The central intelligence Agency, CIA was created in 1947 when president Harry Truman signed it into law Its headquarters was situated at Langley in the state of Virginia. It operates with an annual budget that runs into billions of dollars. The CIA is a civilian intelligence organisation of the United States responsible for providing national security intelligence to the highest level of government. Such intelligence guides the senior members of government in decision making and policy for mutation. The CIA may also carry out covert activities to protect US interests of the orders of the president of the United States1

            The CIA is a successor to the office of strategic studies”, OSS, which was founded during the second world war to co-ordinate espionage activities behind enemy lines for the branches of the US military. The national security Act of 1947 established the CIA though affording it “no police or law enforcement functions at home or abroad”. This mandate was later expanded to include.
…sabotage, anti sabotage, demolition and evaluation measures, subversion and assistance to underground resistance movements and support of indigenous anticommunism elements in threatened countries of the free world…2
The primary function of the CIA is to collect information about foreign governments, organisations corporations and individuals and to advise policy makers. The agency conducts covert operations and paramilitary actions and exerts foreign political influence through its “special Activities Division”. The responsibility of the CIA has changed remarkable since 2004. Before 2004, the CIA was the main intelligence organisation of the US government. It co-ordinated and oversaw not only its own activities but also the activities of the US intelligence community as a whole. The intelligence Reform and Terrorism prevention Act of 2004 created the office at the director of National intelligence which took over some of the functions of the intelligence community. The reform of 2004 became imperative following the claim of events that culminated on the invasion of Iraq on the assumption that saddam Hassoin was in possession of weapons of mass destruction. Despite the reservations of the IAEA on Iraq’s nuclear capability the governments in Washington and London insisted that they have enough evidence to indicate that Iraq hand indeed become a nuclear power and only a regime change in Bagdad would save the world form impending extinction. The subsequent invasion of Iraq and the inability to find the “smoking gun” was a matter of extreme embarrassment to the US and Britain. The blame was therefore heaped at the doors of the CIA for providing “faculty intelligence” on the Iraq nuclear situation.
            Following the 2004 reforms, the Director of National intelligence now manages the intelligence community and the  intelligence circle the OCI reports to the DNI who in turn reports to the president of the United State. The function of the DNI further include the preparation of  estimates of the consolidated opinion of the 16 intelligence community agencies and the preparation of briefings for the president of the United States. Often referred to as the company, the CIA has an executive office and several agency-wide functions and four major directorates. These are:
1.         The directorate of intelligence-responsible for all source intelligence research and analysis.
2.         The National clandestine service, formerly the Directorate of operations which does clandestine intelligence work of collection and covert action.
3.         The directorate of support
4.         The directorate of science and Technology
            The office of the inspector General promotes efficiency, effectiveness and accounts in the administration of Agency activities and seeks to prevent and detect frand, waste, abuse and mismanagement. The inspector-general whose activities are independent of those of any other component in the agency reports directly to the Director of central intelligence, the DCI.
Regional Groups: There is an analytical office dedicated to each region. The world is divided into regions and each region have experts dealing in their specific affairs.
1.         The office of the middle-East and North Africa Analysis.
2.         Office of south Asia analysis
3.         Office of Russian-European Analysis
4.         Office of Asia pacific, Latin America and African analysis.

Translational groups:
1.         The office of Terrorism Analysis supports the National counter Terrorism centre in the office of the DNI.
2.         The office of translational issues assesses perceived existing and emerging threats to US national security and provides the most senior policy makers, military planners and law enforcement with analysis, marring and crisis supports.
3.         The crime and narcotics centre provides research information an international crime for policy makers and the law enforcement community. Since the CIA has no legal domestic police authority. It usually sends it s analysis to the FBI and other law enforcement organisations such as the Drug enforcement Administration of the US Department of justice or other police departments.
4.         The weapons intelligence, Non-proliferation and Arms control centre provides intelligence support-related to national and non national threats, as well as supporting threat reduction and arms control. It receives the output of national technical means of verification.
5.         The counter intelligence centre analysis group-which identifies, monitor  and analyses the efforts of foreign intelligence entities, both national non-national against US governments. It works with the FBI personnel in the National counter intelligence Executive of the director of National intelligence.
6.         The information operations centre analysis group which deals with threats to US computer systems. This unit supports DNI activities.
7.         The office of collection, strategies and analysis provides comprehensive intelligence collection expertise to the directorate of intelligence, to senior Agency and intelligence community officials, and to keep national policy makers.
