The Upper Basic Education Curriculum on Business Studies is a reform in the Nigerian Educational System because of its wide scope (Nwafor, 2007). Business Studies is a prevocational elective subject at the upper basic education level which mainly aims at skills acquisition. It is crucial that adequate provision be made in terms of human and material resources in order to promote saleable skills acquisition and employment generation possibilities (FRN, 2007).

Since the quality of teachers determine the effectiveness of curriculum implementation, the education system, according to Mkandawire (2010), needs adequately trained and motivated teachers in order to succeed. On the premise of these facts, this work is anchored on theories of skills acquisition, expectancy theory, equity theory and theory of constructivism. These theories and models are explained below.

Theories of Skills Acquisition Psychomotor skills Acquisition Theories
            According to Ewuga (2010) an understanding of the process by which psychomotor skills are acquired is a basic condition for effective training and development in vocational and technical education. He opines that the studies of such scientists as Singer (1972), Gow (1976), Shemick (1977), Gall (1981), Padelford (1984) and Hammond and Lamar (1988) in the theories of skills acquisition have culminated into what today has come to be known as the six levels or steps of psychomotor skills acquisition. These levels or steps, according to him, are perceiving, motivating, imitating, performing, adapting and innovating. Each of these levels is hereby analyzed to show how it is involved in the process of acquiring psychomotor skills in vocational and technical education.

            The first step in the process of acquiring psychomotor skills is to perceive wanted skills or desired action. For instance, when a toy for a baby to play with is seen, felt or heard, it attracts the baby’s attention and curiosity. Describing the development of visually guided reaching in baby, Bruner in Ewuga (2010) states that an appropriate free standing object, of appropriate size and structure and at an appropriate distance first produces prolong looking and, then visually guided reaching develops. Reaching for the object is acquired psychomotor skill and learning to reach the perceived object initiates the action.
            With respect to the teaching of psychomotor skills, in vocational and technical education (business education inclusive), Hammond and Lamar in Ewuga (2010) stress that the trainer should develop in the trainees a strong desire to possess the manipulative ability. He should be genuinely interested in their skillful performance. It may be necessary for the trainees to see a product that has been produced by a skilled person or, see the skilled performance in progress. The trainees must know why the skill is needed if they are to want to possess it and they must feel the need for that ability. Ewuga (2010) believes that the four levels of Moore’s taxonomy of perception (sensation, figure perception, symbol perception and perception of meaning) are utilized in determining exactly what is expected of the trainee of a psychomotor skill.

            According to Ewuga (2010), motivation is of crucial importance to the process of acquiring psychomotor skills. It resolves what psychomotor skills the learner will partake of or wish to learn as well as whether or not there will be any participation at all in the activity. Describing psychomotor skill acquisition, Pope and Singer (1978) indicate that setting goals and/or solving problem must be the first step in creating motivation in the learner or trainee. Initial arousal of an intention seems to be a pre-requisite which operates as a trigger for further action. There are indications that engaging in an activity and practicing have meaning only when the learner shows an appropriate indication of motivation. Reacting to this view, Padelford in Ewuga (2010) opines that motivation seems to be the activator and sustainer of action or thought when acquiring a psychomotor skill in vocational and technical education.
Goals are an essential part of the process of acquiring psychomotor skill which may be externally directed by another person or internally directed or both. According to Gagne in Ewuga (2010), various kinds of external stimulation and positive internal feedback make possible a high level of achievement in psychomotor skills. Both internal and external sources of motivation should be employed in teaching and learning vocational and technical subjects.

          Imitating is the stage where the learner is involved in mental manipulation of the form, pattern, or sequence and or mimicking a series of events, patterns or procedures (Ewuga, 2010). The role of the learner, according to Summers in Ewuga (2010) is to first combine the appropriate movements into correct sequence or order. Gagne in Ewuga (2010) argues that learning the sequence requires cognition. Therefore in psychomotor skill acquisition in vocational and technical education, the learner receives the necessary cues, mentally manipulates the cues and organizes them in a series of sets before attempting to perform a function.
            In the light of the above, Newell in Ewuga (2010) recommends that before embarking on any action, the performer ideally should have knowledge about the goal of the act, together with some understanding of the steps through which the goal can be accomplished. The performer needs to know what to do and how to do it. As a practical way of assisting students to imitate, Gall in Ewuga (2010) advises that the teacher should ask the student to name the important steps in doing what they want to learn to do. The teacher should demonstrate the procedure for students to watch and, then try their hands at doing it. Knowledge alone cannot develop a manipulative skill, performing the operation is necessary.

