Questions of how to best organize and manage the FARMER business in a manner consistent with the goals and objectives of the FARMER family must be continually addressed. The decision as to whether the considered alternatives are consistent with established goals and objectives rests upon the FARMER and the FARMER family acting as the manager if no outside management is hired.

The agricultural producer or FARMER manager is challenged when organizing and managing FARMER resources to maximize economic returns to owned or controlled resources. Resources include Land (Owned and rented) and associated improvements, capital assists such as machinery and breeding livestock (Borrowed and owned), and labor (hired, FARMER operator, and additional family). The manager is responsible for combining available resources and knowledge to best achieve the desired goals and objectives of the FARMER business.

            Budgets according to English dictionary is a plan for allocating resources; a plan specifying how resources, especially time or money, will be allocated or spent during a particular period.
            The technique and process for developing and analyzing alternatives for decision making is called budgeting. It is a formal quantitative presentation of worker research to go into. It is a planning process, it involves input and output relationship.
            Budgeting is a management tool that can provide information to answer a multitude of questions if used properly. Combining inputs into products, allocating resources to alternative products, and choosing combinations of different products are choices whose consequences can be analyzed efficiently through the use of he budgeting tool.
            With budgets, management can to answer such questions as:
-           How may the available resources best be used?
-           What enterprises (Crops and/or livestock) can be produced and which will contribute most to returns to owned resources?
-           How much of the controlled land should be devoted to each enterprise?
-           What equipment and machinery will be needed to produce the potential enterprises?
-           What production practices should be used to produce each of the enterprises.?
-           How much labour (both family and hired) will be needed on the FARMER?
-           What are the capital requirements?
            FARMER management skills and knowledge are an integral part of financial success.
Resource Allocation                                                                                                          
            The problems of resource use and allocation involve the application of five economic principles. These principles, in a simplified form, consist of:-
-           Adding units of an inputs as long as the value of the resulting output or added returns is greater than the added cost.
-           Substituting one input for another as long as the cost of the added input is less than the cost of the input that is replaced and the output in maintained.
-           Substituting one product for another as long as the value of the added output is greater the value of the output that is replaced and the cost is constant.
-           Using each unit of resource where it gives the greatest returns when resources are limited.
-           Basing comparisons upon discounted valued when considering different time periods and/or laments of risk.
            The first three principles relate to situation where un-limited resources are availed for use of the manager with perfect knowledge. The last two relate to situations where there are limited resources and when there is not perfect  knowledge.
            Most resource allocation management problems faced by FARMER managers can be addressed by applying the basic budgeting economic principles. Numerical calculations to assist in making management decisions. No type of budget I s tied to any particular principle. The type of budget relates to the intent of the analyses, while the principles relate to the FARMER resources and the resources relationships that exist.

                        TYPES OF BUDGET
            There are three types of budgets that can be used in the FARMER business management process. Common thread in each type is that, if properly defined and used, the budget format permits the manager to use economic logic to answer question of what, how much and when resource should be used to achieve the goals and objectives as established by the FARMER family.
            The tree types of budget are:-
1.         whole- FARMER budget
2.         Enterprise budget
3.         Partial budget

The whole-FARMER budget:-     is a classified detailed summary of the major physical and financial feature of the entire FARMER business. Whole FARMER budgets identify the component part of the total FARMER business and determine the relationships among the different parts, both individual and as a whole.
An Enterprise budget:- is a statement of what generally is expected from a set of particular production practices when producing a specified amount of product. It consist of a statement of the production of a particular product. An enterprise budget documents variable and fixed cost. It is useful in calculating profitability and break- even values.
The partial budget:- is useful in analyzing the effects of a change from an existing plan. This budget only considers revenue and expense items that will change with a defined change in the plan.
            But for the course of this assignment let us focus on Enterprise and partial budget.

            An enterprise is defined as a single crop or livestock commodity being produced on a FARMER and most FARMER consist of a combination of several enterprise. An enterprise budget is a listing of all estimated income and expenses associated with a specific enterprise to provide and estimate of it’s profitability. One can be developed for each actual or potential enterprise in a FARMER plan such as the corn enterprise, wheat enterprise, or a cow/calf enterprise. Each is developed on the basis of a small common unit such as 1acre for crop or 1 head for livestock. This permits easier comparison of the profit for alternative and competing enterprises. There are several and difference between crop and livestock enterprise budget and each will be discussed separately.
Crop Enterprise Budgets:
Enterprise budgets can be organized and presented in several different formats but they typically contain three sections: Income, Variable cost, and Fixed cost.
            The first step in developing an enterprise budget is to estimate the total production and the expected output price. Both of these values will obliviously have a great effect on enterprise profitability and they should be carefully estimated. The estimated yield should be the average yield expected under normal weather conditions given the soil type and input levels to be used. Input levels must be considered because seceding rates, fertilizer levels, chemical use, and tillage practices all affect yield. Since enterprise budgets are used for forward planning or making future plans, the output price should be the manager’s best estimate of the average respected during the next year or next several years depending on the planning horizon.
Variable costs are estimated next, and some, such as for seed, fertilizer to be used to obtain. Other variable  costs such as fuel, machining repairs and labor are more difficult to estimate, particularly on a per acre basis these costs depends on machining type and size and the number of tillage operations to be performed,
            T able 1: Example Enterprise Budget for corn production (IAcre).
Value per Acre