8.         The office of policy support austanises directors of intelligence analysis and presents it to a wide variety at policy, law enforcement, military and foreign lianas recipients.
9.         National clandestine service formally directorate of operations is responsible for collecting foreign intelligence mainly from clandestine huminit sources, and covert action. The new name reflects its having absorbed same HUMINT Assets controlled by the Department of Defence. The NCS was creased in an attempt to end year of rivalry over influence, philosophy and budget between the Departments of state, Defence and the CIA.
10.       The Directorate of science and technology was established to carry out research, create and manage technical collection, disciplines and equipment. Many of its innovations were transferred to other intelligence organisations or as they become more avert, to the military services.
            The CIA has shown its ability to use advances in technology to enhance its effectiveness. This interest has historically had two primary goals of (1) harnessing techniques for its own use, and (2) countering any new intelligence technology the soviets or the Chinese might develop. As part of its mandate to gather information and has become a major consumer of social media. CIA looks at you-tube and char rooms which it believes carry some useful and genuine intelligence.
            Generally, the CIA acts as the primary American HUMINT, and general analytic agency under the Directorate of National intelligence who directs or co-ordinates the 16 member organisations of the US intelligence community. In addition, it obtains information form other US government intelligence agencies, commercial information sources and foreign intelligence services.

CIA Abuses and Criticisms of Its Work
            There is no doubt that the CIA has served the intelligence and security need of the United states very well in the last 60 years of its existence. This was particularly manifest during the cold war when Russia and its community idea presented grave dangers to the US and her allies around the world. The end of the cold was did not diminish the threats which America faced as the self appointed leader of the free world. Islamic militancy and terrorish activities channelled against American interests both within and outside the shores of the US became increasingly doing and sophisticated. Instead of a common enemy. The US is now faced with a multiplication of threats from relatively unknown sources, to roghe states whose leadership were determined to challenge America’s supremacy at the global arena. From Iran’s nuclear quest  to Al qarda’s suicide bombers, from the erratic North Korean leadership to the thorny of God, from fiery Islamic clerics to private madras as scattered across the united States, the CIA and the US government remain increasingly aware that the dangers facing the nation are real.
            Indeed the CIA has done well in its effort to check these threats and uncover them before they are carried out. In same other instances, it may not have done so well. The huge success recorded by Al Qaeda on September 11, 2001 will remain a permanent blight on the psyche of American intelligence. That a plot of such magnitude was hatched and executed right under the hoses of the CIA al sister intelligence organisations would be difficult to live down. It shattered the CIA myth of invincibility and brought to the fore the dangers posed by the inter-agency rivalry that have been the tradecraft of American intelligence agencies over the years. Part of the reasons for the 2004 reforms was to eliminate this rivalry and create a greater basis of co-operation geneses between these agencies.
            Over the years, the CIA has been a subject of serious criticism and attacks over its modes of operation. From the media, human rights groups the congress and even members of US government, the CIA has been accused of a literary of abused and of wrongdoings which were considered incongruous with  America’s status as a defender of freedom. It is necessary therefore to take a shapr look at some of these abuses and criticisms.
1.         The CIA has been accused of assassinations and attempted assassinations of foreign leaders. During the cold war, many coup d’etats and assassination of leaders of emerging nations were blamed on CIA overzealousness. Some progressive leaders in Africa,. Asia and Latin America were believed to have been “removed” because of their openness to the communist doctrine. Fidel Castro remain the most celebrated CIA target throughout the 197os and 1980s.
2.         By law, the CIA is no allowed to operate within the borders of the United States. However there have been several incidents of domestic CIA operation within the US. There have been illegal spying on citizens involved in anti war activities. The burglary of the water of gate headquarters of the democratic party in 1972 had the connivance of the CIA as well as subsequent attempts to impede FBI investigations into the affairs.
3.         The CIA also engages in human experiments. They administer LSD and other illicit drugs on people. LSD is a psychological drug. It is a non-additive, serve altering drug. It can later the thinking processes and create a sense of time distortion. Administered at certain levels, it can cause ego death and spiritual experiences. For a antion that prides itself on the defance of human freedom, these are very hearing indietments.
