Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.[1] Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution.

The objective of the project is to improve urban living conditions with regard to environmental health, sanitation, drainage, water, street and security lighting, vehicular access, and solid waste management in a sustainable manner, with special emphasis on the poor people. The project is aimed at reducing the frequency, severity, and duration of flooding in the targeted areas and increasing the amount of refuse collected and disposed of in an environmentally sustainable manner.

Activities aimed at improving or maintaining the standard of basic environmental conditions affecting the well-being of people. These conditions include (1) clean and safe water supply, (2) clean and safe ambient air, (3) efficient and safe animal, human, and industrial waste disposal, (4) protection of food from biological and chemical contaminants, and (5) adequate housing in clean and safe surroundings. Also called environmental hygiene.

The essential components of Environmental Sanitation include:
i) Solid waste management;
ii) Medical waste management;
iii) Excreta and sewage management;
iv) Food sanitation;
v) Sanitary inspection of premises;
vi) Market and abattoir sanitation;
vii) Adequate potable water supply;
viii) School sanitation;
ix) Pest and vector control;
x) Management of urban drainage;
xi) Control of reared and stray animals;
xii) Disposal of the dead (man and animals);
xiii) Weed and Vegetation Control;
xiv) Hygiene education and promotion.

Many constraints and problems, ranging from socio-cultural, economic and management problems hinder effective Environmental Sanitation practices in Nigeria. Some of these constraints include:
3.1. Lack of clear policy assigning responsibilities for Environmental Sanitation within the levels of Government;
3.2. Poor perception of Environmental Sanitation as an essential service and a major determinant of health and good standard of living;
3.3. Inappropriate institutional framework;
3.4. Duplication of responsibility by many Stakeholders in the sector;
3.5. Weak and poorly enforced Public Health Laws, State Laws and Bye-laws;
3.6. Lack of adequate professional manpower especially at the State and LGA levels;
3.7. Inadequate research activities;
3.8. Inadequate Environmental Sanitation education and awareness;
3.9. Inadequate allocation of resources for Environmental Sanitation services;
3.10. Inadequate sensitisation and mobilisation of communities in planning, designing and decision-making on Environmental Sanitation matters;
3.11. Inadequate sensitisation and mobilisation of the private sector in the delivery of Environmental Sanitation services;
3.12. Inadequate participation of Stakeholders in project planning and implementation;
3.13. Low literacy level.

Air pollution produced by ships may alter clouds, affecting global temperatures.
Air pollution comes from both natural and human-made (anthropogenic) sources. However, globally human-made pollutants from combustion, construction, mining, agriculture and warfare are increasingly significant in the air pollution equation.[10]
Motor vehicle emissions are one of the leading causes of air pollution. China, United States, Russia, India[14] Mexico, and Japan are the world leaders in air pollution emissions. Principal stationary pollution sources include chemical plants, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries,[15] petrochemical plants, nuclear waste disposal activity, incinerators, large livestock farms (dairy cows, pigs, poultry, etc.), PVC factories, metals production factories, plastics factories, and other heavy industry. Agricultural air pollution comes from contemporary practices which include clear felling and burning of natural vegetation as well as spraying of pesticides and herbicides[16]
About 400 million metric tons of hazardous wastes are generated each year.[17] The United States alone produces about 250 million metric tons.[18] Americans constitute less than 5% of the world's population, but produce roughly 25% of the world’s CO2,[19] and generate approximately 30% of world’s waste.[20][21] In 2007, China has overtaken the United States as the world's biggest producer of CO2,[22] while still far behind based on per capita pollution - ranked 78th among the world's nations.[23]
In February 2007, a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), representing the work of 2,500 scientists, economists, and policymakers from more than 120 countries, said that humans have been the primary cause of global warming since 1950. Humans have ways to cut greenhouse gas emissions and avoid the consequences of global warming, a major climate report concluded. But to change the climate, the transition from fossil fuels like coal and oil needs to occur within decades, according to the final report this year from the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).[24]
Some of the more common soil contaminants are chlorinated hydrocarbons (CFH), heavy metals (such as chromium, cadmium–found in rechargeable batteries, and lead–found in lead paint, aviation fuel and still in some countries, gasoline), MTBE, zinc, arsenic and benzene. In 2001 a series of press reports culminating in a book called Fateful Harvest unveiled a widespread practice of recycling industrial byproducts into fertilizer, resulting in the contamination of the soil with various metals. Ordinary municipal landfills are the source of many chemical substances entering the soil environment (and often groundwater), emanating from the wide variety of refuse accepted, especially substances illegally discarded there, or from pre-1970 landfills that may have been subject to little control in the U.S. or EU. There have also been some unusual releases of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, commonly called dioxins for simplicity, such as TCDD.[25]
Pollution can also be the consequence of a natural disaster. For example, hurricanes often involve water contamination from sewage, and petrochemical spills from ruptured boats or automobiles. Larger scale and environmental damage is not uncommon when coastal oil rigs or refineries are involved. Some sources of pollution, such as nuclear power plants or oil tankers, can produce widespread and potentially hazardous releases when accidents occur.
In the case of noise pollution the dominant source class is the motor vehicle, producing about ninety percent of all unwanted noise worldwide.

