3.1       Source of Raw Material
Palm kernel oil was obtained from fermented and boiled palm fruits for the two samples, it was obtained from the palm fruits after the processing of fermented and boiled palm oil from the fruits. in food processing laboratory of Ebonyi State University Abakaliki.

3.2   Sample Preparation
Palm kernel processing starts with the shelling of the palm nuts, after sundry 2 to 3 days. the shelling was performed using two stone to crack each nut and separating the kernel from shell simultaneously. 1,200g of each sample both the fermented and boiled palm kernel was measured in the food science and technology chemistry laboratory of Ebonyi State University Abakaliki using metler balance model (p 121). The weighed samples was crushed at meat market in Abakaliki Capital Tertiary. The sample was crushed to small particles to easy the oil extraction .The crushed samples was soaked in 60ml of n-hexane concentration for 24hours.


Flow Chart Process of Palm Kernel Oil Extraction
raw materials (palm kernel)




filtering palm kernel cake

oil in n-hexane (mixture)

pour into soxlet apparatus

heat at 70oc (using heating mantle)

raw palm kernel oil recovered


3.3  Method of Oil Extraction
            Soxhlet method of oil extraction was used to extract the oil .the oil extracted will be subjected to the following analysis.
(1)              saponification value
(2)              iodine value
(3)              peroxide value
(4)              free fatty acid (FFA)
(5)              moisture content
(6)              melting point
(7)              freezing point                                                                                  

3.4       Determination of Moisture Content
The hot oven method NAFDAC (1982) was used in the determination. Porcelain   dish was thoroughly washed and dried in the oven after which it was allowed to cool in the disccator about 5g of the homogenous sample was weighed into previously weighed dish and placed in a thermostatic well ventilated oven maintained at 105c for 3hours. at the end of the time, the dish was quickly transferred into disccator and allowed to cool to room temperature . The weight of the dish and sample was recorded. During and after cooling was repeated at hour interval until a constant weight was obtained. The percentage moisture content was calculated from the weight loss of sample.

% moisture content =                      W2-W3            X         100
W2-W1                                                 1

W1       =          initial weight of empty crucible.
W2       =          weight of crucible and oil sample before drying.
W3       =          final weight o crucible and oil sample after drying.

3.4.1   Acid Value Determination
            The method described by Onwuka(2005) will be used 1g of the oil will be weighted and poured into (250ml) conical flask. 25ml ethanol and 1ml phenolphthalein, will be added and the mixture carefully neutralized with 0.1N Noah to change to a pink colour and point. The acid value will be calculated as:
Acid value     =                     Titer (xml) x 5.61
                                                Weight of sample used------------------------2

3.4.2   Iodine Value Determination
            The method described by Onwuka (2005) will be used. One grams of the oil weighed using a meter balance will be poured in to a 250ml conical flask and 10ml of water added. The resultant mixture will be titrated with 0.1m thiosulphate (Na2 SO4) solution using 1% starch as an indicator. A blank will be carried out without the oil. The iodine value will be calculated as:
Iodine value  =                            (b-a) x 1.269
                                                Weight of sample used        ----------------------3
Where b         =          titer value of blank
          a                        =          titer value of the sample

3.4.3   Specification Value Determination
            The method described by Onwuka (2005) will be used, two grams of the oil will be weighed into a conical flask and 25ml ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution added to it. A reflux condenser will be attached to the conical flask after which the flask content will be headed in boiling water for 1 hour with frequent shaking. About 1ml phenolphthalein (1%) solution will be added and solution then titrated when hot with excess alkali. A blank will also be carried out without addition of extracted oil.
 Specification value =                (b-a) x28.05)
                                                Wt (g) of sample used
                                                Where b     =       blank liter value
                                                            a   =         sample liter value

3.4.4   Determination of Peroxide Value
            The method described by Pearson (1976) will be used to determined the peroxide value of the palm oil.1g of the oil sample extracted will be weighed in to a clean conical flask followed by 1g of powdered potassium iodide and 10ml of the solvent mixture (2 volume glacial acetic acid and 1 volume chloroform i.e 3.1) the conical flask will be placed on a boiling water bath to boil the mixture vigorously for a time not exceeding 30 seconds; 20ml of potassium iodide solution (5%) will be added and the mixture titrated with 0.002n sodium thiosulphate using (1%) starch as an indicator. Peroxide value is given by
peroxide value                      =          (b-a) Nx100
                                                weight of the sample            -----------------5
                                    where  b         =          titer value of blank
                                                 a         =          titer value of the sample
3.4.5   Melting Point
            Described how this will determine. Palm oil sample (some) will be placed in a curable or beaker and frozen in a refrigerator. After this a thermometer will inserted into the frozen oil.  Beaker containing oil and thermometer will placed in hot water bath to warm. Temperature at which the oil start melting and completely melt will be recorded as the melting point range.

3.4.6   Freezing Point
            Fatty mill litter of the oil sample will poured into crucible dish. Hen crucible dish and be place in a refrigerator. The temperature at which the oil samples being to freeze will be noted as the freezing point of the oil.

3.5 Statistical Data
            The data generated from study will be subjected to analysis of variance (ANOV) at 5% degree of significance and the mean shall be separated using turkey test, (Okprie, 2006). 
Share on Google Plus


The publications and/or documents on this website are provided for general information purposes only. Your use of any of these sample documents is subjected to your own decision NB: Join our Social Media Network on Google Plus | Facebook | Twitter | Linkedin