4.         The iran-contra affair was a huge political scandal which erupeted 1986 in which senior US figures including president Reagan himself agreed to facilitate the sale of arons to Iran which was then a subject of international arms embargo. Some US officials has schemed to use the arms sell to secure the release of American hostages in Iran and funnel proceeds form the sell to the central rebels in alicaragna3. The CIA was the conduit for the whole affair and when the bubble bust, a lot of faces were left splattered with mud form largely to the white house.
5.         Other areas of controversy and criticism include the use of chemical means to elicit information or disable people for purposes of interrogation. Closely related to this is the issue of torture and clandestine imprisonment in order to obtain intelligence information.
6.         The CIA has been know to violate the law prohibiting CIA involvement in domestic law enforcement or operating in any guise within the territory of the united states. As noted earlier, the CIA has been caught on several occasions with its hands in the till.
7.         The CIA have been known on occasions to exhibit serious laxity in security consciousness. Like the 9/11 attacks, the suicide bomb attack in forward operating Base in December 2009 in khost province of Afghanistan was considered a serious capes in security preparedness. Seven CIA officers including the chief of the base were killed din the attack. The question no one could answer was, “how did the suicide bomber manage to avoid all the security measures at the base”?
8.         In February 1994, the agency was rocked by the arrest of 31 year veteran case officer, Aldrich Ames on charge of spying for the soviet Union since 1985. for a man in such a position and with access to high-rate intelligence information, it was a serious as trout to American strategic and security in permeability
9.         The  collapse of the soviet union in 1991 came as a surprise to the government of the united states. The CIA was severely criticized for its inability to predict or for see such a momentous historical event despite all its internet and focus on the soviet arch rival.
10.       Among some of its earlier analytical failures was in October 1950, when the CIA assured president Truman that china would not send troops to Korea. Six days after this assurance was given, one million Chinese troops arrived at the Korean peninsula. Earlier, the CIA had failed to detect North Korean mobilisation and subsequent invasion of the south. This was due to lack of SIGHT resources at the time and the fact that the CIA was still building up the basic structure needed for intelligence magic.
11.       The CIA was also blamed for providing faulty intelligence information on French-Indochina and the Vietnams. Critics argue that the Vietnam fiasco could have been averted or better managed if the intelligence community had done a better job.
12.       CIA was blamed for its failure to predict India’s  nuclem tests in 1974. Intelligence had reported instead that if India did attain nuclear capability, it would be for peaceful purposes. India indeed developed a nuclear bomb, and Pakistan, its arch rival quickly folibureal, thereby making the prospects for peace between the two powers more difficult and more remote.
13.       a major criticisms of the CIA and other intelligence organising in the US was the failure to detest the activities leading up the September, 11 attacks or to forestall the attack itself. The 9/11 commission report identified failures in the intelligence community as  a whole. One major problem, for instance, was the failure of the FBI to “connect the dots” by sharing information among decentralised failed officers. CIA analysis and predictions were also criticised.
14.       Another is for which the CIA had dram severe criticism is he issue of translational human rights abuses. Some of the factices it employs to carry out its missions include fortune, funding training of groups and organisations that would later participate in killing of civilians and other non-combatants over throw of democratically elected governments experimentation, targethered killings etc.
15.       One of the secrecy that surrounds the intelligence community and its activities, thee has often been a lack of proper financial record and accounting. This, according to critics, has led to waste and fraud in CIA activities.
16.       The CIA has often been accused of bare-faced lying speaker of the home of representatives, Nancy Pelosi, stated that the CIA repeatedly in sled congress especially since 2001 about issues such as water-boarding and other fortune techniques. Some congressman have argued that lying to congress is not a new phenomenon. They describe it as the favourite tacticsof the CIA when dealing with capital hill4. there was a strong belief in congress that the CIA was under diject orders from dick change, vice president to george bush. To keep congress in the dark about some aspects of its operations one the war on terror. Congress is often referred to in derogatory terms by CIA officials as armchair moralists.
17.       The policy of extraordinary rendition has attracted harsh criticisms against the CIA and the entire US government. Extraordinary rendition is the apprehension and extrajudicial transfer of a person from one state to another known to practice the use of fortune and other harsh interrogation techniques. Critics describe it as “torture by proxy”. It is believed that the CIA runs secrtglobal abduction and internment operation against suspected terrorists, and when captured, the suspects are smuggled to countries where fortune is used to obtained confessions from their this practice is known as extra ordinary rendition. Since 2001, about 3000 people have been captured and transported around the world under this arrangement. It is alleged that furfures has been employed with the knowledge and silent acquiescence of the governments of the US, the UK and other European allies on the war on terror5.
