This chapter is reviewed under the following sub-headings: conceptual framework of students’ unrest, review of empirical study, causes of student unrest, effect of student unrest, ways of controlling students’ unrest and summary of literature reviewed.

2.1       Conceptual Framework of Students Unrest 
            Conceptual framework according to Longman Dictionary (1995) is a formal based on idea. Also an idea about what something is like, or general understanding of something. It is a process in which some one forms a plan or idea. Conceptual framework of students’ unrest has to do with ideas on how students unrest come to be originated or started. 
            Student unrest is as old as the school itself (Spit, 1999), He hold the view that students have been demanding for one thing or the other at any particular point of their demands are not accomplished the students will try to react negatively against the authorities. In his own view, Aguene (1999) noted that students’ unrest can only take place when the school authorities does not meet with the demands of the students in the school when their reaction is violent, it give rise to unrest in the school. According to him, students’ reactions and demonstrations had resulted to so many other things lime, destruction of live and properties in the schools; it has also disrupted the academic programme of the school where there is no peace.


            In 1960, in the United State of America, a particular student demonstration as they felt increased oppressed in realizing that their University was becoming synonymous with frustration dependency in decision an fear lived in a value vacuum Omm, (1998), the demonstration claimed lives and properties and many were wounded.
            Aguene (1999), have also noted that schools in Nigeria have laso witnessed serious students unrest, the continued that in the year 1993 about 50 female students of girls secondary school Marhurdi were ejected from their hotels for demonstrating in the mused over alleged invasion of their privacy by the male security guards at their school.
            In 1993, according to Olumoju (1994) report that in Edo State, the students of Boys’ High Secondary School demonstrated over the conciliation of June 12 election. He further said that the students became hostile to the teachers who came with ion to their hostels to conduct a research for multi dress banned in the school which made the students to grow annoyed in the school Onum (1993) pointed out that the students of St. Augustine Grammer School Nkwere in Imo State attacked and assaulted with dagger and broken bottles on the students of St. Catharine Secondary School Nkwere on the family reason that the girls sang a song that St. Augustine School did not like.
            Colfero (1994), interviewed group of secondary school students in Russia and got this remark, “we don’t like the representative of democratic society, we do not know what kind of society we would replace them with but they must be destroyed, so we must go through the experience of revolution. He observed that students are therefore challenging the whole fabric of the present society that tries to cover them, they do not limit their demand to a few or minor reforms but call for radical transformation.
            Thomas (1998:4), stated that the centre point of the old ways are not good enough by “just talking and listening will not do the job, today students wants actions. He said that traditional extra curriculum programme will not staidly students. Benevolence will fall short, today students want a piece of power to change the old system.
            Austin (2000) observed that students’ unrest has originated from the villages, the communities to schools. According to him, some cases of unrest is head on the attitude a child inherited from their villages, communities down to schools as transfer of aggression, which is a very dangerous of unrest because the life of the child is hardly to predict.
            Amdi (1992) stated that students’ unrest in our secondary school are as a result of poor home upbringing. He said that any parents who defined their children’s fault rather learning up with the teacher to correct the student are the major factors in high rate of students’ unrest in secondary school today.
            Spiff and Yakassai 91997) have the same view that students’ unrest is motivated from outside, sometimes by the politicians who meets students especially those whom power is given. The say, “that students crises has anterior motivates and interior motives and has more than they meet the age”.
            Kpdelinye (1998) commented that, increase in the rate of students unrest is related to increase in school population and the society to which the students belong the uphold the view that the school will achieve very little in character training if students come of it from different home and village where floating of authority, moral laity and even criminal activities were the order of the day. This is to say that children who are not given proper home training could go length causing unfavourable situation in the school ranging from building to the highest criminal activities like murder cases according to Kodetinye.
            I Harant (1987), warned that “ a teacher who is training to teach without inspiring the child with the desire to learn is hammering on a cold iron”.
            In the researcher’s observation, he discovered most teachers in Kumbotso Local Government Area do not prepare their lesson very well before entering the classroom for their lesson. Some of them uses half of the period for irrelevant story telling that are not even in connection with the topic he has prepared. Harant holds the view that some of the causes of students unrest is mostly caused by some tutors who many items want to teach and read word to word from the textbook or even use lecture method to teach students who are not due for it, without considering individual differences.         
            Abiodum (1990) view that some teachers in secondary schools uses their positions to intimidate the female students into submission for sex relationship. He further explained that eh teacher may be friend the female students and have indecent acts with them while some visit the female students and have indecent acts with them, while some visit the female dometires at odd hours, some male students and male teachers struggle over the female students notices that teachers are interested in having immoral act according to Abiodum, there will be no respect for the teacher even in some secondary schools the male students confront the teacher openly. The non-challant attitude on the part of the male teachers resulting to students’ unrest.
            Anderson and Dyke 91994) posited that “because students are not allowed to provide their own code of conduct as this will supplement the school code of conducts which they always acted out violently in protest, they cited some examples of such code of conduct like “because it is my right to have free speech, assembly, press and religions.
            Olumogu (1991) in his graded essay proved that insufficient food and accommodation leads to students unrest. He said that students are not given accommodation by some of the secondary school authorities after they paid for it and food equally. And at times they will accommodate 4,5 to 6 students in one room and some of these improper arrangement for the student result to students’ unrest, Ikegu (1997) suggest that students’ unrest in our secondary school is caused by had planning and poor administration by the principal through lack of youth leadership style devoid of social and handicapped communication techniques. He further point out the administrative techniques if skillful charmed to the night forget most of the improper behaviours and violent demonstrations in the schools, parent, Government accused the principals for their inability to manage the available resources like libraries, laboratory. Equipments supplied to schools rotting a way under the sun and rain without being put into proper use. He further explained that most at times, books sent to schools for students used are find in personal libraries of the principals of school and lead to students’ unrest.
            According to Nunss (1993) ‘frequent violent behaviour incidents were not just a matter of erring students but a matter of poor interaction between staff and students”. He observed that it is true that some teachers, instead of helping students to learn by assignment or by giving them good moral up bringing and no impact or correction is made by them. This has often show their aggressiveness or annoyance through violent behaviours against the teachers.
            Fredona (1996) complained on the mood through which the existing government and private schools in Nigeria. He further observed that this had become a very big problems in Nigeria because schools no longer follow the school curriculum in teaching regards to area to be covered in a team or in a semester. They rather devised a means of making money by introducing extra moral class or normal teaching period and made it compulsory to the students.
            With the researchers observation based on the above points from different author about students’ unrest, I believed that the students’ primary aim in entering into secondary schools or colleges is to pursuers in order to qualify for gainful employment and tries to block or frustrate the attainment of them students from the foregoing. It seems that various researchers have been carried out on the cause if students’ unrest as highlighted above.
            The researchers still observed that these causes revolved around the administrator and ministry of education who failed to proved the facilities to the schools, the principals and staff and finally, on the students themselves principal style of administration as regards decision making management of available learning materials and seeking more adequate infrastructure like laboratories, libraries, classroom and sport facilities.
            In addition, not much attention had been paid to adequate teaching by teacher and staff, students relationship. It is in view of this that the researchers more into this area of study to find out whether the above factors are some of likely causes of students’ unrest in Kumbotso Local Government Area.

