1.0                                                INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
            Vocational education is among the vital tools an individual can use to be developed. It has played a vital role in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Vocational education is about work and training for useful employment in trade, industries, agriculture, business and home making etc. the emphasis on vocation is to prepare one for self reliance.
            American vocational association (1971) sees vocational subjects as those designed to develop skills, abilities, understanding, attitude, work habit and appreciation compassing knowledge and information needed by any workers to enter and make progress in employment on a useful and productive basis. Vocational education contributes to the production of good citizens by developing their physical, social, civic, cultural and economic competencies.

            One of the goals of the technical and vocational education as documented in the National policy on Education (2004) is to give training and impart the necessary skills to individuals who shall be self-reliant. When this goal is adequately achieved, it would lead to a sustainable technological development. Raymond, (2007). Suggested  vocational education and training should be made interesting by gearing the students towards self reliant to discourage unemployment syndrome. Vocational education is an important part of the education system with one element of increasing employment opportunities it is an essential component of strategies to reduce and prevent child labour. Many children drop out school because they do not see the relevance of education to their lives. In many cases, the decision not to send a child to school is taken by the parent, who would rather have their children enter the workplace as they do not see how learning to read, write, and do sums can help put bread on the table (source). In order to influence the decisions of at – risk children and their parents, education should have a tangible end, particularly in terms of improving future employment prospects. In such circumstances and where older children are concerned, the focus should be on the transition from school to work, either through vocational education or skills training programs.
Vocational subjects are instructions intended to equip person’s for industrial or commercial occupations. It may be obtained formally either in trade Schools, technical secondary schools or in on-the job training programmes or more informally by picking up the necessary skills on the job. Technological development and advancement revolved around a sound vocational education programme as citied by Otuage, Mayes (2010) in (Bulus, 1991) vocational skills in schools is a relative modern development. Akaniwor (1988) observes that the bed rock of any technical break through is the existence of appropriate skills, abilities ad competence both mental and physical as equipment for the individual to live in the society is a dynamic instrument of change. According to Bulus (1991) vocational education involves the acquisition of skills and competences that can help individuals to function productively in industries and commercial occupation.
Self-reliant is one’s own efforts and abilities (Merrian, 2006). When somebody acquires skills in any occupation, such person can establish his or her own business and even employ others. Igweh (2008) such person is self-reliant. Bassey (2009) declared self-reliance as that which pre-supposes the attainment and autonomy without unnecessary resorting to begging or browning. He opined that “a self-reliant individual is one that achieves steady supply of his needs, one that diversifies his resources to reduce dependency on other assistance. Self reliance emphasizes growth development and development in the life of a citizen, politically, socially and economically. Igweh (2008), stressed that the most suitable definition development in terms of reduction in the levels of poverty, illiteracy, and unemployment and income inequality. However, Faladum, Omeogiafor and Ezeaku (1999) in Nwogu (2009) remark that National development compasses social and political development as well as economic development as well as economic development which is defined as the attainment of a number of ideas of modernization such as a rise in productivity social and economic equity improved institution and values”. Economic development is an important part of general development in any society.
The influence of parents in the development of students interest in vocational subjects cannot be over emphasized. This is because parents seem to have much influence on children’s choice of educational career. The socio-economic status of parent of a child determines the type of career one choose to do, some parents have biased and rigid thoughts regarding the occupational choices of a child/children. Parent forget  that every type of work, once it is beneficial to the individual and society, is worthy sign of potential success in students vocational pursuits requires the identification of the students interest aptitudes, abilities, values and judgments, if these will be discovered, it requires a guidance counselor who will give the appropriate occupational information to the student with proper exposition to various opportunities available in the would of work.
It is not surprising that students are not interested in vocational subjects. Osuala (1992) opined that, At the heart of our society and economic problem is a national attitude that implies that vocational subjects are designed for somebody else’s children and is mean primarily for the children of the poor. This same attitude is shared by students. Thus, it makes the students lack interest in the study of vocational subjects particularly Home economics.
The skill that teachers exhibit in teaching influences the student enrolment in vocational subjects. Onwuka, (1981) postulated that the method of approach is very vital in any teaching/learning situation. The way the teacher presents the subject matter to the learner may make a student like or dislike a subject. Nwogwugwu (1989) pointed out the need for blending  theoretical and practical work in teaching of subjects as to stimulate students interest more especially in vocational subjects. No technique, no method, no device, no gadget can guarantee success, but only an effective qualified teacher can adequately execute these Okafor, (1987). Thus the greatest motivating device year discovered is the highly motivated teacher of teacher of students are to be involved actively in teaching and learning process in a way of projects, field trips, directed field activities etc, note learning and subject centered orientation should be changed to a more practical and child centered out-look. The increase in qualities and quantities of outputs should be primarily due to improvement in the quality of the teacher and strategies of teaching and learning adopted.
Statement of Problem
            In spite of the importance of vocational education to the development of both individuals and the society at large, there is not muct emphasis placed on the effective strategies of teaching and learning vocational subjects in Nigeria. The frequent occurrence of low students’ participation in vocational education courses has been a great concern to all-well-meaning individuals, institutions and industries. Despite all efforts made to recognize it, yet little or no attention has been given to it. No meaningful development was made in the area of vocational education Unitial 1981, when the national policy on education was published. Due to total neglect, vocational education suffered a major decline in quality, number, policy and directive in Nigeria.
            Vocational subjects ought to attract many students because of it laudable importance but reverse has been the case. The reasons for this probably due to people’s perception that it does not require specialized kind of training the students have the feeling that even if one is at home the requests skill to cook, farm, etc can be acquired without formal training.
            People are ignorant of the importance of the vocational subjects which could help males and females students receive formation and be able to work solution to problems. Also, it enables the students to acquire skills, abilities essential for independent life meet up with personal and family needs more especially in this economic difficulties.