            Recording to a report submitted by the European parliament in  2007,  the CIA between 2001 and 2007, conducted 1,245 secret flights, many of them to destinations where subjects could face torture in violation of the UN convention rotund. A council of Europe report stated that about 100 people were kidnapped by the CIA on EU territory with the co-operation of council of Europe members. These victims were rendered to other countries often after having transited through secret detention centres (known as black sites) used by the CIA, some of these black sites were situated in Europe.

B.        The KGB
            The KGB also known as the committee for state security was established in 1054 and until 1991 when it was dissolved served as the national security Agency of the soviet Union serving as both internal security intelligence agency and secret police origination. In 1983, time magazine and secret policy organisation. In 1983, time magazine stated that the LGB was the world’s north effective in formation gathering organsiation6 the LGB operated legal and illegal espionage residences In target countries where the legal resident speed from the soviet embassy, and if caught was protected with diplomatic immunity from arrest or prosecution. At best the compromised agent is either rationed to Russia or was expelled by the host country. The illegal agent is unprotected by diplomatic immunity and worked independently of the soviet diplomatic and trade mission. The KGB value illegal spies more than the legal because the illegal penetrate more deeply and more easily into their targets. The illegal are better transude and are more dressing in their crate. The KGB residency execute four types of espionage. These are
1.         Political espionage
2.         Economic espionage
3.         Military and strategic espionage
4.         Disinformation and counter intelligence.
            During the 1960s and 70s, the red Army’s sporadic invasion of smaller countries under the party led to great disillusionment among young radicals lest wing idealist from the Soviet Union. Another factor was the increasing incidences of corruption among the leadership elite which resulted in harsh conditions of living among the general population. These two factors led to serious lack of faith with the soviet cause particularly among the younger generation. Detections and but royals became rampart within the organisation. These to a new system of blackmailing and bribing of westerners into spaying for the Soviet Union. KGB methods include stealing and photographing of documents,  code names, contacts, targets and dead letter boxes. They also pose as friends of the cause and agents provocateur who infiltrate the target’s group to sow dissension, influence policy and arrange didnappings and assignation.
            Historically, the KGB was preceded by other sinister intelligence organisation that had served the interest of the Russian state and its leaders. The cheka was established to defend the October revolution and the nascent Bolshevik state form its enemies, principally the monar-chist white Army. The cheka surprised counter revolution with domestic terror and interval deception, in 1922, lenin’s regime renamed the cheka as the state political directorate (OGPU)7. The OGPU expanded soviet -espionage nationally and internationally. The emergence of Stalin saw the OGPU getting more deeply enmeshed in nefarious activities. Stalin’s paranoia influenced the OGPU’s performance in the 1930s based on fantastic conspiracies, subordination of intelligence analysis and great plunges which saw to the killing of civil, military and government people deemed political unreliable. In 1941 the OGPU became the NKGB (peoples commissariat for state security and quickly recovered from the purges of the previous decade Nest, the intelligence agencies were centralized, re-organising the NKGB as the KL, committee of information of the MGB (Ministry of state security) and the GRU (foreign military intelligence Directorate) On Stalin’s death in 1953. the MGB was merged with the MVD to create the KHB.
            In the 1980s, the glasnost liberalisation of soviet society provoked KGB chairman, vladinir krychkov to lead a coup that attempted to depose Gorbachev, the Generals secretary. By then, the disrespect and disenchantment of the soviet society with the comprise party of the soviet society with the community party of the Soviet Union had become popular. The coup fell but the soviet empire could no longer stand on its feet. In 1991, one of the greatest empires in human history disintegrated into a member of independent republish with the Russian Federation emerging us the strongest. It inherited the arserules of the soviet union as well as its seat in the security council of the United Nations. The KGB was replaced with the secret police agency, ESB Federal security service of the Russian federation and the espionage agency SVR, Foreign intelligence service.

 KGB modes of operation: when it comes to dealing with the enemies of the soviet union or these perceive as threats to te Bolshevik revolution and all it stood for, the soviet security agencies do not rely on diplomatic politeness. For them, an energy is an enemy and must be treated as one. Many strategies and methods were devised to destroy the enemies of the state real or imagined. A few of such methods deserve mention here.
1.         The trust operation: which was designed by the OGPU to deceive some leaders of the right wing counter revolutionary white guards. They were extended and olive branch for reconciliations proposes only to have them back to the USS where they were executed.