120 business at N2.30 per bushel
N 276.00
Variable costs

N 12.00
Fertilizer and time
Machinery fuel and repair
Dry expenses          
Labor at N 4 per hour
Interest on variable cost (10%for 6 month)
Total variable costs
N 135.45
Income above variable costs
N 140.55
Fixed costs

Machinery depreciation, interest, taxes and insurance
N 36.00
Land change
Total fixed costs
N 136.00
Total cost
N 271.45
Estimated profit                          
N 4.55
As shown in the table 1, enterprise budgets include a change for the opportunity cost on capital invested in the variable cost. Thos change covers the time period between expenditure of the capital and harvest when the income is or can be received.
            In this example an average time period of 6 months is assumed and a 10 percent opportunity cost is changed on the N 129 of variable costs for 6 months which amounts to N6.45. The estimated total variable cost is N 135.45, making the income above variable cost equals N140.55.
            The fixed cost in a crop enterprise budget are those associated with Machinery plus a change for Land use. Machinery fixed cost include those discussed in the cost concept, but they must be prorated to the specific crop enterprise on a per acre basis the amount of machinery fixed cost will depend on the size, age, and number of machines used in producing the crop as well the tillage practices used. Those costs are often difficult to estimate unless all machinery work is hired on a custom basis.
            The Land change is the opportunity cost of land and represent a return for it’s use in crop production. There methods can be used to determine a land change.
(I)        an interest opportunity cost based on the current value of the Land; (ii)       the owner’s rental income from a typical crop share lease, or (iii)  a typical cash rent change. In the first method, the land change would be the opportunity cost of capital times the current land value. For eg; 10 percent times a land of N1,500 per acre would result in annual land change of N150 per acre. The share rental method would include the value of the owner’s share of the crop less any crop production expenses paid by the owner.

            Most crop enterprise budgets base the land change on one of the above rental methods for several reasons. First, it is the appropriate charge production. Second is a chilly being rented for crop the rental income represents the land is owned, the only feasible alternative to an owner’s operator is to someone else.
            Another reason is related the rapid increase in land values in recent years and the psychology of land ownership. A land change based on the actual opportunity cost of capital and current land value results in a land charge considerably higher than on an investment in land. This indicates people own land for reason other receiving a high current return on their investment. Examples would be personal satisfaction and prestige pride of ownership, and anticipation of continued inflation in land value.

            Interpreting Enterprise Budget:-
The enterprise budget for corn production presented in the table 1 shows an estimated profit of N4.55 per acre above all costs. However, this may not be the maximum profit possible from an acre of the any enterprise budget represents only one point on a production function. For example, changing the fertilizer level would change its cost, the yield, total income and therefore the expected profit. Strictly speaking, there is an enterprise budget for every point on a production function; so as budget does not automatically determine the profit-maximizing input levels. This should be done prior to completing the enterprise budget, with the resulting input levels then used to complete the budget.
            The estimated profit can be compared against the estimated per acre profit for ot6her crops and used to select the more profitable crops and crop combination to be grow each year. However, the profit figures must be properly interpreted, as they are the return or profit above all cost including opportunity cost on owned inputs.
            If review the figures in the table 1. again we will notice that there is a change for al purchased inputs as well as an opportunity cost on capital used for variable costs, a N4 an hour change on all labor whether hired or operator labour, opportunity cost on the investment in machinery, and a land charge. The estimated N4.55 per acre profit is a time return above all costs and might be thought of as a “pure” profit. Viewed another way, any enterprise budget with an estimated profit of zero is not as bad as it might seem at first. All labor required on the enterprise would be earning an hourly rated equal to the budgeted rate and all required capital would be earning it’s opportunity cost.
            The enterprise budget in Table 1 is typical in that there is  charge for all inputs used with one exception; there is no charge for management. Therefore, another interpretation of the estimated profit is to consider it a return to management or payment for the management input. Some budget formats use Return to management instead of Estimated profit to label the last time.
            Break-even Analysis:- Enterprise budgets can be used to perform a breakeven analysis for either prices or yields. The formula for calculating the breakeven yield is
Break-even yield= total costs
                              Output price.
This is the yield necessary to just cover all costs at a given output price. For the example in Table 1. it would be N271.45 :- N2.30, or 118.0 bushels per acre. Since the output price is only an estimate of the expected price. The break-even yield can be calculated for a range of possible price as shown below.
Price per bushel N
Break-even yield, bushels
The break-even pri9ce, or the price necessary to cover all cost at a given yield level, can be found from the equation.
            Break-even price=   total cost
                                                Expected yield.
Continuing with the same example, the break-even price would be N271.45 :- 120 bushels, or N2.26 per bushel. The break-even price can laso be calculated for a range of possible prices as shown bellow:-
Yield, bushels
Break-even price N
Since both the yield and output price in an enterprise budget are estimated rather than actual values, the calculation of break-even yields and price can aid managerial decision making. By studding the various combinations of break-even price and yields, managers can form their own expectations about the probability of obtaining a price and yield combination which would just cover total costs. Notice that break-even price and yields can also be calculated based on total variable costs. The results can help make the type of decision discussed in cost concept on whether to produce or not in order to minimize losses in the short run.