1.4       Significance of the Study 
            It  is hoped that this study would provide valuable insight to the government, head teachers of secondary schools, teaching and learning approach that will improve vocational education subjects  in Abakaliki L.G.A Ebonyi State. The findings of the study could provide the ministry of Education with data on how secondary school head  teachers  can implement the strategies for improving teaching and learning of vocational subjects. With investigations, the government is likely to be in a position to come up with strategies to improve the managerial skills of head teachers in order to be more effective in teaching and learning of vocational subjects.

1.3       Purpose of the Study.
                        The study meant to investigate the strategies for improving the teaching and learning of vocational subjects in secondary schools in Abakaliki L. G. A. Ebonyi State Nigeria especially to
1.         Determine the influence of students interest towards the study of vocational subjects
2.         Determine the qualify of the vocational subjects and the instructions used.
3.         Ascertain the availability and use of teaching aids in teaching           and learning of vocational subjects.
4.         Identify the student and teacher factors that might inhibit the effective teaching and learning of vocational subjects in secondary schools.

1.5       Research questions.
                        For the purpose of this research, the following research questions are posed.
1.         What are the level of students interest in the study of vocational subjects.
2.         What are the influence of teachers qualification on the attitude o      f vocational subjects.
3.         What are the teaching facilities available for teaching of vocational subjects in secondary school?
4.         What are the factors that might inhibit the effective teaching and leaning of vocational subjects?

1.5       Scope of the study.
      The study is strictely restricted to five secondary schools in Abakaliki urban area of Ebonyi state.

2.1       Concept and Definition of Vocational Subjects
2.1       Vocational training are instructions intended to equip person’s for industrial or commercial occupations. It may be obtained-formally cither in trade schools, technical secondary school or in on-Job training programmers or more informally by pack up the necessary skills on the Job.
            Technological development and advancement evolved ground a sound vocational educational programmed as cited by Otuaga Mayes (2010) in (Bulus 1991:41) vocational skills in schools is relatively modem development.
              Akaniwor (1988: 41) observed that the bed rock of any technical breaker through is the existence of appropriate skill, ability or abilities and competence both mental and physical as equipment for the individual to live in the society is a dynamic instruction of change”?  According to Bulus (1991:30) vocational education involves the acquisition of skills and competences that can be of help to the individual to function productively in industries and commercial occupation. Until the 19th century such education, exept for the professions, was provided only by apprenticeship. This situation was partly due to the low social status associated with such instruction as opposed to a classical curriculum which was considered “necessary for a youth with growth of individualization during the 19th century. However, several European countries, notably Germany, began introducing vocational training in education in great Britain, however, opposition to vocational education persisted into the 20th century.
Although a few trade and junior vocational schools and technique schools were established by local authorities before the world war II by the 19th century, public (common) vocational schools in the united state consisted of manual training and practical arts. These programmers were generally expanded until 1917 when federal aid was provided to public schools for trade and industries, therefore, vocational education, also catted career and technical Education, prepares students for jobs and careers that are based on mostly manual or practical activities.
According to (Okoro, 1993). It has also been explained as the sum total of all educational experiences systematically organized and presented by an institution to enable the learner acquire basic productive and practical skills (Oharisi, 2007) therefore state that vocational subject also called career and technical Education, prepares students for jobs and careers that are based on mostly manual or practical activities. The term does not apply to the development of profession acquired via tertiary institutions. Vocational education is low in theoretical or academic activities and is generally related to related to learning a specific trade or occupation.
Vocational education teaches procedural knowledge for auguring a skill or trade concentrates on research, theory and abstract knowledge. Prior to the Indus trial revolution, the apprenticeship system and the home were the principal sources of vocational education and training. Since the society has been forced by the decline of handwork to develop institutions vocational education. Today, vocational education can be at the secondary or postsecondary level and can make appreciable use of apprenticeship or mentorship. Under the British colonial government, vocational education in Nigeria initially developed independently of the state, with bodies such as the RSA and City & Guilds setting examination and offering certificates in vocation Technical education focuses on specific trade such as automobile repairs or mechanic, welding, plumbing, electrical craftsmanship  or electrician, hair dressing tailoring and barbing etc, and has until recently been associated with the activities of lower social class of people. As a result it attracted a level of stigma in the past.
            However, with economics advancement and the demand for higher levels of productivity and efficiency, the place of vocational subject has become better appreciated. The labour market has become more specialized and nations are demanding higher levels of skills at different levels. Government and businesses are increasingly investing in the future of vocation education through publicly funded training organizations and subsidized apprenticeship (Source) At the post- Secondary level, vocational education is typically provided by polytechnics, institution of technology or trade schools.(Source)
Vocational education has diversified over the 20th century and now exists in industries manufacturing, retail, tourism, information technology, Agriculture, Cosmetics and Cottage industries etc.
According to Igwebuike (2007) these are some vocational fields and their related occupations, in the table below.
Educational field 

