A Project Presented To The Department Of Physical And Health Educating Of National Teachers Institute Kaduna, Girls’ Hiah School Abakaliki Study In Centtre Partial Fulfillment For The Award Of The Nigeria Certificate In Education (N.C.E)

The indispensable role of information and communication technology ie the information age or the internet age cannot be overemphasized societies that have harnessed the benefits of this social tool, are the ones considered to be to be peaceful developed and progressive.
This research work was on the Citizenship Education in the information age: challenges and enhancement strategies: a case study of Izzi Local Government Area. The major instrument for data collection was the questionnaire. The research used the Likert scale method of data analysis. A total of 100 respondents were used. The research recommends that; the ice should be used to teach the learner at all levels to boast teaching and learning of responsible citizenship. The ice should be used to teach the learner at all level to boost teaching and learning of responsible citizenship. The inclusion of citizenship education via the ret at private and public agencies and institution. The use of ICT in political sensitization, education and religious education in order to create a peaceful society.          

1.1       Background of the study
            Citizenship education is the study of the legal right in relation to the ways in which a citizen behaves as he craves to help his community. Citizenship education is a new subject in the Nigeria secondary school curriculum. A cursory look at Nigerian history shows a lot socio-economic and political reforms taking place. Yet the national civic, political and economic landscape remained beset by the same age-old problems that have always hindered nation at development Nigeria Nation has been (and still being characterized of ethnic chauvinism religious dashes, social and civil crises. These bedeviling problems call for urgent attention. Critics and analyst have conterminously advocated for civic education at all levels of education particularly at secondary level-federal government has hearkened and headed to such clarion call by introducing civic education in school’s curriculum.
            Citizenship education is a dynamic subject. As a subject and also art, it is located and practiced in the social environment where change is constant. In the information age, the learner is prone to myriads of data with some having both positive and negative.
            This study is on citizenship education in the information age: challenges and enhancement strategies – A case study of  Izzi Local Government Area.
1.2       Statement of the Problem
            Citizenship education in the information age has it challenges and setbacks. The study intends to investigate how the information and communication technology (ICT) can help to boost or mar the social responsibilities of individuals in the school and society at large
1.3       Purpose of the Study
            The purpose of the study which was on citizenship education in the information age challenges and enhancement strategies a case study of Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
            The purpose of this study include;
a.         To understand the role of ICT in citizenship education.
b.         To highlight the challenges of ICT in citizenship education.
c.         To explore enhancement strategies for citizenship education in relation to ICT
1.4       Research Questions
            The following research questions guided the research
a.         What is the impact of the information age (ICT) on       citizenship education         
b.         What are the benefits of the information age (ICT) on citizenship education
c.         What enhancement strategies can boost citizenship education in our schools and communities.
d.         What are the major challenges to citizenship education in the information age
1.5       Significance of the Study
            This research work which is on citizenship education in the information age challenges and enhancement strategies – a case study of Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, has a lot of significance.
a.         It would help the government to understand the need to encourage the citizens to embrace the ICT age.
b.         It would help the individual to be current with present day realities and be able to make references and inferences.
c.         It would help educational planners and policy implements to explore ways of making computer studies a permanent feature in our schools
d.         It would also encourage private individuals and agencies to partner with schools and governments on how to boost computer literacy as it relates to citizenship education
1.6       Scope of the Study
            This study which was on citizenship education in the information age: challenges and enhancement strategies was supposed to cover the nook and crannies of Ebonyi State but was limited to Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