2.2       Review of Empirical Studies      
            Oremi and Ogbuka (1995) researched on the effects of students’ unrest on the academic performance of students’ in Igbenidion local Government Area in Edo State.
            Their findings are:-      
(a)              That teachers are not available to teach at when due,
(b)              The students depend on the teachers as their source of knowledge 
(c)              That there was total indiscipline in the school.
(d)              That student in Igbenidion Local Government Area cannot think independently to solve problem.
All the findings of the study Kumbotso Local Government Area in Kaduna State.
      Onum (1998) studies on the proper management of available resources in waying students unrest in Khana Local Government Area in River State.
His finding includes:-
(1)              There were communication gap between the teachers and the students.
(2)              There were inadequate provision of food items in the schools.
(3)              Not involvement of students in decision making in the school bringing about students’ unrest.
(4)              In disciplinary attitude of the school, management is the cause of students unrest, maltreatment and ignorance of staff of principal advise generate hatred and criticism among students.
Abiodum (1989), in his book titled, a youth and the society revealed that students unrest in secondary school should be solved if the followings:-
(a)              Eradication of Tmproper exploitation of students by collecting unnecessary levies.
(b)              That the principal, teachers and non-academic staff should be friendly to the students while executing their jobs.
(c)                  The government and interested private persons should come to aid in providing social infrastructure in the schools
In the same view, he researchers are of the opinion that what happen in Khana Local Government Area of Riser State should be taken care of by Kaduna State Government in Kumbotso Local Government Area.
The research is focused to find out if any other bases apart from above mentioned ones and solution to put abrupt to students’ unrest in secondary school in Kumbotso Local Government Area in Kaduna State.