Occupation categories Agribusiness, Agric marching food processing, horticulture Distribution and marketing of textiles foods, gore rat merchandize.   

Health Occupation
Nursing, Medical equipment operators, dental assistants, medical records technicians  
Home Economic
Clued care, Clothing service, clearing, Nutrition, home management.
Office occupation
Date Processing, Computer and Office machine operators, book keeping, stenographic services, printing
Technical and Industrial 
Constructor trades, building trades, manifesting mainframe and repines    
Information Technology
Electronic, computer programming, telephony, machine tool design.

            Vocational education has played a vital role in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Vocational education, as documented in the National policy on Education (2004) is to give training and impart the necessary skills to individuals who shed be self reliant.
            Vocational subjects are about work and training for work. Raymond (2007). One of the goals of the vocational Education is to make an individual be self reliant. In this regards It will make vocational education and training an interesting one by gearing the students towards self reliant to discourage unemployment syndrome.
            Self-reliant is one’s own efforts and abilities (Merrian, 2006). When somebody acquires skills in any occupation such person can establish his or her own business and even employ others. Igweh (2008). Such person is self reliant. Bassey (2009). Declared self reliant as that which pre-supposes the attainment and autonomy without unnecessary resorting to begging or browning. Ed that, a self reliant individuals is one that achieve steady supply of his needs, one that diversifies his resources to reduce dependency on other’s assistance “thus, self-reliance emphasizes growth and development and development in the life of the citizens, politically, socially, economically.
            Therefore, a man who is potently self reliant will ensure an effective control of his resources over national life for proper national development. Eg Adanuga of Elo network, a country’s well-being depends on its economic development Nwogu, (2009). Walter Rodwey an economist in igweh (2004). Asserted that development in human society is may sided phenomenon which is complex and means different thinkers, Musa (1985). In his view sees the concept of development  as an European American term through culturally based, used to characterize the relative standard of living of the people between the highly industrialized nations of the north and the consumer impart dependant nation of the south.
            Therefore, secondary schools and higher secondary education are important stages in the system of general education because it is at these points that youth decide on whether to pursue higher education, vocations education or join the workforce.
            Educationist and experts have consistently recommended that education at these stages should be given a vocational bias to link it with be given a vocational bias to link if with the world of employment.
            In Australia, the United Kingdom and Germany training policies are increasingly based on similar general principles. However, in the main implementation of these principles remains specific to each country (National center for vocational Educational Research, 2006). In Australia the recognition of prior learning is available to individuals in the vocation subjects under the Australian quality training framework (Josie Misko, 2006).
            Wikipedia (2010) Explain that in Australia vocational education and training is mostly post-secondary and provided through the vocational educational training (VET) system by registered training organizations. This system encompasses both public and private providers in a national training framework consisting of the vocational subjects.
            In finland, vocational education belongs to secondary education. After the nine-year comprehensive school, almost all students for tertiary choose to go to either a lukio (high school). Which is an institution preparing students for tertiary education, or a vocational school. Vocational education is an important  part of the education system in Australia, Germany, Licabenstein and Switzer land (including the French and the Italian speaking parts of the country) and one element of the Germany model.
            In Hong Kang, vocational subjects and learning vocational education are usually for post-secondary 3,5 and 7 students,
            The Hong Kong institute of vocational Education (IVE) provides training in nine different vocational fields, namely: Applied  science, Business Admin child Education and community services, construction Design and printing, textiles and clothing, Hotel, service and tourism studies, information and technology, engineering and electronic Engineering and mechanical manufacturing and industrial engineering.