            Cost of Production: cost of production is a term used to describe the average cost of producing one unit of a given product. It is equivalent to the concept of average total cost discussed cost concept, provided that the same cost and yield are used to calculate each. The cost of production concept is becoming important for several reasons. Including the setting of price support level for government FARMER programs.
            The estimated cost of production is found by dividing the total cost per acre by the estimated yield for the example in the table 1, the cost of production for corn would be N271.45 divided by 120 bushels, or an estimated N2.26 per bushel. Notice that the cost of production is the same as the break-even price. As with the break-even price, the costs of production will change not only with changes in the estimated cost but with changes in yield while cost of production is becoming a widely used concept, any value is only as good as the cost and yield estimates used in the computations. Because of many difference in costs and yields, the actual cost of production for any crop is likely to be different between FARMERs, countries, regions, and states.

Livestock enterprise Budget:-
Budgets for livestock enterprise follow the same general format as crop budgets but are often more difficult to complete. First, there is the problem of accounting for multiple outputs such as calves and cull Cows for a beef cow enterprise: Milk, Calves, and cull cows for a dairy enterprise: and Lambs, wool, and cull ewes for Sheep enterprise for the cost of raising or purchasing replacement animals to maintain a breeding heard over time, and thirdly is the problem of the valuation of FARMER-raised feed fed to the animals. The latter problem is particularly difficult in the case of pasture and crop residues, which may have little or no value if not used by livestock.

                        THE PARTIAL BUDGET CONCEPT
            Partial budgeting is a procedure where receipts and expenses which increase with a change in organization or procedures are listed in a systematic order. It is a process to allow a total FARMER budget to be fine- turned. It focuses on the analysis of a defined change to see if it improves the total FARMER budget; a partial budget is used to calculate the expected change in profit for a proposed change in the FARMER business. It differs from an enterprise budget in that several enterprises might be involved in the change, but a partial budget is not suitable for preparing a plan for the whole FARMER. Partial budgeting is therefore intermediate in scope between enterprise budgeting and whole FARMER planning. It is useful to think of partial budgeting as a type of marginal analysis, as it is best adapted to analyzing relatively small changes in the whole FARMER plan.
            A partial budget contains only those income and expense items which will change if the proposed modification in the FARMER plan is implemented. Only the changes in the income and expenses are included and not the total values. The final result is an estimate of the gain or loss  in profit. To make this estimate, a partial budget systematically organizes the answers to four questions relating to the proposed change:
1.         What new additional cost will be incurred?
2.         What current income will be lost or reduced?
3          What new or additional income will be received?
4.         What current cost will be reduced or eliminated?
            The first two questions identify changes which will reduce profit by either increasing cost or reducing income. Similarly, the last two question identify factors, which will increase profit by generating additional income or lowering cost.
            The steps in constructing a partial budget are:
1.         State the proposed alternative or change there will be analyzed.
2.         Collect data on all aspects of the business that will be affected by the change.
3.         Classify or group the types of impacts that will occur by including expenses increased or reduced and receipts increased or reduced.
            The partial budget concept is based on fact that a change in the organization of the business will have one or more of the following effects:-

            Positive Economic Effects
-           The change will eliminate or reduce some costs.
-           The change will increase returns.
            Negative Economic Effects:-
-           The change will cause some additional costs
-           The change will eliminate or reduce some returns.
            The net change between positive and negative economic effects is an estimate of the net effect of making the proposed change in the total FARMER budget. A positive net change indicates a potential increase in income and a negative net change indicates a potential reduction in income due to the proposed change.
            A partial budget can be used to analyze a long – run change such as buying or renting an additional 160 acres or a short run change such as altering the crop rotation for 1 year in response to weather or price changes. Changes in the FARMER plan or organization adapted to analysis by use of a partial budget are of three general types.
1.         Enterprise substitution:- This includes a complete or partial substitution of one enterprise for another. Examples could include substituting 80 acres of soybeans for 80 acres of corn, substituting alfalfa for all the current barley production, or replacing the beet cow herd with a stocker steer enterprise.
2.         Input substitution or level: change s involving the substitution of one input for another or the total amount of input to be used are easily analyzed with a partial budget. Example would include subsisting machinery for labor by purchasing larger machinery, changes in livestock feed rations, owning harvesting equipment instead of hiring a custom operator, and increasing or decreasesing fertilize or chemical usage.
3.         Size or scale of operation. Included in this category would be changes in total size of the FARMER business or in the size of a single enterprise. Buying or renting additional land. Purchasing additional beef cows, or expanding the swine enterprise would be examples.
            These three types of changes are not mutually exclusive, as many single proposal might include a combination of two or more.