2.         The NKCD infiltrated and destroyed Trotskyite groups in far away Mexico City.
3.         The KGB favoured active negsuses base don disinformation, blackmail, fortune and disappearances. No measure was considered to dirty or horrendous in discrediting the enemies of the USSR.
4.         The USSR were ready sabotage operations and arms caches in target countries especially in times of non.
5.         Assassination of enemies of the USR and the entire soviet BLOC and defectors either directly or indirectly. Mutable examples in clued the air-crash assassination of Dag Hammarskj√∂ld (Un secretary General) in 1961, and the attempted association of pope John Paul II in 19818. the shah of Iran, president J.F Kennedy and Mao Zedurg of china were among leaders the KGB killed or attempted to kill9.

Organisation of the KGB
1.         The head of the KGB is the chairman. He is a man of considerable power and influence, and within the vast geographical spread known as the USSR, he wields the power of life and death. His power and influence extends also to the satellite states. The position of the chairman is a corrected position and most men who sat on the sit ultimately become the General secretary of the communist party of the Soviet Union.
The KGB is divided into directorates with specific duties and functions signed to each.
1.         First chief directorate – In charge of foreign operations and foreign espionage
2.         2nd chief directorate – in charge of counter-intelligence and internal political control.
3.         3rd chief Directorate- (compromising only members of the armed forces, and is responsible for military counter intelligence and armed forces political surveillance.
4.         4th chief directorate – inchrage of transport and security
5.         5th chief directorate – incharge of censorship in internal security against artistic, political and religions dimensions
6.         6th chief directorate – incharge of economic counter
7.         7th chief directorate – responsible for the surveillance of soviet nationals and foreignness
8.         8th chief directorate – incharge of the monitoring and management of national, foreign and overseas communications, cryptology equipment and research and development.
9.         Ninth chief directorate – responsible for generals and KGB protection service. Also provides security for the CPSU leaders and their families and guards government installations and nuclear sites.
10.       10th chief directorate – responsible for SIGINT and communications. Operates the national and government telephone and telegraph systems.
11.       Border Guards directorate- responsible for the USSR’s border troops
12.       Operations and Technology Directorate – This is responsible for research laboratories for recording devices and laboratory 12 for the development of poisons and drugs.

The KGB and the United States
            The primary duty of the GRU, which preceded the KGB, was to recruit ideological agents who work with the US government particularly the state Deportment. They also established legal residency for their agents. Throughout the life span of the communism party of the USA, (CPUSA) the UKVD, with te help of the CPUSA engaged in the recruitment of Americans working in government, business and industry. Recruits were also made in the treasury department as well as the Department of defence.
            Soviet espionage aimed most at collecting scientific and technological intelligence about advances in jet population, radar and encryption which impressed Moscow. Stealing of atomic secrets was also seen as a key  element in soviet intelligence action against Anglo American science and technology. In 1944, the New York city residency infiltrated the top secret loss Alamos National laboratory in New Mexico by recruiting the done Hall, a 19 year old heard physicist.
            During the cold war, the KGB retained most of its illegal resident networks. However, the McCarthy communist purge and th e destruction of the CPUSA hampered function successful recommitment attention was then focused on mercenary agents and this approach proved successful in scientific and technical espion age-unlike the government private industry generally has less strict internal security arrangements. In 1967, the RGB reworded and huge. Success with the recruitment of a US Navy chief unrrant officer, john Anthony walker, who established the walker spy ring and for 18 years enabled soviet intelligence to decipher same one million US Navy massager.
            It was a cold war policy of the KGB and her satellite staes to monitor public and private opinion. Internal suboersion and possible revolutionary plots in the soviet bloc. The KGB monnotors satellite states for “harmful attitudes” and “hostile acts”. It also could easily depose a nationalist communist government. The Hungarian revolts (1956) was brutally erushed. The Czech revolt of 1968 also met the same fate. However, the attempt to suppress the solidarity labour abatement in Poland in the 1980 failed. The KGB had earlier forecast political instability following the election of Carol Wojtyla, a polish national, as pope john Paul II. Because of his anti-communist sermons against one party regime and authoritarian dictation ship across eastern Europe. Fearing explosive civil violence, the polish communist government refused to improve the KGB recommended martial law. The polish secret police (SB) working with the KGB homerun, successfully infiltrated spies into the solidarity movement. The catholic church in both planed and the Vatican were also infiltrated. Sophisticated listening devices and other electronic eavesdroppers were later found in the offices and private apartments of the Pope and other high ranking church officials.