            Normally at the end of elementary school (at age 14) students are directed to one of three types of upper secondary education. On academic track and two vocational tracks. Vocational secondary schools provide four years of general education and also prepare studies for the maturate.
            Te school combined general education with some specific subjects, referred to as pre-vocational education and career orientation. At that point many student enroll in a post-secondary (VET) programme often at the same institution, to obtain a vocational qualification, although they may also seek entry to tertiary education.
            Government should ensure that policies on vocational subject are relevant and that they are aligned with plans for the development of the country. Therefore, vocational education policy has to satisfy both the school’s and governments polices.
            Case study of successful vocational education programmes in secondary schools, should be studied and presented to the minister of Education and other members of parliament, especially those concerned with economic development, the importance of vocational education and the need to vocationalise the secondary school curriculum should be spelt out dearly and concisely. The consequence of not doing so should be made plain.
            A recommendation to policy markers should advocate that it should be compulsory for all secondary students to undertake both academic and vocational education courses. The important advantages of secondary students leaving school with vocational and academic education and training should be documented.
2.3       Summary of Literature Review
Ways of improving vocational education:
(a)       Teaching methods;
            The day to day teaching conducted by vocational subjects teachers needs to be reviewed and redesign. Teaching can too easily become uninspired, mutinous and boring. The delivery of effective teaching and learning in both theory and practical practice is a must. Ways motivating tired teachers and encouraging them to be enthusiastic must be explored. We believe that, vocational education method needs to revolutionize along with the advancement of ICT. E-learning could be used as a method enabling students to understand better on certain topics such as electric skills. The application as electric skills. The application of multimedia interactive teaching aids could provide the graphic illustration of the flow of electricity.
            This can be shown through cable or video where students will be demonstrated by the steps of how to fix an electrical bulb correctly.
(b)       Infrastructure:
            Consequently, there is little incentive for teachers to teach well. Adequate vocational facilities in the form of appropriate buildings, adequately equipped workshops, laboratories and necessary tools should become the scaffolding of which. Successful vocational education programmes can be mounted. A good infrastructure includes a laboratories which is specially designed for skills related courses. The level of safety feature is also must be at the highest standard along with good arrangement and cleanliness. Beside that, machines and tools need to undergo excellent periodical maintenance. A good infrastructure could improve the motivation of students, parents and stake holders.
(c)       Vocational teaching or learning resources are often in short supply. For optional learning outcomes, vocational teachers need adequate stationery, sufficient raw materials up-to-date text books and a range of suitable teaching aids to deliver their courses creative teachers re highly essential for vocational education the existing teachers in school can be trained as vocational kill teacher as long as they have high interest in skills related field.
(d)       Funding:
            Without money, effective vocational subjects/course cannot be delivered. Most courses are expensive to deliver. It is necessary and essential to secure funding form the government, local private donors and overseas donors. So that effective delivery of vocational subject can be conducted. Vocational subject requires substantial financial sources. Nevertheless, if the school has good relationship with some related agencies or organizations they could obtained sponsorship or financial aids for the implementation of vocational subjects. For example, a cooperation in doing any twinning programs a unit may be in charged of industrial relation should be set up in school so that with outside agencies or organizations can be run smoothly and effectively.
(e)       Vocational Education Awareness; It is surprising how little is know by the community and in many secondary schools about the vocational possibilities.
            Awareness programmes must start with ourselves in our own country, in the educational context in which we look.
            Having comprehensively informed ourselves, we need to spread this knowledge throughout out country’s school. We need to inform teachers, students, management and Administrative staff, traditional and religious leader, parents, groups and mothers clubs.
The wider community must also be informed. Community awareness programmes that include visits to vocational schools and colleges, open days, public meetings brochures and handouts, television and radio broadcasts, and informative articles in some islands where electronic communications widespread. Parents need to be convinced that vocational education offers real employment opportunities equals to and sometimes far more appropriate for their child than what may be available at the end of a purely academic programmes.
            The good news of vocational education need to be disseminated to parents by home visits, parents days, and vocational days where vocational promoters and personal, including staff and students speak about their vocational programmes, and experiences. The aim of developing strategies to promote public awareness about their vocational programmes/subjects is both to informs and to change people attitude towards vocational subjects programmes.
            They need to view vocational education as an existing and positive real-world pathway for anyone who care to start walking in that direction.
            Vocational education and learning is all about educating people and see the potential and giving the people the enthusiasm (and sometime the courage) to take up vocational studies.
            Vocational provider must also publicly address the issue of gender equity. All vocational subjects should be available to both male and female students. We need, for instance, to by pass the thinking that only men should undertake plumbing and that only woman can weave. Some times in certain countries cultural norms override gender equity and cultural sensitivity is such situation.

