2.1       Conceptual Framework.
            In order to determine internal control efficiency evaluation principles, it is important to analyze the conceptual framework of internal control (Savcuk, 2007). According to the institute of internal controls (Taylor and Glezen, 2011, Ochulor, 2010), internal control is an independent appraisal function established within the banking industry to examine and evaluate its activities as a service to the banking operations. By measuring the effectiveness of organizational controls, it is an important managerial control device (Carmichael et al, 1996) which is directly linked to the banking structure and the general rules of banking business (Cai, 1997).

            Sawyer (2007) stated that internal control is a systematic, objective appraisal by internal auditors of the diverse operations and controls within an organization to determine whether financial and operating information is accurate and reliable, risks to the bank are identified and minimized, external regulations and acceptable internal policies and procedures are followed, satisfactory operating criteria are met, resources are used effectively and economically and the banking objectives are effectively achieved.
            Specifically, control environment reflect the attitude and the policies of management in regard with the internal audit in the economic unit. On the one hand, control environment is influenced by the history and the culture of economic unit. On the other hand, control environment has a pervasive influence on the   way banking activities are structured that sets a positive and supportive attitude towards internal control and conscientious management (Aldridge and Colbert, 1994). In regard with risk assessment, it can be claimed that it is the identification and analysis of relevant risks associated with achieving the banking objectives (Karagiorgos, et al, 2009).
            Hevesi (2008), control activities are the policies, procedures and mechanisms that enforce management’s directives. Computerization refers to the identification, capture and communication of pertinent information in as appropriate form and time frame to accomplish financial reporting objectives. Effective communications should occur in a broad sense with information flowing down, across and up the organization. It is commonly acceptable that internal control system need to be monitored in order to assess the quality of the system’s performance overtime and by monitoring it is ensured that the findings of audits and other reviews are promptly resolved.
            Adeyemi (2010) computerization in the banking industry are systems that operate functions of data gathering, processing, categorizing and reporting financial events with the aim of providing relevant information for the purpose of score keeping, attention directing and decision-making.
            In the financial performance, Chenhall and Morris (1996) described accounting information system to the perceived usefulness of scope, timeliness, level of aggregation and integration. Scope refers to the measures being used and to the extension of accounting information system in time and space.
            Gardin and Greve (2009) Accounting information system are considered as important organizational mechanisms that are critical for effectiveness of decision management and control in the banking organization. Performance management includes activities that ensure that goals are consistently being met in an effective and efficient manner.
2.2       Effects of internal control system in Access bank
            Ochiagha (2012), in the computerized environment, the computer system of internal control is converted from a single manual control, manual and procedures for joint control. As the computerized system of internal control has a combination of manual control and process control features. Computerized system in many applications include an internal control functions of these programs depending on the internal control applications such as the proceeding is taking place errors or does not work, because procedures for repetitive movements, making control of the long term failure is not found, so that specific aspects of the system errors or irregularities occurring more likely.
            Murtala (2010), unlike the manual accounting that economic operations are recorded on paper, computerized system is a process whereby original paper-based accounting data is recorded directly to disk or CD-Rom and can be easily removed or tampered with since technically illegal changes of electronic data can be achieved without leaving traces, which is difficult to business records. In addition, the electromagnetic medium susceptible to damage, so accounting information also exits the risk of lost or destroyed.
            Bolaji (2009), the introduction of computer technology in the banking industry added to the industry a new accounting work and also a new control measures as well as corresponding expansion of the system access control, change control of the programme and security of accounting information within the disk protection, computer operations management, system administrators and system maintenance personnel.
            Okorie (2011), computerized accounting in the banking industry transactions are authorized access to resources and records and should be limited to authorized individuals and accountability for their custody and use should be assigned and maintained by authorized staff. Periodic comparison of resources with the recorded accountability should be made to help reduce the risk of errors, fraud, misuse or unauthorized alteration.
            Ogbu (2011), internal control help in the appropriate documentation of transactions and all transactions and other events need to be clearly done and the documentation readily available for examination. The documentation should appear in management directives, administrative policies, operating manuals or electronic form.
        Onah (2010), Computerized accounting system of internal control reflects in the work in the process of system development and banking development. Development controls includes the development of pre-feasibility studies, capital budgeting, economic evaluation, development process of system analysis, system design, system implementation as well as assessment of existing system, system updating the feasibility study to update the program decision making.
