Food formulation and production
            This is the combination of feed ingredients on the basics of their crude protein content to achieve crude protein requirement of the fish to be feed. The primary aim of feed formulation is to provide an acceptable diet that meets nutritional requirement at different stages of fish life so as to yield optimum production at minimum cost.
Nutritional Requirement

            Fish requires
1.         Protein: This is for the building block of the body and eggs
2.         Lipids: It supply them energy
3.         Carbohydrate: It is primary used as binding agent in the feed. It is source of energy.
4.         Vitamin: for health, reproduction and maintenance
5.         Mineral: It is needed for tissue formulation and metabolic
The nutritional make up of fish body is
75% water
16% crude protein
6% fat
3% ash
1% carbohydrate
The two factors to be considered before going into feed formulation
1.         Available ingredient.                                                  
2.         Nutrient requirement.
There are two classification of feed
Animals protein concentration: There are gotten from animal e.g. fish and blood meal.
Plant protein concentration: are gotten from plant e.g. soybeans and groundnut cake.
Fish meal:  is processed by boiling, and then press well to remove water and oil on the fish and dry. The residue becomes the fish meal. It contains between 60-75% crude proteins (CP). it contains all essential amino acid.
Blood meal – is processed by boiling to dry the blood. It contain 75% - 85 crude protein (CP). It deficient is some essential amino acid methane. We formulated feed for clarias fingerlings with a protein requirement of 45% using the following,
Wheat bran    =          16%cp
Soya bean cake         =          44%cp
Fish meal       -           65& cp
Palm oil          -           5%
Bone meal     -           5%
Bone meal     -           2%
Aqua premix 0.25%     
Garri   -                        5%
Vitamin          -           0.1% level
We worked for the level of wheat bran, soybean cake and fish meal as they are energy concentrate and protein sources.
Step I
Arrange all the ingredient in a skeletal formula
Ingredient                  -           %
Wheat bran?
Soya bean cake?
Fish meal                               ?
Palm oil                      -           5%
Garri                           -       5%
Premix                        -           0.28g
Bone meal                 -           0.2%
Vitamin C                  -           0.1g
Total               =          100 – 12.75
=          87.25%
87.75 of combining protein concentrate will supply all the 35% CP protein requirement.

Step 2
Therefore we split 81.25% among it items using the persons square method which contain 100%
45        x          100
87                    1
=          51.58

Steps 3
Calculate the percentage (%)
Contribution of basal feed ingredient.
Wheat bran and that of protein concentrate,
Percentage (%) of what bran
6.42 x 87   7. 25   =   13.34

Percentage (%) of protein (CP)
35.58  x 87.2   =   73.91
Percentage (%) of protein (CP)
35.58 x 87.25 =  73.91
Percentage of soybean
73.91 x 1
Check the percentage of CP
8.34 + 16                   =          2.13
1.64 x 44                    =          10.84
9.27 x 65                    =          32.03

Total  - 45.00cp
Ingredient                              kg
Wheat bran                13.34
Soya bean                              24.64
Fish meal                               49.27
Palm oil                                    5
Indomine                                  5
Premix                                    0.25
Bone meal                             0.2
Vitamin c                               0-1
Total                                       100kg

Processes involved in feed formulation
Sun drying

Drying – the fish waste is been dried in the sun, ground in powder from. We have fish meal.
Weighing:  After drying and grinding the fish meal, it is weighed with a weighing balance. And other ingredient are weighed too example wheat brain, palm oil, premix, groundnut cake, soybeans meal. The quantities of ingredient use depend on the quantity of feed to be produced.
Grinding: The entire solid ingredient is grinded in harmer mill until they reach the finest particle.
Mixing: The entire ingredients are mixed together. Mixing was done manually with shovel and hand. Water and oil was added during the mixing to enable it mould to give the pelleting shape.
Pelleting: The mixed ingredients are poured bit by bit into the pelleting machine for palletizing operation.
There are different pelleting sizes 2mm, 4mm, 5mm, 6mm and 8mm is available in ARAC.
Sun drying: The pelleted feeds are spread under the sun with a dried platform such as toppling bag for some hours before packaging.
Bagging: After sun drying, the feed are pack into a sack bag and sew with hand. There is no electric sewing machine in ARAC

The activities 1 carried out in the unit
1.         I participated in preparation of fish meal
2.         I weighed out the required quantity of feed ingredients and mixed them together.
3.         I participated in pelleting the fish feed , cleaning of equipment and surrounding of the fish meal unit

            Buguma is part of African Regional aquaculture centre (ARAC) Allu Portharcout. It deals with brackish water fishes,
            Aquaculture is practiced in three areas
1.         Brackish water
2.         Marine or seas water
3.         Fresh water
            The different is the three of this area is the salinity of water. Marine water  -           30%part per thousand  
Blackish water           0.05 – 29% part per thousand
Fresh water              0    - 0.5% part per thousand.
            Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water but not as much as marine or sea water.
Characteristic of brackish water
1.         There is tidal movement in brackish water.
2.         The soil is highly acidic and dark brown in colour and has a black like clay.
3.         The vegetation there is mangrove.
Type of mangrove
1.         The black mangrove: The black mangrove has a wider leaves than other mangrove.
2.     The white mangrove: it posses a leave which is not of the
       same size with black and red mangrove.
3.         The red mangrove’s bigger in size than the white mangrove.
It is dominated more than the others that is, in a wide area.
            Red mangrove germinated when the seed are matured and fall inside the river and it develops a root which then grows.
Species found in brackish water
1. Tilapia ginneries – These are the ones mostly found in Buguma. Catfish-silver catfish (Clarias) shell fishes  .  
Shell fishes – periwinkle
tympanotous fuscatas
tympanotous fuscatos
Macrobranchinum macrobrachion
Management of Brackish water pond
The brackish water ponds are managed and maintained through
1.         cutting of the gasses on the dykes regularly
2.         Repairing of broken dykes. The dyke’s cracks may be as a result of crab’s holes and at time tidal movement.
The repairing of sluice gate and screens to prevent the entry of predator

