Medecins Sans Frontierers, MSF, known in English as doctors without borders is a secular humanitarian aid nongovernmental organization best known for its projects in war-town regions and developing countries facing endemic disease. MSF was created in 1971 by a small group of French doctors during the Nigeria civil war. These group of doctors believed that all people have the right to medical come regardless of race, religion, used or political affiliation and that the needs of these people supersedes respect for national bamdaries. The organization is known in most of the world by its French name or simply on MSF. But in the US, Canada, Australia and Ireland, it is often called by its English name. Doctors without Borders.

The headquarter of the MSF is located in Geneva was the international council meets to co-ordinated its international activities. It has five associate structures where operational decision are made. The five operational centres are in Amsterdam, Barcelona, Brussels, Geneva and Paris. As at 2007, MSF has operations in over to countries involving 26,000 personnel mostly doctors, nurses and other medical professional, logistical experts, water and sanitation engineers and administrators. Private  donors provide 80% if its finding while governments and corporate donations provide the resh giving MSF and annual budget of approximately $400 million dollars31.
The organization actively provides health care and medical training to populations in more than 60 countries zones such as Chechnya and Kosovo. Only once in its history, during the 1994 Rwanda Genocide, has the organization called for military intervention. MSF remain independent of any political, religion or economic powders. This, it feels, millguarantee its ability to speak and act freely. In 1999, the MSF received the Nobel Prize in recognition of its members’ continuous effort to provide medical care in acute crisis, ability to work under very critical conditions. Following the El Salvadorian earth quake of 186, the group set up equipment to provide clean water for the population of San Salvador. In 1979, MSF set up a mission in Southern to help civilians affected by starvation in the civil war. Despite persecution in Sudan (two volunteers were killed when their plane was shot down) MSF has maintained relief efforts in Sudan for 25 years. MSF has kept faith in its Sudanese efforts in the face of constant fighting, civilian Massacres, famine, drought, poor sanitation and out breaks of tuberculosis, ebola, hepatitis E, polio, cholera and malaria. In carrying out its activities, MSF has always appealed for help from the media.
In 1990, MSF entered Liberia to help civilians and refuges affected by the civil war. MSF provided basic health care, nutrition and mass vaccination for war victims and also spoke out against attacks on hospitals and feeding station especially in Monorovica. MSF also set up field missions in Somalia in 1992 at the beginning of the country’s troubles a year earlier. In 1993, following the failure of the UN intervention force, the organization once again spoke out by denouncing the shoddy performance of the UN force. Despite UN withdrawal, MSF remained behind and continued to run clinics and hospitals. In 1993, MSF began work in Srebrenica as part of a UN convoy, but was forced to leave the area in 1995 as a result of the capture of the town by Bosnian Serb Army.
When the Rwandan genocide began in 1994, some MSF delegates working in the country were incorporated into the ICRC medical team for protection purposes. Both groups succeeded in keeping all main hospitals in Kigali open throughout the period of the genocide. In the Rwanda mission. MSF’s policy of not keeping mute in the face of atrocities was greatly tasked. Forcing it to closer to ICRC’s position of neutrality in the discharge of its humanitarian functions. A good number of both ICRC and MSF local staff were lost in the Rwandan conflict. This situation once again forced the MSF to demonic the atrocities going on in Rwanda and in called for the intervention of French troop to stop the genocide.
MSF was a signatory to the code of condition of the international Red Cross and Red Crescent movement and NGOs in disaster relief programs which was created in 1994 to provide a framework for humanitarian missions. The code advocates the provision of humanitarian aid only and groups are urged not to serve any political or foreign governments and agencies. Despite this agreement, MSF denounced the Taliban neglect of health care for women in 1997 and condemned the actions of government in Chechnya and Kosovo in 1999.
In the late 1990s, MSF missions were set up to treat tuberculosis and anaemia among the residents of the Area sea area and to look after civilians affected by drugs-resistant diseases, famine and epidemics of cholera and aids. MSF vaccinated 3 million Nigerians against meningitis during an epidemic in 1996.
In 1997, MSF carried out massive operations in Sierra Leone which was involved in a civil war. Volunteers were deployed to assist in surgeries in a huge number of amputee cases of residents, raping women, gunning down families, razing homes and forcing survivors to flee their homes33. MSF also engaged in collecting statistics on civilians and providing for victims. In Haiti, Columbia, Albania and Kashmir, MSF has contributed aid and medical services to relieve the sufferings in those areas.
MSF water engineers and volunteers have helped in creating sources of water, digging new wells, modifying existing ones carrying out water treatment exercises, sedimentation, filtration and chlorination activities MSF missions engage in sanitation education of local medical staff and inhabitants especially in areas of sterilization technology, water treatment, waste water treatment, proper waste disposal and personal hygiene.