         Onuigbo (2009), internal control provides the following development controls for efficient financial reporting, and banks achieving of her expected benefits. They include,
1. Meet the standard in norms: A computer accounting system and development of projects, both on the banking development are necessary to follow the departmental requirements.
2. Staff training: Computer accounting system should be necessary during the development phase of the system on the use of personal training, to improve their staff awareness and understanding of the system in order to reduce the system running the risk of error.
3. System Conversion: Internal control help the management to put a new computer accounting system into use, replace the existing manual accounting system, and do the conversion process to respond to the banks specific use. Bank transformation in the system should be done regularly for efficiency in the delivery of services.
4. Change control procedures. Change in banking activities and environment may lead to the use of use of the software to be modified. In order to actualize the objective, internal control has a  role of modifying accounting software, modifying the process every step must be set to the necessary control in order to meet up with the banking objectives.
         Akabuogu (2008),  internal control help staff through computerized accounting system on accurate record of data and as well financial upkeep of the banks. The information is timely filled and a set up of complete file system and strengthen records management.
         Obadan (2006), Internal control the staff  to record the management data output control  to ensue that the data is accurate, reliable andtaken to the various control measures. 
2.3       Challenges of Computerized  Accounting System
            Okonkwo (2011), power failure has brought a lot of challenges to the computerization of accounting system in the banking industry. It is a situation that defies the internal control of any organization. To this end, the management should do everything possible to avoid such enormous problems.
            Zajac and Pearce (2010) computer viruses and hackers are the inherent problems of using computerized system. If virus occur, data saved may delete and if not saved in a removable disk, information already saved would be found missing.
            Ekechukwu (2011), accounting system not properly set up to meet the requirement of the business due to badly programmed or inappropriate software or hardware or personnel problems can cause more havoc.
            Ugbana (2005) once data been input into the system automatically the output are obtained hence the data being input needs to validated for accuracy and completeness. This throws a lot of challenges in the accounting system.
            Ige (2006), danger of computer fraud if properly level of control and security are not ensured contributes threat to the computerization in the accounting system. This leads to the defrauding of the bank by a staff of the bank or fraudsters,
       Peters (2012), Managerial inefficiency constitutes a threat in a computerized accounting system. This is because most top managers do not seek the advisers of their subordinates and this result to inefficiency in administration. Equally, the subordinates will mishandle his/her position.
        Anoke (2011), Corruption at all levels brings problems in the computerized accounting system in Access bank.  Due to the corruption in the system, fraud, crime and operational inefficiency controls the system and this leads to most bank failures.

2.4       Academic Review
Several empirical literatures on the analysis of internal control in a computerized accounting system in the banking industry have been reviewed. Siddiqui and Dodder (2009) examine the effectiveness of financial audit of banking companies operating within Bangladesh. The audited financial statements of 14 sample banking companies have been analyzed. The study identifies seven sample companies that have actually overstated their profits. Hence, the research explores the level of independence, objectivity and competence of the auditors assigned for auditing banking companies.
            Douglas et al (2005) examined the internal audit function in the banks of Turkey. To achieve its purpose the following methodology is used; 25 questionnaires were sent to internal auditors in the banks of Turkey and 14 were answered. Been 56% of the total questionnaires distributed, while 90 different questionnaires were sent to auditors and 50 were answered been 56% of the total questionnaires distributed. The analysis of the survey answers indicates that the importance of internal audit in the banking sector is increased by the usage of computers and the international extension of banks. Furthermore, the results show that the number of internal auditors is related with the size of the bank. Regarding the education of internal auditors, the result reveals that usually internal auditors have graduated from universities and have studied accountancy. Finally the research highlights the growing importance of internal auditing in banking success.
            Routoupis and Tsamis (2008) reviewed three case study approaches in analyzing the attitude of Greek banks with regard to the application of risk based approach. The Greek law, the bank of Greece and international regulations impose internal control in the Greek bank sector. However, the Greek banking credit institutions ignored most regulations. The result of the research show that the standards of internal auditing requires the adoption of risk based approach from internal auditors. Unfortunately, this requirement is not being into practice. Thus, the Greek banks adopts an intermediary approach of internal auditing that takes into consideration the risks, without estimating and managing them.
