Nigeria undertook modes of transmission modeling in 2009 the joint united nations program on aids (UNAIDS) mode of transmission model was undertaken by the National country team, with support from UNAIDS and the world bank, and was built on the world bank epidemiology and response synthesis project in Nigeria, the model estimates the distribution of new infections and identifies populations and highest risk for HIV infection. The mode shows that high-risk groups will significantly contribute to new HIV infections. 

These high risk groups are about 1% of the general population, and are men that have sex with men, female sex workers and injecting drug users. They will contribute almost 23% of no infections (UNAIDS, 2009). However, people practicing low-risk sex in the general population will contribute 42% of the infections due to low condom use and high sexual networking (UNAIDS, 2009)

Sexual route:
The majority of HIV infections are acquired through unprotected sexual relation having vaginal or anal sex without a condom with someone who is infected. Heterosexual spread of HIV is increasing and promises to become the dominant mode of transmission. In many African counties, sex with multiple partners, traumatic sex, anal sex, all increases the risk of sexual HIV transmission.

Blood Transfusion:
HIV transmission through unsafe blood accounts for the second largest source of HIV infection in Nigeria (Egesie J. and Egesie E, 2011). Not all Nigerian hospitals have the technology to effectively screen blood and therefore there is a risk of using contaminated blood. The Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health have responded by backing legislation that requires hospitals to only use blood from the National Blood transfusion services, which has far more advantaged blood-screening technology (Nigeria Exchange, 2008). It is also of concern for person receiving medical care in regions where there is prevalent substandard hygiene in the use of injection equipments, such as the reuse of needles in third world countries. (Reeves and Doms; 2002)   

Mother to child transmission:
The third most important mode of HIV spread is from mother to infant. The transmission from mother to child varies from 13% to 40% in untreated women Infact can become infected in uteri during birth process or more commonly through breast feeding. In the absence of breastfeeding, about 30% of infections occur uteri and 70% during delivery. Data indicate infection in Africa is due to breastfeeding (Bell 1997). High material viral loads are risk factors for viral transmission (Jawetz et al; 2007, Nester et al; 2007). HIV has been found at low concentration in saliva, tears and urine of infected individuals, but there are no recorded cases of infection by these secretions and the potentials risk of transmission is negligible (Bell, 1997).
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