RIGHTS OF A PRISONER ACCORDING TO THE LAWS OF A COUNTRY

RIGHTS OF A PRISONER          
1.                 Right to healthy environment.
2.                 Right to bail.
3.                 Right to basic needs of life such as food, water and shelter
4.                 Rights to have interviews with one's lawyer
5.                 Right to free legal services
6.                 Right to emergency and reasonable health care
7.                 Right to information about prison rules

8.                 Right to speedy trial
9.                 Right against arbitrary use of handcuffs and fetters
10.             Right to visits and access by family members of prisoners
11.             Right to air grievances and to effective remedy
12.             Rights of women prisoners
13.             Right to be lodged appropriately based on proper classification
14.             Rights of young prisoners to be separated from adult prisoners
15.             Right against torture, cruel and degrading punishments
16.             Right in the context  of employment of prisoners and to prison wages
17.             Right to protection against being forced into sexual activities
18.             Right to rehabilitation and reformative programmes.
19.             Right to write letters to family and friends and to receive letters, magazines, newspaper etc.
20.             Right to evoke the writ of habeas corpus against prison authorities for excesses
21.             Right against being detained for more than the period of sentence imposed by court
22.             Right not to be punished with solitary confinement for a prison offence.
23.             Right against arbitrary prison punishment.
24.             Right to be compensated for violation of human rights.
25.             Right to personal liberty
26.             Right to proper accommodation.
27.             Right to proper clothing
28.             Right against stigmatization especially mentally ill prisoners.
29.             Right to conjugate though not constitutional
30.             Freedom of speech


LEGAL INSTRUMENTS ON THE PROTECTION OF PRISONERS
INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS                                                   
1.        Basic principles for the protection of prisoners (UNPTP,1990)
2.        Declaration of basic principles of justice for victims of crime and abuse of power (UNVCAP,1985}
3.        United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules,1985)
4.        Convention Against Torture (UNCAT,1984)
5.        Standard Minimum Rules for The Treatment of Prisoners (OHCHR,1955)
6.        United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for Non-custodial Measures (The Tokyo Rules,1990)
7.        Declaration on the Protection of all persons from Enforced Disappearance. General Assembly Resolution 47/133 (UNDPPED,1992)
8.        Body of Principles for the Protection of  All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment. (Principles of Detention,1988)
9.        Principles of Medical Ethics relevant to the Role of Health Personnel, Particularly Physicians, in the Protection of Prisoners and Detainees against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhumane Or Degrading Treatment or Punishments (UN Medical Ethics,1982)

REGIONAL INSTRUMENT
1.                 African Charter On Human And Peoples Rights.

NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS.
1.         The 1999 Constitution of The Federal Republic of Nigeria (as Amended).
2.         Prisons Act 1990.

DOS AND DON'TS IN PRISONS
1.                Don't bring a camera: cameras are not allowed in the prison yard except on grounds of specific permission.
2.                Don't hug prisoners: don't give the prison authorities any reason to think you are doing anything against the rules like hugging. A warm handshake is preferable.
3.                Don't go into prison if you are younger than the required age.
4.                Don't take anything in or out of prison without approval.
5.                Don't ask why a person is or has been in prison.
6.                Don't enter into any business interactions with prisoners.
7.                Do dress properly.
8.                Do be prepared to handle flirting and romantic advances.
9.                Be trustworthy when someone shares with you personal and confidential information.
10.           Do stay together as a group.
11.           Be a good listener because prisoners need someone who would listen to them.
12.           Try as much as possible to encourage and give them hope.
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