            Khana and Kaveri (2010) examined the implementation of risk based internal audit in India banks. To accomplish the goals of the survey, a structured questionnaire was mailed to 43 banks in India both “the public and private sectors”. A total of 25 banks, all public sector banks and six private sector banks have responded to the questionnaire mailed. The findings showed that the banks have made sufficient progress in introducing risk based internal audit. This refers to their understanding of methodology for the assessment of risks, audit procedures and implementation of audit report.
            Palfi and Muresan (2009) examined the importance of a well organized system of internal control in regard with the bank sector. The sample was based on 25 credit institutions of Romania. The analysis of the survey answers reveals that the continuous collaboration based on periodical meetings between all structures of bank, characterizes an effective internal audit department.
            Abu-Musa (2010) investigates the existence and adequacy of implemented security controls of computerized accounting information system in the Saudi Banking sector. The result of study reveals that the vast majority of Saudi banks have adequate security controls in place. The results also enable managers and practitioners to better secure their computerized accounting information systems and to champion the security of information technology for the success of their banks.
            Ademola (2011) examined the existence and adequacy of implemented security controls in the Egyptian banking sector. The results of the survey pointed out that the vast majority of Egyptian banks have adequate security control in place. The result also revealed that the computer departments paid relatively more attention to technical system controls while internal audit departments emphasized more of the behavioral and organizational security controls. Finally, the study provides valuable empirical results regarding inadequacies of implemented CAIS security controls and introduced some suggestions to strengthen and improve the security controls in the Egyptian banking system.
            Bongele (2012) investigates the appropriate review between designing of accounting information system and performance of commercial banks units by analyzing strategies. The findings using the United Bank of Africa reviews that high performance of commercial units depends on wide range of accounting information system. Other finding reviewed that banks systematically vary their accounting information system to support their chosen strategy recognizing that accounting information system have the potential to facilitate strategy management and enhance organizational performance.
2.5       Gap in Literature
            In the course of synthesis of the literature reviewed, efforts were made to look at the concept of internal control in the computerized accounting system in Access bank. We also brought into focus the vital and related issues of internal control and general improvement in the computerized accounting system in Access bank.
However, the existing literature offers scant evidence of the relationship between accounting information system and financial performance of Access bank which have to do with a positive association between accounting information system design and banking strategy and performance.
Furthermore, the existing literature offers scant evidence of the relationship between the accounting information system and management performance. Accounting information system are considered as organizational mechanisms that are critical for effectiveness of decision makers and control in organization.
Finally, the study have failed to assess the effectiveness of internal control in the computerized accounting system of Access bank, Abakaliki branch.
2.6 Theoretical Framework.
To further enhance the effectiveness and general understanding of the subject matter, a background of systematically organized knowledge of varying levels generalized needs to be analyzed. This is aimed at providing meaning and relevance from the development of such knowledge and concerts whose application provides specifications and relationship based on empirical tests and validations.
A theory provides us with the tools with which we try to analyze issues and causations in order to determine what is real and what is not. It is important to provide an analytical basis of explanations which would enhance better appreciation and understanding of internal control and computerized accounting system in Access bank.
There are several existing theories in the management sciences which would suit our purpose in this work. For a better analysis, we shall employ the contingency theory of accounting information.
2.6.1                               The Contingency theory of accounting information.
The contingency theory founded by Smith (1907) describes a new theory of information system, which embraces both macro organizational concept, technology and human information processing system. The theory and the possible relationship of internal control, computerized accounting system in the banking industry fix in management dicision (Gerdin and Greve, 2004, Widener 2006, Waterhouse and Tiessen 1978),
            For such theory to be performed, the conceptual model are the financial information, managerial information and auditing information reporting and the interaction among them.
            Deriving from above, it would be precise to assert that the effectiveness and efficiency of the banking industry can be determined by the co-existence of internal control through computerized accounting system to yield efficient managerial decision making and control.
      Thus, this has been considered to be true and functional because since the practice of computer in our financial institutional, the work-load has been reduced and accounting balances has been accurate.
However, criticism by some scholars such as Ebenezer (2005), stated that the use of computer accounting system has led to fraud, inefficiency and collapse of many banks in the country. 
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