Tilapias are best known because of their potential as an easily raised and harvested food fish. Their commercial advantage include
1.         Fast growth
2.         Resistance to diseases
3.         tolerant to wide temperature.
4.         Salinity range
5.         Ability to survive in low water condition
(6)       Spawn naturally in captivity.
            Tilapia group is divided into month-brooding genre
(Oreochromis) and those that deposit eggs on the bottoms of ponds                   and lakes
            Farmers grown mainly male tilapia, report have proven that some male tilapia fishes have the yy chromosomes rather than xy chromosomes.                                                                           Several methods used in producing only male tilapia fish.                By crossing two different species of tilapia.
By using a hormone androgen which is male hormone or testosterone by physical mating.
Cultured tilapia species
The tilapia species mostly used in fish farming belong to three genre oreochromis. The species that is culture in ARAC is oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) is one of most commonly farm tilapia species in the world .it is also commonly used for hybridization to create tilapia variant even more suitable for farming in various condition. Oreochromis niloticus is fast growing species that can live in many different type of water, from lake and rivers to sewage canals it is highly adaptable and can make use of wide range of different food sources (including plant) but feeds primarily on phytoplankton and benthic algae even through the Nile tilapia is considered a fresh water species it has shown a great tolerance towards salt and can live in brackish conditions.
Different between male and female tilapia
            It is difficult to differentiate male and female tilapia when they are young (less than 3-4 week) when fish are larger, they can be differentiate by inspecting the genital papilla on the underside of the fish. The papilla of the male tends to be elongated with one opening. While the papilla of the female tends to be wider and has two openings one of which is a transverse silt
Important of tilapia culture
1.         Tilapia serves as food for man (major source of animal protein)
2.         It brings income to fish farmers example fingerlings and table sized tilapia could be sold from time to time

Culture system for raising tilapia
Culture system is an enclosure which fishes are comfortable raises form fingerlings to table sized. Example earthen pond, tank, cage e.t.c
Feeding and food for tilapia
            Tilapia is known as a fast growing fish with a high reproduction rate. Proper feeding will ensure that they are healthy, have good growth and that their immune system is working properly. They should be fed with (1) high protein fish pelleted feed (2) inorganic fertilizer or pig manure
3 Tilapia  feed on plankton, algae and detritus in the earth pond.
Experiment carried out in ARAC to determine the feeding rate of tilapia (Fingerling - Adult)
Title: feeding rate experiment

Aim: It is to determine the effect of feeding rate on the performance of tilapia in earth ponds.
No of fish
Initial Wight
% biomass
Feeding rate twice daily
Activities carried out in the unit
1.         Harvesting of the tilapia: The fishes were harvested form the earthen ponds and take to family testing unit.
2.         Sorting and grading of the fingerlings: I sorted out the fingerlings and took the measurement of each fish (standard and total length) and their weight
3.         Preparation of pond- clearing of grasses to prevent predator like snake from entering the pond. I drained water from the pond with a pumping machine and i removed the Aquatic weeds and insect by adding lime to the pond. Lime is applied on the soil base on the pH level. It increases fish hardness and destroys fish parasite. In ARAC we use slaked lime in liming. We mixed the slaked with water and broadcast it round the pond bottom. After that the water is retile. Water come out through see page (where water comes out of the ground).

The problems I encountered during my IT programs are
1.         Transportation – I spend a lot on transportations because I was coming from home and traffic in Portharcourt is too much.
2.         Non payment of IT student  in ARAC
3.         ARAC doesn’t have a functional laboratory.
4.         In feed mill unit the feed mixer is not functioning so we use hand to mix feed.
5.         Accommodation: when I started my IT program other students from other schools have occupied the little uncomfortable hostel in ARAC so I paid for accommodation

Recommendation and conclusion
            I recommend African Regional aquaculture centre (ARAC) as the best place for industrial training for all students because you will be privilege to learn and acquire all practical knowledge of aquaculture and other fields.

Andrew S. Mc. Ginty, A,S, and Rakocy, J.E case culture of tilapia Extension service, SRAC 281.
Cliffe, P.T. Opara J.Y record keeping: a bridge between research and production in fish farming practice in Nigeria African Regional Aquaculture centre, Aluu P.m.B 5122 portharcourt.
Cliffe, Record keeping a vital tool in integrated farm management.
Cooper D. (2007) perch eggs sent to Ireland NZ aquaculture 20:11
Cresp V, Coclief A., (2008) Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations (FAO) Glossary of aquaculture
Demoulin F. (1999) Guidelines for brood stock and hatchery management support for technical services FAQ, Rome, 59 pp.
M.N Kutty and G. Decince instruction for preparation of project report/thesis. Africa Regional Aquaculture centre, Aluu Portharcourt.
Ugwu, L.L.C. Mgbenka, B.O (2006) fisheries and wildlife management
Wilson J.A Chaparro. O.R Thompson, R.J. (1996). Thomposon, R.J. (1996) the important of bloodstock nutrition on the viability of laruae and spat in the didean oyster ostreat cilensis. Aquaculture 139,63-75.

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