            According to Padelford in Ewuga (2010), practice is the movement of the body according to the pattern the mind has organized. The learner engages in repeated practice following the internalization of the mental picture of the steps or sequence required by the performer. Ewuga (2010) observes that Singer (1972), Gagne (1977), and Anyim (2002) point to the fact that practice is a necessary pre-requisite for learning a task and learning is a process with an increase in the amount of practice. Students of vocational and technical education need to be given enough opportunities to practice what they are taught.
            Usually, learners will need to develop considerable skill before using the operation on a large scale or on a valuable or otherwise important piece of work. According to Ewuga (2010), to develop this degree of skill, repeated practice exercises, which involves various operations and standards of workmanship, may be used. Lombard and Stern in Ewuga (2010) find that in teaching a motor skill, the amount of experience with the actual task itself is critically variable.

            Padelford in Ewuga (2010) recommends that certain psychomotor skills should be adaptable to new situations (a sort of transfer of learner). Adapting, according to him, involves diagnosing and problem solving, and the added dimension of creativity. Teachers should emphasize adaptive learning because transfer of learning is often required in a problem solving situation which is a typical characteristic of the productive or service world.
            According to Schmit in Ewuga (2010), intra-tasks transfer is concerned with transfer from one variation of a task to another, such as from operating a manual typewriter to operating an electric typewriter. The teacher should expose the learner to both inter-task and intra-task experiences because they contribute to a maximum degree of positive transfer when attempting new problems or activities.

            Innovation, according to Ewuga (2010), is the highest level of psychomotor skill acquisition in vocational and technical education. It emphasizes the ability to experiment and create new forms of the learned skill. Pope and Singer (1978) stress that the opportunity to express feelings and to gain a feeling of self-actualization are inherent in the innovative act. Innovation presents a challenge and an opportunity for fulfillment and positive self-concept.

Science T. R. E. E. Models
            T. R. E. E. is an acronym for Teachers Reaching Educational Excellence. Science T. R.  E. E. therefore, is a programme for science teachers in the North Central Region of America aimed at striking excellence (Pattison and Berkas, 2000). These authors Describe Science T.R.E.E. models as an instructional design tool from the North Central Mathematics and Science Consortium. According to Pattison and Berkas (2000), science T. R. E. E design-team members (including teachers) developed the templates to be easily adapted to other content areas to address a broader context of curriculum design. This implies that although these models are science based, they can easily be modified for any content area. Pattison and Berkas (2000) affirm that one way to foster the curriculum development process is to use the five Science T. R. E. E. models.
The five Science T. R. E. E models according to Pattison and Berkas (2000) are:
Model 1 (Apple Template). This model focuses on engaged learning. It also brings in the use of available technology to prepare students for the future.
Model II (Giant Sequoia Template). This model emphasizes learner-centered education. It presents questions that are posed to keep students involved in the planning and implementation of the curriculum.
Model III (Maple Template). This model is based on research. It emphasizes building and sequencing activities, units, and curricula to explore unifying themes and concepts.
Model IV (Pine Template). This model has an up front focus on assessment. Its first step enables teachers to decide what students are to learn and how students will demonstrate what they have learned. Then attention turns to how to achieve the desired results.
Model V (Oak Template). This model is the most comprehensive in guiding teachers through a step-by step process of curriculum development. Guiding questions help teachers determine what they want to teach, how to provide the best learning opportunities for students, how to manage the learning environment, and how to determine what students have learned.
            These five models, according to Pattison and Berkas (2000), incorporate current learning research and provide opportunities for teacher reflection. The reflection component allows teachers to record and analyze the educational strategies that worked and the changes to be made in the classroom.
Doll (2002) believes that science T.R.E.E. can easily be adapted to the teaching of technical and vocational subjects. He explains that the essence of skill acquisition lies in the use of available technology, involvement of students, building and sequencing activities to explore unifying themes, deciding what students are to learn and how students will demonstrate what they have leaned. He asserts that these involve material and human resources.

