What is Nigeria
            Nigeria is a geographical expression, the name Nigeria is derived from ‘Niger’ which is the name of the river that constitutes the most remarkable geographical feature of the country infact the name was first suggested by show to mean people living around Nigeria area.

According to Awolowo (1947), ‘Nigeria is not a Nation. It is a mere geographical expression. There are no Nigerians in the same sense as they is merely a distinctive appellation to distinguish those who live within the boundaries of Nigeria form those who do not” famous.
In 1953, during the famous debate on the motion for independence by Chief Anthony Enahoro, Awolowo emphasized his fact when he said
“sixty years there was no country called Nigeria. What is now Nigeria consisted of a number of large and small communities all of which were different in their outlook and benefits. The advent of the British and of Western education has not materially altered the situation and these many and varied communities have not knit themselves into a composite unit”---
they are therefore various national or ethical groups in the country. Ten such main group were recorded in the 1931 census as follow.
1.         Hausa (2) Yoruba (30 igbo (4) Fulani (5) Kanusi (6) ibibio (7) TIV (8) Edo (9) Nupe and (i) Ijaw.
According to Nigeria Hndbook eleventh edition, there are also great number of other smaller tribes too numerous to enumerate seperatley, whose combined total population amounts to 4,683,044. It is a Mistake to designate them ‘tribes’. Each of them is a nation by itself with many tribes and clans. There is a much difference between them as there is between Germans, and English and between Russians and Turks. The face that they have a common president does not destroy this fundamental difference. (Nsirimobi 2001). The only means of communication between the Ethnic groups is English language. There cultural backgrounds and social outlooks differs greatly and their indigenous political institutions have little in common.

The People of Nigeria       
            The confluence of river Niger and its main tributary, River Benue, effectively divides the country into three. The North the West and the East. The document ethnic group on the Northern part of the country is the Hausa Fulani most of whom are Muslims other major ethnic groups of the North are the Nupe, Tiv, and Kanuri. The Yoruba people are predominate in the west, About half of the Yoruba’s are Christian and the other half  Muslim. The predominantly Christian Igbo are the largest ethnic groups in the East, with the Efik, Ibibio and Ijaw forming a substantial segment of the population of the East.

Geographical features
            Nigeria lies within latitude 4oN-14oN of the Equator and longitude 3oE-15oE of the Greenwich Meridian. This means that Nigeria has a latitudinal stretch of 10o and longitudinal extent of 12o. Nigeria is located on the gulf of Guinea in West African. She is bounded to the East by the republic of Cameroon, to the west by the republic of Benin, to the North by Nigeria and Chad Republic and the south by the Atlantic Ocean. Nigeria is thus, surrounded by French-speaking Countries with the exception of the south where a vast coastline of the Atlantic ocean measuring about 800km exist.
Size: In terms of size, Nigeria occupies a land area of 356,669 square miles; which is about 923,768 square kilometer. This is the size of France, Britain and Netherlands combined. Nigeria is the fourth largest country in Nigerian is the most populous country on the African continent with 50% greater population than Egypt and is infact more populous than the other fifteen West African countries put together

Relief’s: Nigeria landscape consists of lowlands, plains, highlands and plateau.
            The lowlands in Nigeria refers to area with heights generally below 300 meters and lies along the coats and along the valleys of the main rivers.
The main lowlands area in Nigeria are
1.         The Sokoto plains, in the North-west (200-300m)
2.         The Nigeria-Benue trough, wrapping around the North-Central plateau (100-300m)
3.         The Chad Basin or Bornue plain, in the north-East (100-3000 meters)
4.         The coastal lowlands of western Nigeria (100-300m)
5.         The lower River basin (120-180 meters)
6.         The cross River basin 9120-180 meters)
7.         The coastal plains (0-100 meters)

Economic importance of lowlands
1.         Lowlands are usually associated with various rocks such as alluvial deposits, limestone, sand stones, shale, clays etc, the coastal lowlands are rich sources of mineral deposits such as iron are and crude oil.
2.         Lowlands especially depositional plains are rich fertile soils which favours intensive Agriculture while the River plans provides employment in fishing.
3.         Level lowlands are good for human habitant and favours the construction of communication networks such as roads, railways, air ports etc. the Highlands or plateaux in Nigeria refers to areas. Over 300 meters above sea level. The highlands in Nigeria can be grouped unto four namely:
1.         The North-Central highlands lies within the centre of Northern Nigeria and covers nearly one-fifth of the area. The highlands here includes
(a)       the high plains of Hausa and whose average elevation stands at 750 meters form the lower step.
(b)       The Jos-plateaux with an elevation of 1500m to 1800meters.
            Many rivers in Northern Nigeria rise form the North-central highlands. The Hadejia, Komadugu, Gana and Gongola River flow to the east. The Sokoto, Kaduna, marriage and Guara flow westwards to the Nigeria while other small rivers like the mada and Gbako flow south-wards.
1.         That western Highlands: the western High and is in the western part of Nigeria around Ogun, Osun, Oyo, kwara, Ondo and Edo States. The outstanding hills found within this area are Idanre, Efon laiye ridge, Apata hill, Epeme hill, Kikuruku hill, Iseyin hill, Abeokuta hill etc.
2.         Many Rivers take up their source form these uplands. Some flowing Netherworlds such as River Avum and Moshi which empty their water into River Niger. Other flows southwards such as River Ogun, Osse and Osun which empty the water unto the Atlantic Ocean.

