AIDS was discovered first in the united states in 1980s as a new disease entity in homosexual men: 20 years later, AIDS has become a world wide epidemic that continues to expand (Nester et al; 2004). As of January 2006, the Joint united nations programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the world health organization (WHO) estimate that AIDS has killed more than 25 million people since it was first recognized on December 1981, making it one of the most destructive pandemics in recorded history. In 2005, AIDS claimed an estimated 3.3 million lives, of which more than, 570,000 were children. It is now estimated that about 0.6% of the world’s living population is infected with HIV (Jawetz; 2007, Nester; 2004).
In 2010, an estimated 48, 079 adults and adolescent were diagnosed with HIV infection; of these 79% of diagnoses among males and 21% were among females. HIV has remained localized primarily to West Africa ((Jawetz et al; 2007, Nester et al; 2007).

            Nigeria has the second highest number of people living with HIV in the world after South Africa. (UNAIDS, 2009) UNAIDS estimated 33.4 million people living with HIV in 2008 in the world. Nigeria, with about 2.98 million people living with HIV, makes about 9% of the global HIV burden. However, there is gender inequality in the distribution with males accounting for 1.23million and female accounting for 1.72 million in the HIV estimates and projections for 2008. Women are more affected in the defining Feature of the epidemic with policy implications for prevention of mother to child transmission. Hence, addressing gender inequality is crucial in the control of the epidemic. Nigeria recorded the first case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1986. Heterosexual sex remains the primary mode of transmission for HIV and accounts for 80 – 95% of HIV infections in Nigeria. Tracking the course of HIV epidemic in Nigeria requires good reporting and surveillance system. Thus, Nigeria through the Federal Ministry of Health instituted regular surveillance system using clinical-based and population-based surveys to monitor the epidemic. This is needed to obtain reliable information about HIV prevalence and behaviors associated with HIV epidemic in relation to temporal changes, geographic distribution, magnitude, and mode of transmission. Furthermore, this surveillance system provides opportunities to monitor trend in prevalence, create awareness about early response, inform priority setting for new interventions and measure the effectiveness of public health interventions in the control of the epidemic. (Ainsworth M, Teokul W, 2000).
The federal Ministry of Health and National Commission with support from NACA and other relevant stakeholders conducts four main surveys namely:
-           National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey Plus (NARHS Plus)- This is a population based survey that estimates HIV prevalence and obtains information on the associated factors in addition, it provides information on the sexual and reproductive health status in the country it is usually conducted every two years. (Jhap, et al., 20012).
-           HIV/STI Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Survey (IBBSS)- This survey is targeted at the most at risk populations whose behaviors or occupations often place them at higher risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including HIV. It estimates HIV prevalence among the most at risk populations and provides information on drivers of the epidemic among these groups. It is usually conducted every two years. (Federal Ministry of Health, 2001).
-           Antenatal Care Survey- This is a clinic based sentinel survey to estimate HIV prevalence among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic. It is conducted every two to three years. (Federal Ministry of Health, 2004).
-           Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) – it is a nationally representative survey. Prior to 2008 survey, the last one was in 2003. It is conducted by National Population Commission with international support. HIV epidemic rose from 1.8% in 1991 and peaked at 5.8% in 2001. It is currently at 4.6% in 2008 antenatal survey. Figure 1 below shows a rapid rise in HIV prevalence in the sentinel surveys carried out from 1991 to 2001 (1.8% in 1991 to 4.5% in 1996 and then to 5.8% in 2001). Subsequently, the trend reversed and took a downward turn from 5.8% in 2001 to 5% in 2003 and then to 4.4% in 2005.
            Although a slight increase was observed in HIV prevalence from 4.4% in 2005 to 4.6% in 2008. However, in each of the sentinel survey there were significant variations in the different states of the federation.
Share on Google Plus


The publications and/or documents on this website are provided for general information purposes only. Your use of any of these sample documents is subjected to your own decision NB: Join our Social Media Network on Google Plus | Facebook | Twitter | Linkedin