(f)        Industry partnership;
            Vocational education subject or courses need practice opportunities in real workplaces. Good industry partnership are vital. Arrangements for vocational courses come alive.
Trainers will need to liaise with industry partner to ensure. That all industry requirements are met. These will include insurance coverage, parent waiver and consent letters.
            Arranging work placement will need a degree of flexibility from vocational education providers and industry. It may take the form of one or two days a week, it may involve a block of time or it may be held during holidays, at weekends or even in the workplace personnel and trainer.
            Overall, commitments from alls take holders, including business, industries, trainer and service providers, parents, communities and donors, must be brokered if vocational education programmes are to succeed and be sustained. Sustainability is the key and also the issue.
(g)       Standards;
            Without  a clear articulated national qualification framework and an accreditation council to implement the framework, the standards will not be maintained and vocational education will be weakened.
            A national qualification framework managed by a recognized accreditation council will allow order for all training providers in terms of the value of their qualifications and the competences of their graduate.
            It will also allow employers to validate the qualification possessed by job seekers. To assist in the development of national standards, a taskforce on employment creation can raise awareness about vocational education in the eyes of the country’s leaders. It roles would include the identification of key performance indicators or monitor the job opportunities for job seekers.
2.5       The Role of the Teacher in the practical Application of learning for effective teaching of vocational Education courses.
            Teaching is a very crucial job. So teachers need to understand a subject enough to convey its essence to students. While traditionally this has involved lecturing on the part of the teacher, new instructional strategies has put the teacher more of course designer, facilitator and coach and the students more active learner.
            The goal vocational education has is to establish a sound knowledge base skill set on which students will be to build as they, are exposed to different life experiences through the new instructional strategies by the teacher.
            Good teacher can as well manipulate instructional strategies and translate information, good judgment, experience and wisdom into relevant knowledge that a student can understand, retain and pass to others (Taylor, 1998).
            Will (1998) emphasized also that the guilty of teachers is the single most important factor affecting students achievement, and that countries which score highly on international test have multiple policies in place to ensure that the teachers they employs are effective as possible in the use of learning materials and must be highly qualified.
            Therefore, new teaching methodologies increased the importance of students self learning with the teacher adequately performing role of:
-           Content facilitator, concerned directly with facilitating the learner’s growing understanding of the vocational education courses content.
-           Technologies, concerned with making or helping earners makes technological choices that will lead to the improvement of the environment available to learners.
-           Designer, concerned with designing worthwhile vocationally inclined learning tanks.
-           Managers, concerned with issue of learner practicing with the learning activities and facilities.
-           Process facilitator, concerned with facilitating the rang of learning activities that are supportive of students learning their vocation.
-           Researcher, concerned with engagement in production of new knowledge of relevance to the content areas being taught in the various vocational education in the various vocational education courses.
            Also, the use of “poliformat” an internet service which is base don creating a feature-rich learning environment, made possible through the use of introduction of substantial changes in the practical sessions leading to a better application of learning in the teaching methodologies of vocational education courses.
            Also, the use of virtual classroom drill and simulators can be applied in teaching of vocational education course in Nigeria.
2.6       Element of Effective teaching in vocational subjects.
Figure 2 below, that was developed framework from the improving the quality of Education for All (IQEA) research project (Hopking, 2007). This framework encompasses fair different elements of effective teaching models or teaching skiols, teaching relationship, teaching reflection, and teaching models. Importantly, it is only when these four elements are ins synergy that they are able to support effective teaching. Greemer who analyzed the factors and variables in the teaching and learning process to identify those that could explain the differences in outcomes for comparable groups of learner, informs us that isolated component or effective elements of individual components do not results in strong effects on students achievement (Creemer, 1994, p. 92)