Dangers confronting volunteers:
1.         Volunteers as persistently and death, associated with stray bullets, mines and epidemic diseases and the general volatile nature of conflict areas.
2.         MSF volunteers are sometimes deliberately targeted and attacked or killed by combatants and at times are kidnapped for political reasons or for ransom.
3.         In some countries engaged in civil wars each side view aid workers as helping or collaborating with the other side.
4.         The war on terror has also compromised the flight of aid workers. Since the US claim that its military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan we “humanitarian actions”, automatically aligning the activities of aid workers with their own, this has placed aid worker at great risk. Independent aid organizations have been forced to defend their positions of neutrality or simply evaluate their teams.

            Oxfam is a confederation of 14 organizations working with over 3,000 partners in about 100 countries to provide solution to the problems of poverty and injustice ravaging the world.
            Oxfam was founded in oxford in 1942 as oxford committee for famine relief by social activities and academics wit a mission to persuade the British government to allow food relief through the allied blockade for the starving citizens of axis occupied  Greece. The first oversea Oxfam was founded in 1963 and the committee changed its name in 1965.
Historical background; The original oxford committee was a small group of concerned citizens whose sole aim was to provide relief for war victims in Greece by 1960, it had become a major international non-governmental aid organization, with branches all over the world. The largest of the Oxfam international family is Oxfam GB (great Britain).
            The early 1970’s marked a period of growth for the organization. It began its one programming overseas in Africa, latin American and the carribean. It also established a network of staff to support its work. Oxfam began to analyses its role in the development process. It started moving from a traditional model of charity towards long-term development programming, working with communities to effect lasting positive impacts on the lives of people. Oxfam runs deeply involved in the international movement against apartheid in south Africa and central American solidarity movement in the 1970’s and 1980’s. in the 1990s Oxfam became a major advocacy organization, mobilizing pubic support for effecting changes in the  policies that perpetuate poverty. Today, Oxfam works with over 100 partners organizations in developing countries, tackling issues of poverty and inequality and helping people to create self-reliant and sustainable communities.
            Oxfam main focus-Oxfam programme has 3 main points of focus, these are;
1.         Development work: Which tries to lift communities out of poverty with long term sustainable solutions based on the needs of these respective communities. Development at grass root level have proved more result-oriented since there tends to impact more positively on the hires of rural drivellers.
2.         Humanitarian work: This has to do with assisting those immediately affected by conflict and natural disasters with a view on long term development work especially in the field of clean water and sanitation.
3.         Lobbying in terms of advocacy and popular campaigning with a view to affecting decisions on the causes of conflict at local, national and international levels.
            Oxfam works on trade justice, fair trade, education, debt and aid, livelihoods, health, Hiv/Aids, gender equality, conflict, arms trade, treaties, natural disasters, democracy, human rights and climate change. These are vital areas of human interval in the last 50 years or more.
            Oxfam has numerous shops all over the world, which sell fair trade items. The first Oxfam charity shop was opened in 1948. the proceeds from these shop are paid to different charities or are used to further Oxfam relief efforts around the world. Oxfam stock originally came form public donation but is currently based on products form developing countries in Africa, Asia and south American including handcrafts, books, music CDS and instruments, clothing, toys food and ethnic creation. These objects are brought to the public thought fair trade to help boost the quality of life of  their producers and surrounding communities.
Fund Raising: Oxfam has a number of successful fund raising channels in addition to its shops, many people all over the world make regular financial contributions towards its work. Substantial amount of money are also received from gifts left to the organization in peoples wills. London marathon competitions are organized to raise money for Oxfam.

1.         Accused of interfering in international trade matters by seeking the blockade of trade applications from some countries.
2.       Accused of not maintaining the requisite political neutrality but instead getting too close to some governments and politicians.
3.         Accused of having a corporate style outlook. Oxfam is also held to be undemocratic in its internal structure.
4.         Critics believe that Oxfam activities merely address the symptoms rather than tackling the real causes of international poverty especially by acquiescing to neo-liberal economics and even taking over roles conventionally filled by national governments.
5.         Accused of aggressively expanding its gift shops and other business using tactics often associated with multinational corporations.
6.         Since 2003, Oxfam’s anti-Israeli positions has never been in doubt and this has produced wide criticisms over its stated neutral political position. Israel have accused Oxfam of “selective normality”. In 2009, Israel declared that Oxfam was aiding Palestinian illegal activities in Gaza and the west bank.

