Child care services aims to support and strengthen the family and to enhance the physical, intellectual, language, social and emotional development of the children under the age of three years.

Types of services
-              Child care centre, kindergarten, occational child care services, extended hour service, Residential child care services, special child care centre, mutual help child care centre, Neighborhood support child care.

(Social welfare department 2013)                        
The overarching goal of the child welfare services system is to assure the long-term well-being of children, within their families where possible. However, reports, on the conditions of children, youths and families show that an increasing number of families with children live with poverty, violence, racism and substance abuse in communities that provide few resource to support them on help them solve complicated problem. Faced with these conditions, many families need a broad array of services and supports to help them negotiate the challenges of family life and care adequately for their children.
Family support services: are intended for families who are coping with the normal stresses of parenting to provide reassurance, strengthen a family facing child-rearing problems or prevent the occurrence of child maltreatment.
By contrast family preservation services are designed to help families at serious risk or in crisis, and are typically available only to families whose problems have brought them to the attention of child protective services. The major goals of these services are to help reunify families after a child has entered placement by improving parenting skills and providing follow-up services. These services are based on the premise that all families may experience stressful life circumstances and inadequate support as a result of normal life transitions, economic pressures, changing social conditions, the emergence of new social problems, the deterioration of neighborhoods and community ties, limits in social safety net and an increasing numbers of families headed by never married mothers. The programs typically focus on prevention rather than the amelioration of problems and provide a secure and accepting climate to support the growth and development of family members.(McCroskey and meezan 1998)

Community Support
Community support program (CSP) is part of the broader child care services support programme (CCSSP) and provides a range of payments directly to child care service provider with the aim of improving access to child care, especially in areas where the market or services might otherwise be unviable.
(Department of education, employment and work place relation 2012)
Community is made up of families, all kinds of families. A community that supports parents and care for children that looks after families are stronger and better functioning community. It benefits both families and our society when raising children is supported at community level.
            A friendly community is a community that takes responsibilities of families and children well being where children are –
·        Valued as members of society who need care and support.
·        Allowed to play a part by including children in community decision that affects them.
·        Encourage to participate in community activities to express themselves.
·        Protect as much as possible from harm all form of abuse and neglect.
·        Help to reach their potential – with good as a key focus.

Immunization is the induction of immunity against an infectious disease by a means other than experiencing the natural infection. Immunization can be active or passive. Active immunization involves administration of an antigenic substance that then induces development of protective antibodies by the person immunized
Immunization is a simple, safe and effective way of protecting your child and yourself against some diseases that can cause serious illness and sometimes death. And if your child is protected, he won’t be able to pass the infection on the others people. Especially very young babies who haven’t been fully immunized yet. Also some immunizations including rubella immunization helps to protect unborn babies.
Schools and child care agencies, whether public or private shall make an annual report to the commissioner relative to the status of immunization of all enrolled children.
(Boost up programme 2010)
Immunization can be active or passive.
Active immunization involves administration of an antigenic substance that then induces development of protective usually last for years, even for life. Passive immunization refers to temporary immunity resulting from antibodies developed by someone else, either through administration of immune globulin or through the natural transfer across the placenta of antibodies developed by the mother which provide protection to the new born infant. This usually lasts only a few weeks to a few months.
(Encyclopedia of public health)

Reason for immunization:
·                    To keep you and your family health
·                    To keep you and your community health
·                    Protect loved ones from diseases
·                    To stop the spread of disease to most vulnerable population
Because other parents and experts agree that it’s the best you can do to keep your family health.
(Washington state department of health 2012)
Finally, immunization has been among the most successful public health intervention to date. Through appropriate use of vaccines smallpox has been eradicated from earth, poliomyelitis is on the verge of eradication and they have been dramatic reductions in morbidity and mortality due to with many other diseases. (Idaho Department of health and welfare 2011)                 
School and Out of School Time
            The process by which the child gains the knowledge and skills needed to function successfully in adult society is called socialization. Child rearing is therefore a function of all those agencies and situations that affects a child learning process; school, church, peer groups, families, television, motion picture and all other setting that provide educational experience. Social scientist has noted that many families’ functions are being transferred to other agencies, such as nurseries and child care centers. These agencies have taken over the training of child. The primary community institution in the lives of children, schools have much to contribute to plans for addressing the needs of today’s youngsters during the time when class are not being held. In recent years, demands have escalated for after school child care, educational enrichment, and safe havens that also foster positive youth development. Many programmes that respond to these needs are housed in school building. Some are operated by schools, some by community based organizations and others by partnership between schools and outside groups. The school day is not long enough to teach the student all they need to learn. With supportive efforts mounted at the federal, state and local levels, schools today are beginning to respond to this need by partnering with community agencies to open their doors earlier in the morning as well as after school and on evenings, weekends and even summers.
            Working parents seeks child care: educators concerned about student achievement call for an extended school day: and the need for safe havens and positive extracurricular activities is increasing both for young children and teenagers. More and more schools are responding to these needs by housing after school child care, tutoring and recreation efforts in the school buildings.
Indeed, few parents are available to monitor children after school hours, and many worry about leaving their children home alone. Both young children and teens need safe places where they can be protected and supervised. The after school hours are a time when vulnerable middle school and high school youths become involved with sex, drugs and violence.
However, studies indicate that being engaged in extracurricular activities is associated with low rate of involvement with such risky behaviour.
(Dryfoos; 1999)

