp II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the area, and Julius Caeser murdered on the floor of the roman senate. In Russian, four Emperors were associated. In the US, four presidents have died in the hands of assassins –These are Abraham Lincoln, James Garfield, William mekialey and J.F. Kennedy. Some of these high profile murders have had dermas repercussions. The assassination of the Archdale of Austria, Fraud Ferdinand, along with his wife, Sophia, by Serbian nationalist insurgents, was the spank that ignited the infterno commonly known as Words War I.
            During the old war, there was a new increase in the member of political assignations. This was due to the ideological polarisation of the world and whose adherents were often quite willing the finance and justify such kills. Though association has been vigorously repudiated by world leaders as part of he rules of engagement, along with some other unsavoury cold war factices, covert and illegal killing of opponents have continued became of the political, security and economic benefits it brings. A recent BBC special report identifies Russia, Israel, US, Argentina, Paraguay and Chile as countries still highly involved in assadinations.10
            In 1975, the US senate committee reported at lent eight plots involving the CIA to assassinate Fidel Castro of cuba. In 1986, President Reagan ordered an air raid on Libya in which col ghadaffi was the main target. Though he escaped, his daughter, hanna, was among the casualties. Ali khan, the prime minister of Pakistan was assassinated in 1951.
            In the Philippines, the assignation of former president, benigno aquino triggered off a revolution which brought down Ferdinand Marcos. After the Iranian revolution of 1979, the new Islamic leadership commerce a spate of assassinations of political undesirables that spanned over two deceases, leading to nearly 200 kibbling in 19 different countries11. In August 17, 1988, Pakistani dictator Zia ul Haq died when his DC 130 plane exploded in te air. The CIA, KGB and RAW (Indian secret service) were implicated by various complicacy theories.
            Various governments all the world use assassinations to remove individual opponents. Saddam Hussein of Iraq was popularly known for this factices. In India prime ministers Mahatma Gahanali, Indira Ghanoli and Region ghander, were assassinated in 1948, 1984 and 1991 respectively. Their assassinations were linked to separatist movements in the Punjab and Northern sn Lanka. In Israel, primer Minister Yizkat Rabin was assassinated is 1995 by figal amir, as Israel student. In Bebanon, Syria was implicated in the assassination of Prime Minister Rafik Hariri in 2005 prompting an investigation by the United Nations.
            In Pakistan, former prime Minister Benazir Bhuto was assassinated in 2007. Her murder attracted unanimous international condemnation over what was seen as a senseless wasted. In guinea Bussan, Joao bernado viral was assassinated on March 2, 2009. His assassination was carried out by renegade soldiers apparently as a revenge for the assassination of the Guinean army Chief of staff a day earlier. In July 2009, sa and in harden, the son of Ososmabin laden nus assassinated y a CIA stroke12.
            In 2002, President Bush prepared a list of terrorist leaders when the CIA were authorised to assassinate if capture fails. Under George Bush, part of the US special efforts in the war against terror include the use of un-manned combat Air vehicle known as predator drove air  craft to carry out strikes against individual leaders of al—agenda. The remotely controlled vehicle was developed by general Atonics Aeronautical system for use by the US Air force. The hunker killer was designed for long endurance and high altitude surveillance. Although the craft can fly pre-programmed roughs automatically. It is always monitored or controlled by air crew in the gourd control section13. This tactics has gained some level of success in the war against Al agenda particularly in Pakis tan and Afghanistan and its use has been intensified under the presidency of Barrack Obana.
8.         Propaganda-propaganda is a form of communication aimed of influencing the attitude of a community towards some cause or position. Propaganda in its most basic sense is the presentation of information primarily to influence an audience or the listening public. Propaganda often presents facts selective  thus possible lying by omission to encourage a particular synthesis. Propaganda makes use of loaded messages whose aim is to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented. This is why Alaba Ogunsanvo described propaganda as a mixture of truths half truths and deliberate false hood14. the deliberate result is to effect change of attitude towards the subject in the target audience in order further a political agenda. Propaganda can be used as a form of political warfare. Propaganda is a powerful weapon in war and conflict situations. It could be used to dehumanise the enemy and create hatred to wards him. This could be though the use of derogatory inference  or racish terms to portray the enemy of making allegations of atrocities against him. Propaganda could be used internally to fight internal opposition and dissidents or externally against other states. Propaganda is used in psychological warfare which may also involve false operations and representations.

List of some foreign intelligence organisations
Argentina                   -           Secretariat of intelligence (SI)
Australia                    -           The Australia secret Intelligence
Belgium                     -           state security service (SU/SE)
Brazil                         -           Brazilian Intelligence Agency (ABIN)
Canada                       -           Administrative Department of security(DAS)
China              -           Ministry of state security (MSS)
Cuba                           -           General directorate of Intelligence (DGI)
Egypt                          -           Egyptian general intelligence Directorate
France                        -           The French foreign intelligence service (DGSE)
Germany                    -           Federal intelligence service(BND) Military
security service (MAD) and Federal Officer for the protection of the constitution (BFV).
Ghana             -           National security council
Great Britain -           Defense intelligence service (M16 and M15)
Greece                        -           Hellenic National intelligence service(NIS)
India                           -           The India research and analysis wrong
Iran                             -           organisation for National security and
-           information (SAVAK) and ministry of
intelligence (MOIS)
Iraq                             -           General security directorate (GSD)
Israel                          -           Mussed and shinbeth
Itaty                            -           Agency for internal information and security
Japan              -           Cabinet intelligence and Research office
Jordan                        -           General intelligence department (GID)
Kenya                         -           National security intelligence service
Libya                          -           Jamhiriya el Mukhabarah
Netherlands   -           General intelligence and security serve
New Zea Land           -           Government communications and security
Nigeria                       -           State security service (SSS) and National
intelligence Agene (NIA)
Pakistan                     -           The Pakistani Inter services intelligence
Poland                        -           foreign intelligence Agncy )AW)
Rusia                          -           The Russian foreign agency (AW)
Sanddia Arabia         -           General intelligence Directorate
South Africa  -           National intelligence agency (NIA)
                                                South Africa security service (SASS)
Spain                          -           National intelligence centre (CNI)
Switzer land  -           Strategies intelligence service (SND)
Syria                           -           General a Security directorate
Turkey                       -           National intelligence
Ukraine                      -           Central intelligence Directorate
United States -           Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
                                                Directorate of National Intelligence (OND)
Zimbabwean -           Central intelligence organization
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