            During the cold war, the KGB actively suppressed what it called ‘ideological subversion”. This was referred to as political and religious ideas and the espousing of dissident veins contrary to the basic principles of the communism party. Leleological subversion received serious attention during the era of Yuri Andropov as KGB chairman. Andropov was later to ascend the soviet throne.

            The British Secret service of is one of the oldest in the world. if was formed in 1909 with the responsibility of supplying the British government with foreign intelligence. It is most frequently referred to as m16 while M15, the governagence service (DIS) operate under the formal direction of Joint intelligence committee, (JIC).
            Hosterpcallg the secret intelligence service was a joint initiative of the admiralty and the war office with the sole aim of controlling secret intelligence operations the united kingdom and overseas. There was a particular concentration on the activities of the imperial German government the Bureau was split into naval and army sections which over time, specialised in foreign espionage and internal counter espionage activities respectively. With the outbreak of world war I. the foreign section become known as the directorate of military intelligence, and rationed its functions even at the end of the war. The DMI continued to collate materials varying on British security and the activities of hostile and friendly weigh bars in Europe and beyond. During the second world war, the service expanded its functions. It was able to gather military and commercial intelligence through the use of its networked in neutral countries, parts of occupied territories and the soviet union11. The service never really succeeded in establishing a creditable network inside Germany through out the period of the war.
            At the end of world war II, circulating sections were introduced to give greater control on its objectives to its consumer departments mainly the war office must the Admiralty. In the immediate post-nor years, the sis foresaid greater attention on communism and Russian bolshevism. That following sections were  created to include a wide range of activities. There are
1.         A central foreign counter espionage circulating section (Section v) to liaise with the security service to collate counter espionage reports from overseas stations.
2.         An economic intelligence section (Section vii) to deal with trade, industrial matters and contraband.
3.         Clandestine radio communications organisation (Section vill) to communicate with operatives and agents overseas.
4.         Section as to exploit the contents of diplomatic bags.
5.         Section D to conduct political covert actions and paramilitary operations in times of war.
            The SIS, even in the those days of open government remain a shadary organisation, one that guards its secrets with a high degree of ferociousness. For years, the british government never  admitted that such an organsition existed. The existenceof the secret intelligence service (SIS was not officially acknowledged in public until 1994. it was only then that its boss could be publicly named. The staff of the SIS are not listed in any manual. They appear as civil servants on the nominal lists of various ministries, notable, the foreign office, under whose an spices the service causes. Headquarters of the SIS at century House is a shabby, nondescript building in central London, unlike the sprawling complex at laughed housing the CIA headquarters. The SIS is much smaller than the CIA and nearly funded, but it has a solid reputation among friend sand fees alike as ranking among the very best. Beside the mussed, the SIS is the smallest intelligence organisation in the world12.
            The head of the SIS is known simply as the chief. His official designation is the director General, under him comes two deputy chiefs and under them five Assistant Chiefs. There are five main departments in the service. These are
1.         Operations or ops Department for information gathering. The  controllers section comes under operations and this is responsible for managing the various divisions of the service spread around the globe-from the western hemisphere to the soviet block, form Africa to Europe and form Australia to the middle East. The ops department also operate a liaison office whose task is to co-operate with other friendly agencies.
2.         Intelligence depart, responsible for interpretation and analysis of intelligence materials form all over the world
3.         Technical department-responsible for false papers, mini cameras, secret writings, ultra compact communications and all the other hits and pieces related to illegal activities.
4.         Administration. Responsible for salaries, pensions, staff list, budget accountancy, legal office central  registry etc.
5.         Counter-intelligence-which is responsible for keeping the services free from hostile penetration through consistent checking and vetting.
The work of the British secret service is greatly facilitated by the ferocious SAS-the special air service regional founded in 1941 for purely covert operations. Its task is purely deep penetration with a view to lying hidden and observing the enemy movement. Deep penetration involve sabotage, assassinations, raids and general heyham. It also engages in terries elimination, hostage recovery., personal protection for the high and mighty as well as foreign training missions.