2.3       Causes of Student Unrest
Students’ unrest is caused as a result of disagreement between the student and the authorities, it could be between the students and the teachers; students and the principals of the different schools and the staff (Abiodum0, he further noted the vital factors that cause students’ unrest in school include the following:
Exploitation of students    
            Negative attitude from the principal, teacher to the students’ inadequate facilities in the schools,
Lack of proper management in schools.
Lack if democratic leadership in some principals and teachers among others.

A.        Exploitation of the Student      
            Exploitation in its dictionary meaning is taking an advantage over someone, unfair treatment in order to get money. According to Abiodum (1992), students even without considering the conditions of the students or their parents who send them to school.
B.        Negative attitude from the principals, teachers to students:     
            Petesa (1992), noted that this is when the principals, teacher instead of seeing the students as their own children, they rather see them as children of others and in this course have no feeling for this children by teaching them anyhow. When this happens the students may decided to turn against the principals use to develop love affection with some male students who turn against the male students as the case may be. This as a matter of fact leads to students’ unrest.

C.        Inadequate Facilities    
            Abievo (2001) out that in inadequate facility in the school is one of the vital instruments of students’ unrest. Take for instance a school where there is no library, laboratory, games equipments dormitory, light, water among other can cause students unrest. The students’ device a means of letting the authority know the lack in the school in order that it will be provided for them they seek redress to the government by a way of demonstration which could lead to cost of lives destruction of properties, among other according to Augustine (1992).
D.        Security of the Students;
            To secure is to keep safe, to protect something security of the students very important by the principal, teaches as the major role to the students. Mike (1994) noted that insecurity of the school, it could be among students, among students and community or among students and the teacher, authorities which might affects government activities. He further explain that government spent so much on the issue of security of make some that lives of her citizen safe that is why they employ security guard in the school. Various principals, administrator, teachers should imbibe the spirit of saving lives of their students because it could lead to serious problem in he school.
E.        Lack of Proper Management    
            Tayor (2000) noted that management should be governed by science developed from each operation, which cookers should be selected and trained for proper actualization of the objectives. Taylor’s idea of separating planning from performance has facilitated. He further explained that management be plan. Taylor observed that most workers should be dong and do another thing and this invariably lead to wrong management. He went further to say that lack of proper management in the school administrative work always cause a very big problem between teacher and the principal, or between the vice-chancellors and the lecturers and the students and the school authorities. These problems lead to students unrest in schools.
            Neal (1994), lead to proper management means doing the right thing at the wrong time and imitating a particular idea wrongly to where it is not suppose to be used; He equally said that some teaches and some school administrative manage wrongly even to the students’ tot eh extend that some teachers and principals doesn’t consider individuals differences while teaching. This is because some teachers are not been trained in the filed and that is why they had managed and administered wrongly. He said that, it is the common problems that students of a particular school used to have with their authority which if not handled carefully, it will become a very big problems between the students’ and the school authorities and this lead to students’ unrest in the school.
            The University of Ibadan had a serious demonstration for inadequate management of their school which they were complaining to their schools authority and nothing was done about the situation. This is because there was no new infrastructure in the school and the students were not properly taking care of due of the poor management of the school. And there was nothing the students could do than to riot in the school (Idowu 1986).