The four components: teaching relationship, teaching models, teaching skills and teachings reflection, were adopted as the basis for relating with students through learning and teaching vocational education subjects. We also drew for the effect size research which identified consistently high correlations between learner achievement scores and classroom processes.
From this stage, the process of analysis and the refinement of the framework for analysis has been as interactive one. We have set out exactly what we mean in this report by each of these essential components an the relevance/important of each to effective vocational teaching and learning.
Teaching Relationships
            This encompasses both the teachers commitments to their learners and the relationships they develop with their learners.
            In these observation, teachers identified that their relationship with their learners was of critical important to the effectiveness of their teaching and learning.
            Teaching relationship’s also covers the range of roles that a teacher can take within a session and varies betweens high structure’, in which the teachers role is dominant, directly directing the learning and low ‘structure’ in which learners take more control of the process of learning. Teaching relationships refers to the relationships teacher develop with their learners as well as learners relate to each other. The tutor-learner relationships are identified as the most important link in learning process, (TLRP, 2006). A meta-analysis of learner-centered teacher-relationships confirmed the importance.
            It reported that position teacher-relationships are associated with optimal, holistic learning with above average mena-correlations when compared with other educational innovations for cognitive and behavioral outcomes (Cornelius-while, 2007).

            These models are derived form theories about teaching. Each model can be described as a structured sequence, which is designed to elicit a particular type of thinking or response, to achieve a specific learning out comes. The choice of use of the appropriate model out come (or combination of mdoels0 is influenced by the types of learning objectives and the nature of the learner as well as other factors such as the repertoire of teaching strategies available and skills of the teacher.
            A strong body of research and practice suggests that the quality of teaching and learning and learners attainments can be enhanced by the use of specific models. (DFES, 2004b, Hattie, 2009 and Marzano, 1998). To draw the distinction between teaching strategy and teaching model the definition of a teaching model we have used  has two distinctive features.
            The first distinctive features is the nature of learning objective and outcome required and whether the learning is related to acquiring and learning skills, procedures of knowledge or processing information, building concepts and rules, generating and testing hypothesis and thinking creatively or collaboration and learning together to construct new  knowledge and understand concepts.
            The second distinctive feature is the structured sequence of steps or phases (the syntax) used to achieve that particular type of learning of objective.
            In teaching models, it is the right linkage between the two aspects that defines a teaching model.
            Strategies do not have the same linkage and may be deployed more widely, as an essential part of a teachers repaloire to achieve a range of learning outcome.
            The term teaching model is also used in vocational teaching and learning to describe other different concepts. If these concepts lack the distinctive linkage between these two particular features above, these they are not what we mean bore by a teaching model.

Teaching skills and Strategies
            In offering guidance on teaching and learning, the vocational learning support programe state that:
            There are many model and theories to explain how learners learn. In practical term there is evidence that there are significant differences in way that learners approach their teaching and that hey can benefit from experiencing different approaches. An inclusive learning environment is one where the teacher uses a range of  succeed and fulfill their potential. (LSIS Excellence Gateway, 2011b).
            In other place we have found out that we have called strategies described as approaches or methods. To avoid confusion, we have used the following definition of teaching skills and strategies.
            Teaching strategies are the tools teacher have at their disposal to engage learners and enable learning objectives to be met  via effective teaching and learning and teaching skills are how they select and use these strategies.
            Teaching strategies are differentiated from teaching models by using our definition of a model as the sequence of steps or phrases (the syntax) used to achieve particular types of learning outcomes.
Examples of skills and strategies observed in practice into the following three broad categories that follow teaching and learning process. There are :
*          Planning and preparation which is
-           Strategies for differentiation.
*          Managing delivery
-           Strategies of presentation and demonstrations
-           Strategies involving technology
-           Strategies for group and individuals learning
-           Strategies for reinforcing learning
-           Strategies for more effective learning
-           using multiple strategies
*          Assessment
-           Strategies for assessing learning

Teacher Reflection
            The fourth component which is the teacher reflection is a threefold process comprising direct experience, analysis of believes, values of knowledge about that experience, and, consideration of the options which should lead to action as a result of the teachers reflection progressed against the framework of these four components it become clear that there was one additional, distinctive feature that in part defines vocational earning and that is the context within which it take place.
            Thus a new, fifth component was emerging to add to the framework. This is discussed further in the conclusions.