            During the cold war, the Sis suffered severe damage in the hands of cold war, the Sis suffered serve damage in the hands of the “Cambridge spy ring” comprising Kim Phil by, guy Burgers, Donald Mackan and sir Anthony Blunt. These men were highly paced British officials in the civil and intelligence services who, over a decade, dedicated themselves to supplying information to the soviet union. Maclean and Borgess later defected to the soviet union in 1953 the Cambridge spy ring would go down in history as the biggest intelligence sandal of the 20th century. Reclusion the British establishment to the very button.
By the mid 1950s, the sis began to recover, its ability to plant three moles inside the polish secret service  proved a most successful and invigorating outing. The CIA described the information received form the Poles through the SIS as ‘some of the work valuable intelligence ever collected”14 The CIA rewarded the SIS with a 2o million dollar grain to depend their operations. The must celebrated soviet misstate deployment in Cuba in 1962 was un covered by photograph documents provided by an SIS assets,  col loleg remkovsky, run deep inside the GRu but the SIS. The SIS also received a warning through its agent in the KGB about the mobilisation the Alpha force during the 1991 coup which briefly toppled the soviet leader, mikchail Gorbachev.  
            The ISI working in collaboration with the CIA have undertaking some highly covert political actions in the part. These include the 1953 over known of Mohammed mosadeq in Iran and the topping of Patrice Lumba in the corgo in 1961.
At the end of the col mar, priorities had to be re-arranged Russia remain a nuclear power so interest in Russia and its affairs remained, but Russia was no longer a priority attention had shifted to other pressing areas including
1.         Production and proliferation of nuclear materials the activities of foreign physics students staying nuclear weapons and related subjects.
2.         Counter terror and terrorism activities especial form the Irish republican Army, Islamic federalism and other aspects of international terrorism.
3.         counter-narcotic and international drug trade across the western hemisphere.
4.         Pertinent global issues such as the environment, raisin, immigration, global economies and other issues of public welfare.
            During the 1990s, the British intelligence community was subjected to a comprehensive cot review by the government. This lreq to a reduction in its operational capabilities especially in the middle East. The quality of intelligence information provided by British intelligence on Iraq’s non-ion rational zealous programmes left much to be desired. The faulty intelligence provided in the period leaving up to the 2003. invasion of Iraq was seen as partly a result of the operational in capacity faced by the SIS at the time. There are other opinions however which held that the intelligence organisation deliberately provided information ammed at baking up the policy intention of the British and American governments at the time. To during the run up to the invasion of Iraq in 2003, the M16 commenced which was called operation mass appal” which was a campaign to plant stories in the media about Iraq’s weapons of Mass Destruction capcility15. Scoth Ritter, former weapons inspection with IAEA was exposed the plan said that the M16 recruited him as for back as 1997 to help with the propaganda effort against Iraq and the leadership of sad dam Hussein,. According to him “the aim was to convince the pubic that Iraq was a for greater threat than it actually was”16

D.        THE MOSSAD
… There no counsel is the people fall; but in the multitude of counsellors there is safety…
Proverbs 11:14 seal of Mossad.
The institute for intelligence and special operations, simple known as Mossad is the national intelligence agency of Israel. It was formed in 1949 as the central institute for co-ordination, directly under the office of the primary minister. The Mossad is responsible for intelligence collection and covert operations including paramilitary activities. It is one of the main enteritis in the Israel intelligence community along with amam (military intelligence and Shisbeth (internal security. Its director reports directly to the prime minister.
            Prior to the creation of the state of Israeli, the 1948 the Mossad le’ aliyah bet was a small organisation formed for the sole mission of bringing Jens into Palestine in defiance of the British mandate. This was done to subvert the British quota on Jeswiser immigration which was considered highly inadequate. The modes of operation of the Mossad aligah, its ideological and political learning’s led to the creation of the intelligence agency to work for the young state.
            The largest department of the Mossad is “collections” which is tasked with many aspects of conducting clandestine espionage overseas. Employees in the collections Department operate under a variety of covers including diplomatic and unofficial ones17. Their field intelligence officers called katsa are similar to case officers of the CIA. A total number of about thirty to forty agents operate at time mostly in Europe and the middle East18.
            The political Action and liason Department is responsible for working both with allied foreign intelligence services and with nations that have no normal diplomatic seditious with Israel.
            Among the Departments of the Mossad is the Special Operations Division or “Metsada” which is involved in assassinations, paramilitary operations, sabotage and psychological warfare. Psychological nature is also a concern of the Kochamah psychological Department which conducts propaganda and deception activities as well. Additional, the Mossad has a research Department tasked with intelligence production and Technological Department concerned with the development of tools for Mossad activities.
