Overview of main health effects on humans from some common types of pollution.[26][27][28]
 Adverse air quality can kill many organisms including humans. Ozone pollution can cause respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, throat inflammation, chest pain, and congestion. Water pollution causes approximately 14,000 deaths per day, mostly due to contamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries. 

An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indian children die of diarrhea every day.[29] Nearly 500 million Chinese lack access to safe drinking water.[30] 656,000 people die prematurely each year in China because of air pollution. In India, air pollution is believed to cause 527,700 fatalities a year.[31] Studies have estimated that the number of people killed annually in the US could be over 50,000.[32]

Oil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes. Noise pollution induces hearing loss, high blood pressure, stress, and sleep disturbance. Mercury has been linked to developmental deficits in children and neurologic symptoms. Older people are majorly exposed to diseases induced by air pollution. Those with heart or lung disorders are under additional risk. Children and infants are also at serious risk. Lead and other heavy metals have been shown to cause neurological problems. Chemical and radioactive substances can cause cancer and as well as birth defects.

Pollution has been found to be present widely in the environment. There are a number of effects of this:
     Biomagnification describes situations where toxins (such as heavy metals) may pass through trophic levels, becoming exponentially more concentrated in the process.
     Carbon dioxide emissions cause ocean acidification, the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans as CO2 becomes dissolved.
     The emission of greenhouse gases leads to global warming which affects ecosystems in many ways.
     Invasive species can out compete native species and reduce biodiversity. Invasive plants can contribute debris and biomolecules (allelopathy) that can alter soil and chemical compositions of an environment, often reducing native species competitiveness.
     Nitrogen oxides are removed from the air by rain and fertilise land which can change the species composition of ecosystems.
     Smog and haze can reduce the amount of sunlight received by plants to carry out photosynthesis and leads to the production of tropospheric ozone which damages plants.
     Soil can become infertile and unsuitable for plants. This will affect other organisms in the food web.
     Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can cause acid rain which lowers the pH value of soil.

The Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP)[33] at the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) maintains a comprehensive toxicology and environmental health web site that includes access to resources produced by TEHIP and by other government agencies and organizations. This web site includes links to databases, bibliographies, tutorials, and other scientific and consumer-oriented resources. TEHIP also is responsible for the Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET)[34] an integrated system of toxicology and environmental health databases that are available free of charge on the web.

TOXMAP is a Geographic Information System (GIS) that is part of TOXNET. TOXMAP uses maps of the United States to help users visually explore data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory and Superfund Basic Research Programs.

Main article: Regulation and monitoring of pollution
To protect the environment from the adverse effects of pollution, many nations worldwide have enacted legislation to regulate various types of pollution as well as to mitigate the adverse effects of pollution.

Pollution control is a term used in environmental management. It means the control of emissions and effluents into air, water or soil. Without pollution control, the waste products from consumption, heating, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation and other human activities, whether they accumulate or disperse, will degrade the environment. In the hierarchy of controls, pollution prevention and waste minimization are more desirable than pollution control. In the field of land development, low impact development is a similar technique for the prevention of urban runoff.

·        recycling
·        reusing
·        Waste minimisation
·        mitigating
·        preventing
·        compost

·        Dust collection systems
Electrostatic precipitators

·        Scrubbers
Baffle spray scrubber
Cyclonic spray scrubber
Ejector venturi scrubber
Mechanically aided scrubber
Spray tower
Wet scrubber

·        Sewage treatment
Sedimentation (Primary treatment)
Activated sludge biotreaters (Secondary treatment; also used for industrial wastewater)
Aerated lagoons
Constructed wetlands (also used for urban runoff)

·        Industrial wastewater treatment
API oil-water separators[15][35]
Dissolved air flotation (DAF)
Powdered activated carbon treatment

·        Vapor recovery systems
·        Phytoremediation
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