            In comparing learning theory and learning model (Teaching theory, teaching model), learning is to be interpreted in the farmer as a behavioural, cognitive social, etc change resulting form a particular situation, while in the latter as a process made optimal by taking external condition into consideration.
            Whereas learning theories are primarily micro-level (describing the results of short term and elementary activities), are based on organized hypothesis and delay with learning in general, learning models are micro-level (describing the results of long-term activities) and focus in concentrate terms on a practical aspects for example on the characteristics of classroom learning. The various psychological directions hold different views on learning, on rather, they emphasis or appreciate different essentials of it.
            These theories have undergone significant development during the past decades and still co-exit. Should any of the paradigms be considered. It is true of each that learning is treated in general and interpreted as a relatively lasting change in behaviour, and it result is achieve thought practice. So learning is interpreted as a change in associations between images by the representatives as associations psychology in behaviour by those of behaviournism, in mental processes by those of cognitivism, in personality development by those of psychoanalysis, and in incentives of the personality by those of phenomenology therefore learning has no outcome and this is change itself.
            According to carol, in her Book model of school learning. Teachers college record, vol. 64 (1963, pp. 723-733. learning achievement depends on existing knowledge, general learning abilities (the ability of self regulated learning) the degree of comprehension (general, nllelligent verbal skills) several environment factors (e.g family friends) the quality of instruction (the selection of a appropriate method and means, how organized the curriculum is) as well as effective and cognitive dispositions (e.g interest, motivation, level of standards, self-image). The learning achievement is best shown by the pace (speed) and quality (failoure rate) learning and the durability of knowledge 9recalability, modifiability). The efficiency of learning is to be expressed by a ratio where time allotted to learning is divided by time planned for acquisition.
            The former comprises the syllabus based classroom time planned by the teacher and the home learning line need determined by the talents of the student. In the Late 1990s, Huitt develop carrolls model.
            In his transactional model, time allotted to learning is dependent on the line of acquiring the material a measured during checking as well as of active participation in the learning process, together with the time spent on the successful completion of allotted task.
            According the Bloom’s model learning achievement is substantially influenced by four factors, namely the existing knowledge of the student, their level of motivation, the duration of the teaching learning process and the quality of instruction.
            Time need as a factor appears here, too, originating primarily in the existing knowledge and learning differences of the individual.
That is why the other three factors are to be selected in such a way as to ensure the safe acquisition of the material in each and every students case, in other worlds, time allotted to learning should at least coincide with that needed for acquisition.
Bloom and Carrollis teaching-learning models led the way to the model of mastery learning.

            The decisively significant corrective elements of model are the quality teaching and learning strategies (Suitability to objective and syllabus), time to be allotted to learning (in class and at home) and abilities related to the comprehension of the syllabus.
            The highest level of learning strategies is the self-regulated learning strategy, when the student, surmounting his own cognitive and effective characteristics, processes the material by choosing the learning methods and means most suited to the requirements. The teachers direct guidance in this cannot apparently be dispensed with in the beginning.
Teaching, learning and self-regulated (meta-learning) strategies are inspirable and parallel variables of the educational process. Their significant, dominance and mutual effect depend on the educational objectives, the content specialties of the syllabus, the didactic tasks to be solved as well as age group characteristics of the students, as show in figure 3.

The interpretation of teaching and learning strategy
The dominance of teaching strategies  is typical of teacher centered, that of learning strategies is of students-centered situation of education, respectively, teaching learning, strategies the selection of the combination of method form means is primarily the teacher’s task and in the case of self-regulated learning the student is capable of it.
            The teacher obviously make the selection of the teaching and learning methods, means and forms most suited to processing the syllabus in a way that contributes to the development of the student’s self-regulated learning strategy as well. Syllabus in a way that contributes to the development of the student’s self-regulated learning strategy as well.
            A common feature of theories of learning style is that students are classified according to their cognitive characteristics and learning strategies along one-or multi-dimensional bipolar(usually cognitive) scales.
            Conclusion as to efficient learning styles, forms and means of the students may be drawn form the preferred strategies related to learning style. Teaching strategies which produce the most preferred learning strategies can also be specified, and these in turns serve as a starting point for designing the learning strategies.

            Vocational education and job training has been an integral part of national development strategies in many societies because of the impact on human resources development, productivity and economic grow Dike (2007). Nigerians do not seen to accord. Vocational the attention It deserve despite its proven contributions in other nations.
            Ibenneme (2007) it is important to observe that UNESCO and ILO (2002) comprehend vocational educational to be in the following ways;
1.         An instrument for promoting a perfect suitable sustainable development amongst others. Indeed every nation, especially developing countries are making efforts to develop industrially, economically and technically. It is of vital importance to note that any kind of developmental effort or initiatives requires human capital amongst others.
            The development of human capital requires necessarily skilled human capital and appropriate skills, right attitude and good knowledge of retrieving and processing by utilizing national resources.
            The artisans, craftsman, technicians, and technologies are accurately trained, they will fit well in small scale enterprises, industries, colleges, and universities. (Igweh, 2008).
            There will be a lasting less depended of foreign technical personnel in our cottage and main industries.
            Indigenous technology will be encouraged. There will be adequate manpower to handle road maintenance, buildings, electricity and electrification mechanical works, and agriculture and computer services.
            In this view or regard, production capacity will be increased while the import duties will be decreased.
2.         It is a means of preparing the youths for occupational skills and for effective participation.
3.         It is an aspect of long term learning and preparation for responsible citizen.