2.0       This chapter reviews the related literatures on citizenship education in the information age: challenges and enhancement strategies; under the following subheadings;
-           What is citizenship education?
-           Citizenship education and the information age
-           Challenges to citizenship education in the information age
-           Enhancement strategies
-           Conclusions and summary
2.1       What is Citizenship Education?
            Education in the context of citizens and civic education. Education is the process of transmitting what is valuable in the sense of what is desired to relevant public who are the beneficiaries of that purpose. The centre of gravity in the educative enterprise then is organized around socialization of participants into cultures of knowledge considered as foundation for the desirable, the worth while and the valuable.
            Subsequently, dispute arises as to the content of these categories. Whatever they are, whatever their content they constitute the purpose of education an adequate discussion of education with a view to define or even describe it, must set on the basis of this type of thing – the purpose. The purpose of education seems then, in an organic way to be linked to its content and meaning and even method. But inspite of the purpose contrived and the methods adopted, the educative process is a perennial one spanning its perception as a life – long affair.
            Julius Nyerere (1985) maintained that the educative process within any social continuum serves to reinforce the social ethics of the social order from which it necessarily springs. It is within this context that the educational system produces the man that is adequate to its needs and desired by it. Thus any social order adopts an educational system that conduces to its survival and whose principles are consistent with the under – girding values for its growths and development. Citizenship education is the preparation of individuals to participate as active and responsible citizens in a democracy civic education is key to grow a positive and dynamic citizenship participation space in the polity. Criticality of citizenship education also lies in the equally important role of effective citizenship recruitment it is the most powerful instrument available to the state to engage and Implement programs of value reorientation in the social carder. The following statement by Thomas Jefferson expresses the rational and summaries the province of civic education.
            “I   know of no safe depository of the ultimate power of society but the people themselves and if you think them not enlightened enough to exercise their control with a wholesome dedication; the remedy is not to take it from them but to inform their discretion.
            Citizenship education is a social phenomenon that is historically specific. This is so in respect to its essential contends. Its total burden includes, but is not exhausted by those conditions and processes that produce outcomes in the internalization perpetuation and propagation of citizenship consciousness, moral, social and political obligations and role expectations in the society. It is also the externalization and deployment of this type of consciousness to enable full participation in the dynamic of citizenship in the state. From the east stages in the historical development of the society specifically, that is, with the emergence of the state. The education of the citizen into socially correct roles has been an item of high ranking challenge and priority. In a state characterized by social inequality there exist different conceptions of what are correct citizenship roles for the different social classes within each state. This in unrequited differential items of curricular content Plato’s view in this regard is guardian class, the rulers, who hold the highest from of citizenship in the state citizenship them into role of leaders. The goals of citizenship education were specific and targeted on their historical roles Lower echelons of citizenship were available and occupied by merchant teacher and consent; etc citizenship as a term is a word which defines the legal right as it belongs to a particular country. It also means the state of being a citizen and accepting ways in which a citizen behaves, for instance, being responsible and helping his community. Citizenship Education therefore is the study of the legal right in relation to the ways in which a citizen behaves as he craves to help his community. Citizenship education is that which enables people to make their own decision and to take responsibility for their own lives and their communities. Citizenship Education is move than a subject because it is an important opportunity especially for students, to explode their social and political vices If it is taught well and tailored well to local needs, its skills and values will enhance democratize life for all citizens, both rights and responsibly,  beginning in schools and radiating out citizenship Education is targeted at young people so that they can leave school with an understanding of political, legal and economic functions of adult society and with the social and moral awareness to thrive in it citizenship education is essential for preparing young people for our shared  democratic life .This is why it involves trying to fit everyone  into the  same mould or about creating “models” or good citizenship education but demonstrate it through the way the operate.
2.2       Citizenship Education and the information Age.
In many democratic societies today, citizenship education has become a major feature in the school curriculum and programmer’s citizenship education can be defined as educating children from earthy childhood, to become clear- thinking enlightened citizens who participate in decision concerning society.  In Nigeria, the concept and principles of citizenship education are embedded in social studies programs of the primary and junior secondary schools. In the United States, it citizenship education in Britain, Scotland, Germany
and Australia. As a relatively new curriculum subject, there is at the moment, considerable scope for the development of useful curriculum content. There is also work to be done to do research on the effectiveness of particular pedagogical approaches and particular types of resources ways of communicating issues around citizenship that can reach the citizens to be developed one way is through information and communication technology. ICT offers method to support and promote active citizenship ICT can be used as a souse of in formation and to engender discussion in citizenship education. In information age ICT can be a topic in citizenship education and in a world saturated with midis messages, some of which produce strong language, box and violence, ICT can be used for training students in the skills of analyses for evaluation these messages citizenship education is specifically recognized by the government of Nigeria as a vehicle for the building of his rights and privileges but also of his duties. However, it is regrettable that this great expectation of the nation is far form being attained.                                          