Crèches are short sessional care or temporary child care arrangements to care things such as shopping trips, conferences or training events. They provide a play area for a small group of childcare whose parents are busy doing other things but are still on the same premises.
(Kent county council 2013)
Crèches are day care centers that provides care to a child during the day by a person other than the child’s legal guardians (us legal, 2001-2013).
Crèche is another name for day care, and it’s usually a facility that operate from early in the morning (sometimes as early as 7. am to late in the evening usually around 6.30pm) crèche may incorporate other types of education such as Montessori classes, but generally, they offer structured educational care for children aged from around four months, until at least school going age.
The crèche is a division of nursery school which can also be called a day care where babies are kept and made to feel secured until their mothers have return to work after their maternity leave (Danbo international nursery school kaduna)
History of Crèche
Crèche and family centre was established in 1909 by a group from the Anglican Church headed by Gertrude Tate and Mary E. Burton. Since the beginning, crèche focused its effort on the early years of childhood. Serving children aged birth to six years and their families.
The agency was founded by a group of who were committed to addressing the growing needs for the care and supervision of young children in working families.
The crèche was one of Toronto’s pioneering day – care centers and played a pivotal role in the early development and formation of child care services. The crèche developed into full services multi-disciplinary agency in the 1970’s providing clinical services and day treatment for young children and incorporating a growing emphasis on family work and community – based service provision. During the 1980’s, the crèche also developed increasing experts in the treatment of childhood sexual abuse. (Anti – poverty and Human Resources development society)
Aims and objective of crèche education;
To take care of the children whose parents go to work leaving them at house
To educate and enlighten the children
Many crèche are sited in shopping and leisure centers with some attached to adult educational centre. Full-time work place nurseries are sometimes called crèche, in which case day nursery vales and standards apply. (Kent county council 2013).
A crèche provides occasion care for children less than eight years of age. Some crèche are in permanent premises such as sports facilities or shopping centre and use of crèche is often timited to parents that are using the facility (survey family information service 2013).
A crèche, day care or nursery a child care centre where babies, toddlers, and young children are cared for in a safe and stimulating surrounding.

Types of crèche; The work place crèche, the private day care, the nursery attached to an independent school and a most popular home – based crèche.
   The size of these crèche can vary in size, the smallest one can have a capacity of less then five children a capacity of les then five children and a large one can sometimes have even more than 50 children.
The ideal ratio of caregiver to baby on a crèche is one to three, so that a child can get a lot of individual attention. Some crèches operate a system where each child also has his own key worker or care.
(Baby centre 2013)
Based of the question which says should crèche be made compulsory yes or no Justify your response. To me it should not be made compulsory because the country we are is a low less society and most of them values money more than the life future of an individual. Again we are good in making laws but we find it difficult to implement.
Baby centre (2013) noted that it is unfortunate that government has little control or no regulation over unregistered private crèche, often home crèche lacks even the basic infrastructural and service required to facilitate food care.
Adeola (2012) noted that at master ville crèche Lagos a Nine month old child died as a result of overdose of diazepam mixture given to the child.                  
           Finally, crèche should not be made compulsory in other to avoid waist of life and talents since the majority of teachers are not trained and the environment is not stimulating.    


Adeola B (2012) mystery surrounds death of infant in lays crèches: punch mobile, November, 12.    
Anti poverty and human resource development society (APHRD) www.aphardindia.org/crechehtml.
Kent county council (2013) survey county council
Survey family information service (2013) survey county council – crèches permalik:hhttp://www.surveycc.gov.uk
U.S Legal, INC (2001 – 2013) Crèche, education, law and legal
Boost up program (2010) immunization and children’s physical health.
Department of education, employment and workplace relation (2012) go to support for child care services: deenr. gov. au/support -child-care-ser………..
Dryfoos . J. G (1999) the role of the school in children’s out-of-school time, New York; the future of children.
Encyclopedia of public health, immunization facts, information, pictures. Encyclopedia com.
Idaho Department of health and welfare (2011) child care immunization requirements www.health&welfare.idaho.gov/heal.....
Jacquelyn McCroskey and William Meezan (1998) family – centered services: Approaches and effectiveness New York; the future of children.
Social welfare department (2013) child care service description, Hong Kong: the government of the Hongkong.
Washington state Department of health (2012) immunization and children profile, Washington, www.doh.wa.gov/../immunization.aspx

Children right (2013) too many children are trapped in foster care www.childrenrights.org>home>issves+Resources>Fostercare
Committee on early childhood, Adoption and dependent care (2000),
developmental issue for young children foster care.
Debord. K. (2012) the effects of divorce on children, North Carolina, North Carolina cooperative extension services
Gibert et al; (2009) effect of child abuse and neglect for children and Adolescent Australian institute of family.
Nemours foundation (1995-2013) foster families
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