            According to dike (2005), while the number of vocational school has greatly increased in the developed countries since 1990 and vocational has continued to thieve in many societies, Nigeria has neglected this aspect of Education.
            Consequently, the society lacks skilled technicians, bricklayers, carpenters and painters and auto-mechanics, laboratory and pharmacy technicians, electrical/electronics technician, food processors and horticulturist and skilled vocational nurses, etc.
            The hospital are no longer a place where people go to get ailments treated, but a place they go and die.
            The situations getting out of hand as a degree awarding institution will ill equipped infrastructure and aids continues to thrive in the land. So bad is the rat race that even old infrastructure institution that used to train studies in practical vocations are now competing to be accredited as degree awarding instruction. The middle and lower cadre technical skills that are very badly needed for national development of fast disappearing as a result.
            In contrast, in Germany today, according to Makanjuola, (2009), the governments focus on rebuilding their manpower starting from the proportion of skilled technicians and workers to those with university degrees is 4 to 1.
            In Nigeria practically every students seeks a university degree, even if it means not acquiring any skills or any Job prospects for that matter. It is not clear whether, at the federal or state level, we have a framework or plan to reverse this unfortunate trend.
            It is not clear what statistics are available in Nigeria with respect to computer literacy and education, but like all statistics concerning the nation, whatever is available may not be positive.
            Global advancement is today driven by information technology. To quote Oni, (2007), a developing nation needs efficient services of technicians, Engr. And technologist who have received formal training from vocational institutions, Akanbi (1994) notes that in businesses, banking customer services records are stored in computers like wise, banking operations have gone electronic and they utilize on-line, real lime access and updating methods many vocational enterprises in developed nations like United states, Britain, Germany, France and others now employ the use of compactor packages and software.
            In other to work in an industrial nation vocational professionals clearly need to be computer literate”. Many vocational personnel are not catching up with global trends. In many vocational-teaching institutions in Nigeria today, technicians, engineers, and technologists are of trained to use computer for business purpose.
            The attitude of vocational education teachers to innovation is poor. In a study investigating the computer attitudes of teacher educator (Jegede and Owolobi, 2005), it was found that vocational education teachers showed the least positive attitudes about computer.
            Lamentably, these teachers are the very ones saddled with the task of training the junior secondary school teachers. The study seems to suggest that vocational education in Nigeria is particularly disadvantaged in that the curriculum still emphasizes manual traditional skills over the use of computer technology.
            The impression was created by early colonial educators that the learning of vocational subjects was for dropouts and mentally handicapped children. The notion has created a certain negative attitude in both students and parents towards vocational education up till now. Many schools, vocational education/institutions and even polytechnics and universities in Nigeria are too poorly equipped to deliver quality teaching and learning. There appears to be a drive to increase students intake without a commiserate increase in quality of teaching.
            Underlying all the challenges enumerated above is the cracker work called corruption, that is the main reason why all good initiative fail in Nigeria. The country is ranked top among the most corrupt nations of the earth. Corruption continues to degrade our national values, destroy good initiatives and makes progress a most impossible. Until a drastic blow in dealt to corruption in the public and private sector nothing of great national value should be expected in Nigeria.
Corruption and poor funding have denied many institutions in Nigeria the opportunity to grow and match their counterparts in other parts of the world.
            To quate Oharisis (2007), “”teaching of vocational education is capital intensive”. The lack of funds limited the amount of technical and industrial exposure that trainees can acquire in the course of learning.
Faulty education and government policies are also big issue in Nigeria. The Nigerian education system had and is still  witnessing changes in educational system.
            Some of the challenges facing vocational education in Nigeria are numerous, they are as follow:
-           poor elaboration of the practical aspects of vocational education as most tertiary institutions in Nigeria charged with the responsilbilities to teach vocational education courses today are poorly equipped with cachinnates and relevant tools.
-           Lack of skilled manpower
-           Poor remuneration of vocational education
-           Lack of follow-up and continuity in government policy.
-           Scarcity of vocational teaching teachers.
-           Lack of adequate training facilities and modern equipment.
-           Lack of entrepreneurship education in vocational education training.
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