2.3       Challenges to Citizenship Education the Information Age     
 The good citizen is visualized as possessing certain desirable attributes namely looking at things with a democratic slant; believing in decency and fair play for be arcane and respect for other; commitment to an acquisition of the custom, traditions and nationalistic ideals of his country; a be life in the idea of progressive improvement of society; a destine to promote the general welfare and be pledged to raise and safe guard standards of vernal education (Beard, 1932) Further, according to Beard (1932) the good citizen is usually expected to exhibit the following characteristics, an appreciation of the nature and laws of social life; a display of intelligent and genuine loyalty  to high national ideals; a possession of a sense of loyalty and a sense of responsibility of the individual as a member of social groups; a display of loyalty and a sense of obligation to his city, state nation and to the human race; and a possession of the intelligence and the will to participate effectively other promotion  of social well being other values and behavioral objective which  derive from these attributes and characteristics of a good citizen centre on the following; “a display of shared responsibilities for the common good of compassion for the less fortunate” cherishing a sense of responsibility.
Citizenship education in the information age is hampered by a lot of issue like the following the foremost target of the information age has always been speedy communication and it has excelled way beyond the expectations. Newer innovations are only going to make it faster and move retable. The internet has been defined as a collection of various services and resources (Ahoyamin 1985) Although many people still think e-mail and world wide web as the principle constituents of internet there is lot more in store, than e-mail, chartrooms, celebrity web sits and search engines
(a)          Lack of trained personnel: the absence of trained personnel in the use of information and communication technology to boost citizenship has always hindered progress
(b)          Lack of relevant text book; the needed text books that are needed to boost the teaching and leering of citizenship education has not been there.
(c)          Non –inclusion of ICY in the curriculum of school for frames –The exclusion of ICY form the Curriculum of school programs have after the development of the studies.
2.5          Enhancement Strategic
The use and role of the internet is an entitle for a study in our present day society. A lot of enhancement strategies can be employed so as to boost this study thereby ensuring a strong and functional citizenship education.
   These include, the use of qualified personnel adequate provision of qualified facilities in schools; rearmament of teachers.
2.6          Summary         
  Having reviewed some relevant texts this research summaries with the notion that citizenship education is the pivot of modern societies and should not relegated in the theoretical platform only

This chapter contains a description of the procedures adopted in carrying out the research. It includes the following
­­_             Design of the study
_             Area of the study
_             Research population
_             Sample and sampling technique
_             Instrument for data collection
_             Validation of the instrument
_             Method of data collection
 _            Method of data Analysis.

3.1          Design of the study
This is a study which is designed to cover the issue     Citizenship education in the information Age .Challenges and enhancement strategies. The research was basically a descriptive survey research.
3.2       Area of study    
The research was conducted in Izzi local Government Area of Ebonyi State and some selected Secondary School in the area Sampled for the research they are basically fifteen (15) secondary school in all.
3.3       Research Population 
                        The target population for the research consists of 100 respondents drawn from ten (10) secondary school selected from the several autonomous communities in Izzi Local government Area. This population is made up of teachers, students, educationists, supervisors of schools
3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique
The researcher made use of a stratified random sampling technique in the selection of the sample population which is made up of 100 respondents.
3.5       Instrument for Data Collection
The researcher used questionnaire as the main instrument for data collection. The questionnaire is made up of two sections A and B. section A was used to illicit information on the personal background of the respondents which section B was used to answer the four research question. The questionnaire was construed in the like of type, four – point rating scale and analyzed with mean scones. This was however augmented with unstructured oral interviews and observation. The researcher also reviewed books, articles and journals relating to the project topic.
3.6       Validation of the Instrument
After designing the questionnaire, the researcher sent it to the project supervisor who proof read it and finally face validated it for production and administration
3.7       Reliability of the Instrument
The questionnaire was administered to 20 respondents in the sampled area to establish its reliability the result obtained from the reliability test showed that the items on the questionnaire could be understood and easily related by the respondents.
3.8       Method of data Collections
A  total of 100 copies of the questionnaire were constructed. The researcher went round, distributed them and collected the completed copies for analysis. The researcher also sought the seasoned opinions of experts in the area through books, articles and journals relating to the project topic.
3.9       Method of data Analysis.
Data collected were analyzed using the liker-type four point rating scale and values assigned to them as follows;
_          Strongly Agree (SA) _ 4 points
_          Agree (A) _ 3 points
_          Disagree (D) _ 2 points
_          strongly disagree (SD) _ 1point
 This mean of the above score was obtained using formula
                                                                _ = ∑ FX
                                          X       N
In order to arrive at an acceptable result; the raw scores were collected, organized and analyzed thus;
            Mean= 4+3 +2 + 1
                =        10
                        =          2.5
From the workings above, any mean score below 2.5 was regarded as disagree while any mean from 2.5 and above was regarded as agree.

This chapter contains the analysis of data collected based on research questions in tables:
Research Question 1
What is the Impact of the information? Age (ICT) on citizenship Education. The responses of the respondents are presented in the in the table 1 below 

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