            The mossad concerns itself primarily with the security of the state of Israel. This security need is permanent and all-embracing in the face of sustained Arab hostility and Israel has taken conscious steps to meet this challenge. According to the London institute for strategies studies, Israel possesses one of the most highly perfected commend communication net works in the world and the speed with which it goes into action in periods of emerging is dazzling. The security need of Israel is so paramount that it cannot afford to let its guard down even for a moment. The Mossad has done well in the difficult task of preserving the security of the Israel nation.
            The mossand has also worked hand to bring many Nazi criminals to justice either through capture and persecution of through assassination. The celebrated case of Adolf eichmen in 1960 remain outstanding. Eichman was captured by a tem of mossad operatives in Argentina where he was living under the pseudonym Ricardo Klement. He was smuggled to Israel where he was tried, found guilty and executed. The Argentine government protested what it considered a violation of its sovereignty to the united nations. The UN security council while acknowledging the Eichman should be brought to appropriate justice for the crimes for which he was accused noted that  such acts would involve a breach of the principles upon which international order was founded, creating an atmosphere of insecurity and distrust incompatible with the preservation of peace…20
            The mossad is also responsible for the association of top scientists, engineers and nuclear experts in the employment of energy states in the middle East particularly Iraq, Iran, Syria and Egypt. The list of mossand assassin through gun shorts, letter bombs, telephone bombs, car bomb, poison, toxin injection and electrocution is long and out standing.
            Despite its ability and competence, the mossad is the smallest intelligence organisation in the world. the mossad has between 1200 and 1500 emphases and about 40 case officers. The cosmopolitan nature of the Israel society is however a great advantage to the security and intelligence need of the state. Every citizen, irrespective of talent, language, profession, geographical origin, etc is a potential asset, living and breathing the security well being of the state at all times and in all situations. No other society on earth has the same heightened security consciousness and awareness as the Israel citizens. Another factor is the international network and helpers and assistants known in Hebrew as sayanim. These are jens in diaspora, who although expressing profound loyalty to the country they reside in are its sympathy to the state of Israeli. They are called upon from time to time in their different professions to render their services in whatever form to the state of Israel. This is done in such a way that does not betray or work against their country of birth or adoption. Indeed conflating loyalties neither encouraged not allowed.
            The sophistication, bravery, expertise and general competence of the Israeli mossad is legendary. Even the intelligence agencies of the US and Britain treat the mossad with deference. Following the underground bombing in London in 2005, it was the mossad that provided the real name and identity of Azhari Hussin, who masterminded the plot. It was the mossad too that provided information on the activities of mr. hussin between 2oo1 and 2005. The mossand further revealed his where about in the tribal areas of Pakistan where he was tracked down and killed in  November, 2005.
            In 1956, the mossad obtained a copy of a private speech by Nikita Khrushchev in which he
denounced Joseph Stalin. The mossad passed the speech over to the United States which published it to the acute embarrassment of the USSR. This was one of the intelligence coups that gently raised the prestige of the organisation especially in the eyes of the older organisations.
            The Mossad has often come under harsh criticism for excessive action against Israeli enemies for when the Mossad moves, it is a formidable machine. No doubt it is an effective organisation and has served the security needs of Israeli with remarkable result.
            Mention must equally be made of “operation wrath of God’ launched as aresponse to the 1972 Munich mass are of Israeli athletes and officials in the Olympic village. Also the Israeli action in the wake of the Palestinian uprsing-agasa intigada in 2000.
            When Israeli victory in the four major wars fought in the middle east- the war of consolidation (1948), the snail campaign (1956), the six day was (1967) and the Yonu kippur was (1973), would be laid squarely of the foot of the mossad, for providing the precise intelligence that made victory possible in each case.
            Since 1973, no major war have been fought in the middle east. However, there have been several skirmishes, strikes, rads, incurious and military action against terrorism organisations and liberation movements operating in the middle east and the countries that provide them sanctuary and weapons with which to carry out hostile actions against Israel. The PLO and later Hezbollat and Aanors have remained permanent thorns in the Israeli severity flesh because of the doctrine of these organisations which were based on the ultimate destruction of the state of Isreal. In 2006, Israel fought a brief was with the Lebanese. Based Hezbollah and in 2009 carried out heavy bombardment of caza in retaliation for persistent hamas rockets into Israeli territory.
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