It is imperative that we understand the concept of National Development in the course of this study. Because of the need for the understanding of the meaning of National Development, it becomes a necessity that we ask the first question.

What is Development?
            Authors and academics have defined development subjectively, objectively and relatively. But for the purpose of this study, we shall note those definitions that are relevant to our course of study.

First of all let us observe the dictionary meaning of development.
            Development (noun)
1.         The action of developing or the state of being developed
2.         A new product or idea      
3.         A new stage in a changing situation
4.         An area with new buildings on it 43.
            From the four definitions the dictionary offered us, it is apparent that none suffices for a working definition in this study.
            In the academically coherent words of Ogai Joseph O., ‘the term development as used in the contemporary since can be viewed as a three dimensional concept44.  These three dimensions he describes as:-
(i)        “Utilitarian or consummatory dimension, which connotes increase   in the quantity of usable items or goals available to man in society.
(ii)       Behavioural or relational dimension which defines the nature of the relationship existing among societies and
(iii)     Institutional and structural dimension of development which defines the institutional and legal framework which circumscribes the behaviours of men and streamlines their relationship which they individually, and collectively seek to gain greater access to material things of value in society. From the fore going as Ogai posits, it is comprehensible that he divides development into economic, social and legal dimensions.

            Rodney states; “development in the past has always meant the increase in the ability to guard the independence of the social group and indeed to infringe upon the freedom of others-something that often came about irrespective of the will of the persons within the society involved”.45

The above definition given by Rodney (like he implies) seems barbaric, atavistic and redundant. As if he knew what we have in mind, Rodney in another paragraph of his book states; “more often than not the term development is used in an exclusive economic sense the justification being that the type of economy is itself an index of other   
social features”.
            However, in a wholesome but concise definition, Rodney states;  
Development in human society is a many –sided processes. At the level of the individual, it implies increase skill and capacity, greater freedom, creativity, self-discipline, responsibility and material well being. A society develops economically as its member increase jointly their capacity for
dealing with the environment. This capacity for dealing with environment is dependent on the extent to which they understand the laws of nature (science) on the extent of which they put that understanding into practice by devising tools (technology) and on the manner in which work is organized. Taking a long term view, it can be said that there has been constant economic development within human society since the origins of men, because man has multiplied enormously his capacity to win a living from nature46.

In O. Oyari, Okereke’s perspective, “development is conceptualized as the qualitative improvement in the living standard of the majority of the people through the provision of economic and social infrastructures like industries, employment, water, electricity, health facilities, good roads, etc47.                                  
            From the above definition, we can come to the deduction that development has to do with increase, upgrade or intensity in the mental process of an individual, living standard of the citizenry, national economy, structure of the legal system or social institutions/organization or relations etc.
            Now, what is national development? The definition of development above will go a long way in helping us define national development.
            According Ogai, Joseph O.48, “National Development is defined as the gradual manifestation of positive changes in the economic, industrial, political, social, cultural and administrative life of country.” This definition serves the purpose of this study. National development must be a development that takes place in a nation. It is the development that affects the citizens, economy, industry, politics, culture and administration of a country.

We shall not dwell so long in this sub-topic but shall forge ahead with other sub-topics in this chapter. What matters most to us is that we have understood the concept of national development.

43 Compact Oxford English Dictionary for students Edited by Catherine Soaves with Sara Hawker, (Oxford University Press)
44 Ogai, Joseph O. an Analysis of the concepts of Development and underdevelopment in “Communication National Development” edited by Onyeka Uwakwe (2nd edition cecta Books 2007)      
45 Rodney W, “How Europe Underdeveloped Africa”. (London bo, le L’ ouverture Publications 1972)    
46 Ibid pg 3
47 Okereke, O.O., Introduction to “Development Administration in Nigeria” (Published in 1999 by concave Publishers, Owerri) as edited by Okereke O. O.     
48 An Analysis  of the concepts of development and underdevelopment (supra) 
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