3.         The Eastern Scarpland: This area is found in the eastern region of Nigeria especially around Enugu and Nsukka the Major highlands in the area is the Usi-Nsukka The major rivers that take up their sources form this scarp land include River Anambra, Imo and Cross River.
4.         The Eastern highlands: The Eastern highlands are areas which represent the highest zone in Nigeria and can be located between the Nigeria and Cameroon border fringe. Among these highlands are;
*          Adamawa Monitain
*          Alantika and Shebshi bills
*          The Mandara Mountain
*          Obudu and Oban hills
*          Bin Plateau

The rivers that take their sources from this zone include yedseram, Ngadam Gana, Katsina Ala etc.
            Economic importance of Highlands
*          Most highlands in Nigeria are sources of Minerals like coal (Enugu) tin and columbite (Jos plateau) gold diamond and limestone.
*          Most highland in Nigeria serves as sources of many rivers and streams.
*          Serves as tourist attraction and have cool climate which aid settlement of people.
            The Rivers in Nigeria Can be divided into four main groups
*          The Niger and Benue river system
*          The river West of the lower Niger
*          The rivers East of the lower Nigeria
*          the rivers flowing into lake Chad
1.         Niger-Benue river system
The river Niger is the largest and longest river in Nigeria with a length of 2600 miles form its source in Futa: Jalon (Guinea). It passes through Mali and Niger before flowing eastwards and later. Southwards of Nigeria.
            River Niger has a lot of tributaries in Nigeria and the Major ones are river Kaduna, river Anambra, River Moshi and river Awun.
River Benue has its soruce from the Eastern highlands of Mandwa mountain and its may or tributaries. Include river Gongola, river Katsina Ala, River Wast and River donga.
2.         The Rivers West of the lower Niger
These Rivers are found on the Western highland or Yoruba highlands which include the following. River Ogun Oshun, Osse and Ossiomo which flow directly into the Atlantic Ocean.
3.         The rivers East of the lower Niger
These are rivers that take their sources from the Eastern scarp land and eastern highland thereby employing their water into river Niger, Benue and the Atlantic Ocean. The rivers include River Donga, Katsum-Ala, Anambra, Imo, Cross River and Taraba.
4.         The Rivers that Flows into lake Chad
These rivers take their sources from the North-Central Highlands basically Jos Plateau. Most of these rivers flow into lake Chad. The major rivers found within the said area are Hadeija, Katogum, Komadugu, Gana, Yederam, others include, Zamfara, Rima, Gongola, Sokoto, Kontagora Mada etc.
Economic importance of Nigeria rivers.
*          Irrigation: Some of Nigeria Rivers are used for irrigation purposes especially in areas where rainfall is inadequate. This aids crops cultivation. This practice can be seen along river Sokoto, Rima and Hadeja.
*          Hydro-DAMS Electric Power: many of Nigerian rivers are damned in area where rapid and water falls tend to be present for the purpose of either generating power is dammed at new Bassa named Kainji Dam for the purpose of producing hydro-electric power. Today all towns and villages in Nigeria depend as their source of electricity.
*          Navigation: Nigeria Rivers are used for transportation of foodstuffs, manufactured goods, logs from lumberable trees.
*          Construction of ports and seaports. Rivers in Nigeria are used for development of river ports and seaport in Nigeria Examples of these river ports can be located in Sapele, Onitsha, Lokoja and seaports in Lagos (Tincan and  wharf seaports) Warri, Porthercourt and Calabar ports.
*          Tourism and recreations. Rivers are used as tourist centres and recreation places thereby generating foreign exchange revenue for the government.
*          For fishing-fishing is often done along most Nigeria rivers and creeks by their inhabitants thereby creating for them employment opportunities.
*          Domestic/Industrial uses.
*          For festival purposes
Vegetation of Nigeria
Vegetation are classified according to the appearance of the plant. The vegetation of Nigeria is divided into three major zones namely
*          The forest vegetation
*          The Savanna vegetation
*          The Montane vegetation
The forest vegetation can be sub-divided into different belts. These are;
a.         The swamp forest
b.         The mangrove swamp forest
c.         The fresh water swamp forest
d.         Equatorial Rain forest
e.         Deciduous or Monsoon forest
The swamp forest
-           Occupies the southern part of Nigeria hence, it is found along the coast and is wider at the Niger Delta and around the mouth of Cross river. The Swamp forest is divided into two.
a.         The mangrove swamp forest- is found north of the Atlantic Ocean. It covers the delta, Creeks and the tidal waters of the coastal areas. The waters here are salty or brackish in nature. It has no nature forest apart from the presence of water hyacinth which tends to occupy the surface of the water e.g Calabar and Porthercourt.
b.         The fresh water swamp forest: are found north of the Mangrore Swanp forest.
            The presence of mangroves tree are noticed. Their roots are of economic importance b’cos they can be used in the construction of railway sleepers, the trees served as fuel and a type of acid called tannia used for leather  works can be obtained form the borks. The mangrove trees also serves as pit-props used for supporting the roots of cool-mine. The soil in this area is swampy and unsuitable for Agriculture e.g Warri, Ahoada, Bomadi etc. the major occupation of the people living within the environment is fishing.
Equational  Rain forest
-           Consist of very dense trees and undergrowth of creepers Trees found in this area are evergreen, hence they are exploited for their timber. A lot of lumberables tree like hard work or soft word are available. The had word includes Iroko mahogany, cedar, African walnut, Ebonyi and Obeche.
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