The partial budget format
Table 2 format for partial budgeting
Partial budget
Proposed change
Additional cost(&)                           Additional income(&)
Reduced income(&)                                    Reduced costs (&)
A total annual additional costs      B Total annual additional income
and reduced income                                    and reduced costs
a widely used format for partial budgeting is shown in table 2 other forms with a slightly different organizational are also used, but all contain four basic headings to organize the information relating to the four questions presented in the last section.
-           Additional costs: a proposed change may cause additional costs because of a new or expanded enterprise requiring the purchase of additional inputs, or a new input will be purchased as a substitute for another. Any additional fixed costs should be included as well as additional variable costs. If the proposed change requires the purchase of new machinery, buildings, land or breeding livestock, there will be additional fixed costs. These should be  average annual values: so depreciation should be computed using the straight-line method. Opportunity cost on any new capital investment should also be included as an additional fixed cost.
-           Reduced income: income may be reduced if the proposed change would eliminate an enterprise, reduce the size of an enter praise, or cause a reduction in yield or production levels. Proper estimation of reduced income requires careful attention to estimating average yields. Production levels or changes in these value as well as output prices.
-           Additional income: a proposed change may cause an increase in total FARMER income, if a new enterprise is being added. If an enterprise is being expanded, or it the change will cause yields or production levels to increase. As with all parts of a partial budget only the additional income expected as a result of the proposed  change is listed under this section and not the total income. Accurate estimates of output prices and yields are important for completing this section, as they were for estimating reduced income.
-           Reduced costs: both fixed and variable costs may be reduced by the proposed change. The fixed costs of depreciation and interest or opportunity cost on the investment will be reduced if the change results in eliminating or reducing the investment in machinery, equipment, buildings, breeding livestock, or land. In addition, variable costs will be reduced if an enterprise is eliminated or reduced in size or there is some change in a production technique or method which decreases the need for variable inputs. The reduced costs associated with lower labor requirements must be carefully evaluated costs will be reduced only if less total labor is hired and the total cost of labor decreases. When all labor is provided by he manager and full time employees, the total labor cost will remain the same unless one less employee is needed. Often proposed changes which reduce labor need by several hundred hours per years do not actually reduce labor costs because the full-time labor force is unchanged. However, if the labor released by the proposed change can be profitably used in another enterprise, any additional income generated should be included as additional income in the analysis example of partial budgeting.

Table 3: partial budget wheat graze out versus harvest for grain
Situation: should I leave stoker on wheat pasture for 60 days rather than remove stockers and combine wheat.
Additional cost’

Additional returns

Interest on investment
Addition vet, feed etc
Steers: 760 1bsx1.54/1b. &1,216.60

Reduced returns
Steers: 640ibs.x 1.61/1b
Reduced cost harvesting
&.21/1+(N0.21/bu.x 15)
Wheat sales:
35bu.x$7.50 ibu
&0.22x35 bu/acre

Total annual additional cost and reduced returns
Total annual additional returns and reduced costs

Net change in income(B-A) $ -55.45

Budgets (whole-FARMER, enterprise and partial are management tools to help evaluate the FARMER business. Each type of budget has a different but related purpose and should because by managers accordingly. Whole FARMER budget becomes a starting point that can be used to analyze the FARMER business over time. Enterprise budgets can be used to  analyze components of the FARMER business and also be a building block for the whole FARMER. One  a whole FARMER budget has been developed, a partial budget can be valuable in evaluating changes to the total FARMER budget. Each type of budget offers useful information to support management decisions.

FARMER management
Planning, control and implementation Ronald d. Kay
Texas A & M university
International students edition
Copy right© 1981
Exclusive rights by McGraw-hill Book company Japan, Ltd. For manufacture and export. 2nd printing 1983.

Agricultural finance and management S. subba reddy’
P. Raghu Ram
Oxford & INH publishing co. PVT
Ltd New Delhi
© 1996, s. subba Reddy and P. Raghu Ram.

Oklahoma cooperative extension services fact sheets AGEC-139
Oklahma state university
Damona doye
Regents professor and Extension economist
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