F.         Lack of Democratic Leadership in School:                         
            Democratic leadership in an organization means a system of fair and equal treatment of every one in an organization and their right to take part in making decision.
            Lack of democratic leadership in secondary school is a very serious problems to the look not. This is a situation where the teacher, principal as a leader are autocratic n nature whereby they doesn’t create room for interaction between the students and the teachers or the principals (Ngwo 1995), He noted that, this had been a problem between the students and the schools authorities, either in the university level or at the secondary level, mostly when a particular decision is been made without the consent of the students representatives whom they elected as their leaders. In such situations, students normally demonstrate against the authorities.
            Teris (1998), Students’ unrest “has cause more harm to the society when the society failed to acknowledge the presence or the interest of the students in the society. He point out, that why there is students union government in the university who represent the interest in many decision making of the university which without them, there would be continuous problem in the educational system in the university level. This is also applicable in the secondary school when lack of senior project of the school.
2.4       Effects of Students’ Unrest  
            Akpan (2002) pointed out that the leadership potential of tomorrow are modeled in the school environment and if our younger should be taken to street in violent demonstrative it means that the future of our great nation is black. Again, he said that if the nation is to grow generation to another, the incidence of students’ unrest in secondary schools has to be brought to minimal level.
            Olumoju (1996), in his own view that students are deprived the opportunity of receiving instruction under peaceful atmosphere and production of good result which is the aim of controlling into school. He continued that principals, teacher will find it very difficult to have a smooth running of the school management and uninterrupted instructions. Government and parent cannot justify the high amount of money they spent in school so many students loose their lives during students’ unrest in school, many school properties are been destroyed in the school.
            According to Fatiregun (1992) he reported that in University of Ife in 1981, four students were killed and properties worth millions of naira were destroyed during students demonstration over the retirement of three lecturers in the school. He explained that students’ unrest disrupt students academic programmes.
            Nwogu (1992), hold the view that students’ unrest have resulted to the destruction of laboratories libraries even turning down the school building beyond repair which is likely to affect many people even the academic programme of the school. He pointed one that the current mood of unrest and dissatisfaction on the part of students particularly for educations if properly utilized, it could be a firm foundation for the new kind of school system.
            In all he said that the focus of dealing with school rebellion should not just be how to deal with school students activities, but how to use the opportunity offered by the situation to affect fundamental and meaningful changes in the character of educational system.

2.5       Ways of Controlling Students’ Unrest            
Auston (2000) in his own view noted that government have provided a conducive atmosphere in schools which would enable the students to learn with the view of getting result which will justify the huge expenditure on the students education from their parent and government. According to Auston , he says that following the condition government gave to public school, any school involved in causing unrest in schools should be sacked.
            He equally mentioned that government have provided a conducive teaching and learning conditions which could enable them maintain educational objectives for her citizens and that is why education is taken a lion share in the national budget every year. There is the need to justify this huge expenditure through good possible the learning atmosphere is devoid of any unrest in secondary school even beyond the level. No wonder Nuns (1993) pointed out that government in 1986 recommended the teaching of Agricultural Science in secondary school even tertiary institutions for facilitate for supply in the school and entire society.
            Also that food tutor should be formed in school with staff and students as member. He also said that school prefects should be the representative of students in decision-making. Equally, the principals should be given the power to discipline staff if the need be. Guidance service should be introduced in secondary school to reduce aggressiveness, the tendency towards delinquency behaviour and reduce unrest in secondary schools.
            Nunss , equally said that students should be allowed to participate in all the issues deliberated in school that could cause unrest in schools.

2.6       Summary of Literature Reviewed   
            Finally the conceptual framework of students unrest had been clearly stated above which has to do with agreement and disagreement among two parties, students’ unrest is said to have started right from the family where there is disagreement between the children and their parents, this care application schools when there is misunderstanding or disagreement between the teachers, principals and students, it leads to unrest. This is common to every universities but the limitation in only in the secondary schools, in Kumbotso Local Government Area. Over exploitative measure on the students, undesirable attitude of school authorities and the teachers towards the students.
Ask of democratic leadership in some principals and teacher among others.
There are numerous effects of students’ unrest on academic performance of the students are, poor grades of result, examination malpractices and drop out school among others.
Some of the ways of controlling students unrest in school include: adequate management of the available facilities, which the government provided for the schools, for the schools.
Disciplinary measure should be taken by the government against the schools among other.
The literature concludes by reviewing studies, which were carried out on the effects of students’ unrest on the academic performance of students, and proper management of the school and students’ unrest. There is no work yet, to the researcher’s knowledge on analysis of students’ unrest, causes, effects, and control in secondary school in Kumbotso Local Government Area of Kaduna State. It is the existence of this gap that led to this study, and upon this background, there is need for this study to fill the gap.


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