The term pollution refers to the act of contaminating ones environment by introducing certain hazardous contaminants that disturb the ecosystem and directly or indirectly affect the living organisms of that ecosystem. Pollution in general is the activity of disturbing the natural system and balance of an environment.

The increase in the pollution over the years by man has caused severe damage to the earth’s ecosystem. It is responsible for global warming which is leading to the end if all the lives on earth. Over the years there is an extreme increase in the rate of human diseases, and death rate of various animals and plants on earth, and that is all because of the pollution caused by man himself.
There are many types of pollution, but four of them have the most perilous affect on our lives. Following are the four most dangerous types of pollutions and their causes:

Air pollution is perhaps the most common and the most dangerous type of pollution. It involves the direct release of chemicals into the environment. The chemicals then become the part of the air around us that all the living things take in. The increase in the rate of diseases such as asthma and lung cancer today is due to the increase in the air pollution around us. Air pollution is also a cause of global warming and acid rain.

Basically the air pollution is caused by the burning of fuel that directly releases hazardous chemicals into the air. For example the burning of coal releases sulphur dioxide, a poisonous gas which is responsible for acid rain. The sources of such chemicals are the large factories, smoke from the vehicles, chimneys and burning of wood.

The effects of global warming are playing havoc everywhere - higher temperatures, hurricanes, heavy rains, flooding and droughts have now become more frequent and severe in intensity.

Soil pollution involves the contamination of soil by the release of harmful substances into the soil. Unlike air pollution, which has a direct affect on human lives, soil pollution causes an indirect damage to humans and other animals. The lives of all the living things depend on three sources: water, light and soil. The plants which are the producers of the food chain take up their nutrients, which are essential for their living, from the soil.

Drying Lakes Due To Global Warming
Lakes Dried Or Drying Up

Lakes are fresh water bodies that are enclosed by land from all sides. They are considered to be a short-term water body, and may dry up with changing environmental conditions.
The nutrients taken by the plants are then transferred to the consumers that depend on these plants.  Hence a soil consisting of contaminants will not only affect the plants growing on the soil but it will also indirectly harm the entire food chain.

Soil pollution is mainly caused by the release of industrial waste. This waste is directly incorporated into the soil by large industries and factories. Soil pollution is also caused by human acts as mining and deforestation etc.

The 75% of the earth’s surface is covered with water and more that half of the total population of earth’s species resides in water. Moreover, our life greatly depends on water and life without water is impossible. Water pollution not only affects the fish and animals living in the water but also affects the whole food chain by also transferring the contaminants to the consumers depending on these animals.

    The increase of human population over the centuries has caused not one but many damage to Earth. The increase in human population leads directly to the increase in their demand which in turn leads to animal extinction. Water used from a polluted lake directly contaminates its user. Many of the water creatures are on the verge of extinction due to the dramatic increase in the water pollution.

Just like air and soil pollution, water pollution is caused by the direct incorporation of hazardous pollutants. The sources of these pollutants are yet again the large industries and factories that dispose off their waste in lakes and ponds.

Unlike other the above mentioned types of pollutions does not involve hazardous chemicals or their incorporation into the environment, rather noise pollution is the increase in the rate of noise in the environment. Noise is defined as an unpleasant sound that has an adverse affect on the human ear.
Noise can be extremely dangerous. And it is all around us. It penetrates into human mind and controls it.
Too much noise leads to severe psychological illness and badly affects the behavior. It leads to hypertension, stress, aggression and annoyance. Moreover, it causes depression and forgetfulness.

Noise pollution is caused by the moving vehicles, man made machines and loud music. Other than that noise can be caused by anything, but these three sources are the main reasons for the noise pollution around us.

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