            Green piece is a non government organization with offices in 42 countries. It has international co-ordinating body in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Part of the stated goals of green piece is to “ ensure the ability of the earth to nurture life in all its diversity”. Green piece uses, direct action, lobbying and research to achieve its goals, the global orgainsation does not accept funding from governments, corporations or political parties or relying on its more than 2.8 million supporters and foundation grants.
            Green piece evolved from the peace movements and anti-nuclear protests in Vancouver, British Columbia in the early 1970’s. on September 5,1971, the newly founded “ don’t make a wave committee” sent a ship renamed green piece for the protest from Vancouver to oppose the US testing of nuclear devices in Alaska. The “ don’t make a move committee” later adopted the name green piece. In a few years, green piece spread to several countries and started to campaign on other environmental issues such as commercial whaling and toxic waste. In the late 1970’s, the different regional green piece groups formed green piece international to oversea the goals of the regional organizations globally. Green piece received international attention during the 1980s when the French international agency bombed the rainbow warrior, one of the most well know vessels operated by green piece and killed one person. In the following year, green piece evolved into one of the largest environmental organizations in the world. Today, green piece focuses on world wide issues such as global warming, deforestation, aver-fishing, commercial whaling and nuclear power.
            Green piece is known for its direct action’s and has been described as the most visible environmental organization in the world” green piece campaigns have raised environmental issues to public knowledge and have influenced both the public and private sectors. Green piece has also been a source of controversy. Its motives and methods have received criticism and the organization s direct action have spanked legal actions against it and its activities.
            In its official website the organization defines its mission as follows: green piece is an independent global campaign organization that acts to change attitude and behaviour, to protect and conserve the environment and to promote peace by
1.         Catalysing an energy revolution to address the number one threat facing our planet climate change.
2.         Defending our oceans by challenging wasteful and destructive fishing and creating a global network of marine resources.
3.         Protecting the world’s remaining ancient forests which are depended on by many animals plants and people.
4.       Working for disrobement and peace by reading dependency on finite resources and calling for the elimination of all nuclear weapons.
5.         Creating toxic-free future with safer alternatives to hazardous chemicals in today’s products and manufactured goods.
6.         Sustainable agriculture and food sufficiency by encouraging social and ecologically responsible farming practices.
            Green piece has taken part in UN climate negotiations since 1989 and since 1990 have campaigned for green house has commission reduction through methods such as energy efficiency, renewable energy and stopping of all deforestation activities. Green piece has one of the first parties to formulate a sustainable development scenario for climate change mitigation in 1993. according to Sociologies, Marc Mormonh, and Christine Dasnoy, green piece played a significant role in raising public awareness of global warming in the 1990s. the organization have also focused attention on the ozone layer. Green piece was one of the leading participants advocating early phase out of ozone depleting substances in the montreal protocol.
            In the early 1990s, green piece developed a cfc. Free refrigeration technology “green freeze” for mass production with the refrigeration industry. The united nations environmental programme gave green piece an award for “ outstanding contributions to the protection of the earth’s ozone layer in 1997. in 2007, one third of the world’s total production of refrigerators were based on green piece freeze  technology with over 200 million units now in use.
            Currently, green piece considers global warning to be the greatest environmental problems facing the earth green piece calls for global green home gas commissions to peak in 2015 and to decrease as close to zero as possible by 2050. to achieve thus, green piece calls for the industrialized countries to cut their carbon emissions at least up to 40% by 2020 and to give substantial funding for developing countries to build a sustainable energy capacity, to adopt to the inevitable consequences of global warming and to stop deforestation practices by 2020.
            Green piece has used direct action to protest and occupy power plants and block coal shipments and mining. Green piece also critical towards extracting petroleum from oil sands and have used direct action to block the oil and sand operations in parts of Canada and the United states.
            On the nuclear front, green piece also focuses attention on issues such as environmental damage and risks from uranium mining, nuclear weapons coliferation and the unresolved questions concerning nuclear waste.
Funding: Green piece receives its funding from individual supporters and foundations. Green piece screens all major donations in order to ensure it does not receive unwanted money from unacceptable sources. The organization does not accept money form governments, intergovernmental organizations, political parties or corporations. This policy is aimed at avoiding the influence of these bodies in green piece activities. Donations from foundations which are funded by political parties or governments are rejected. Donations are also rejected if the donor attaches what green piece considers unreasonable conditions or if the donations seeks in any way to improve restrictions or constraints on green piece activities aims or objectives of the organization.

Ship: Since green piece was founded, seasoning ships have played a vital roles in its campaign with the completion of the rainbow III in 2011, the group will have six ocean going ships, as big a fleet as some island nations navies. The original rainbow worship was launched in 1978 these green piece ships engage in direct action against the ocean dumping of toxic and radio active waste as well as nuclear tasting in the pacific.

Reactions/ criticisms:
1.         Several lawsuit have been filed against green piece for lost profits, reputation damage and “sailor managing”.
2.       Some corporations such as Royal Dutch Shell, BP, etc have reacted to green piece campaign by spying on green piece activities and infiltrating their offices.
3.         Green piece activities have been victims of phone tapping, death threats, violence and state terrorium in the case of the rainbow warrior the French government under Francois Mitterrand ordered the bombing of a green piece activities ship.
4.         Green piece has been accrued of political consideration in some of its activities and considerations. Patrick moore, a Canadian ecologist and former green piece member said that the organization now motivated by politics rather than science. He stated that non of his “fellow directions at green piece had any formal science education”.
5.         Green piece have also been accused of financial mismanagement and directing large parts of the organizations funds to personal uses.
6.         Accused of having unofficial agreements with pollution generating companies where the companies paid up to keep them from attacking the company’s image.
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