Expectancy Theory (Victor Vroom,)
            Expectancy theory is a motivation theory propounded by Victor Vroom in 1964 (Nnamdi, 2011). This theory stands out among other theories. Expectancy theory holds that the behaviour of an individual is a function of the individual’s perception of reality (how the individual sees the world around him) rather than the individual’s need or motives. This theorist believes that one’s motivation toward an action is a function of one’s anticipated values of the outcome of that action and the strength of one’s belief (expectancy) that the outcome will yield the desired goal. This implies that whether or not a person takes action will depend on two factors: value attached to the likely result (Valence); and the level of expectancy that the action will actually lead to the result (Expectancy).
            The theorist (Victor Vroom) derived the formula of motivation as: Force = Valence X Expectancy, where force stands as the strength of a person’s motivation, and valence and expectancy  as earlier on explained. For instance, assuming UBEB wishes to send business studies teachers to in-service training every five years; whether or  not a teacher stays in the job depends on: how much value the teacher attaches to the training (valence); and the extent to which the teacher believes that staying will actually result to the in-service training.
While motivating workers on the basis of expectancy theory, the three important steps to be considered are: determination of what the worker needs; careful selection of the rewards that will satisfy these needs; and tying the rewards to some objectives of the organization so as to ensure that the rewards result from performance. This theory shows that workers can effectively be rewarded by money because they greatly value money as a reward.
The crux of expectancy theory lies on what a worker gets from job and the value the worker attaches to it. According to Ewuga (2010) valuable results lead to retention of employees. This implies that qualified business studies teachers could be retained if they get valuable results from their labour.

Equity Theory (John Stacey Adam, 1963)
            Equity theory is a theory on motivation (propounded by John Stacey Adam in 1963) which states that a major factor in job motivation, performance and satisfaction is the individual evaluation of the equity or fairness of the reward received (Nnamdi, 2011). Equity in this theory means the ratio between an individual’s job input (effort or skill) and job rewards (pay, promotion etc.) compared with the rewards others receive for similar job inputs. The belief is that people value fair treatment and would always be positively motivated when they feel that they are treated equitably.
            Equity theory holds that people’s motivation, performance and satisfaction depend on their subjective evaluation of the relationship between their effort/reward ratio and the effort/reward ratio of others in similar situations. Since money is a basis for comparison, people compare what they receive for their efforts with what others receive in similar situations. When they feel inequity exists, tension develops and finally leads to behaviour adjustment.
            Emenanjo (1992) observes that availability of teachers is affected by how equitably they are treated.  He regrets that dearth of teachers is worsened by inappropriate placement. The implication of this theory is that, attrition of business studies teachers will be a thing of the past if they receive equitable treatment with their counterparts in other walks of life.

Constructivism Theory
            According to Doll (2002), the basis for current interest in constructivism is found in the works of Dewey, Vygotsky, and Piaget.  Similarly, Eisner (2004) states that more recent theorists, practitioners, and subject matter specialists (like Bodrova and Leong, 1996; Brooks and Brooks, 1993; Dixon-Krauss, 1996; Fosnet, 1989) have refined and expanded upon these early ideas. The theoretical and philosophical bases of constructivism are complex and comprise the following important elements:
1.         Learning is seen as an active, problem solving process in which the learner builds upon prior understanding to construct new knowledge through interaction with their environment (Doll, 2002). Piaget (1952) stresses that knowledge and cognitive structures are actively constructed by learners through the learner’s actions both concrete and mental. The Piagetian view of learning is a process of construction rather than absortion and accumulation of information.
2.         According to Burk and Dunn in Marsh and Willis (2003), constructivists view autonomy as the aim of education. Autonomy is the ability to govern oneself and take responsibility for one’s decisions.
3.         Anderson and Piazza in Marsh and Willis (2003) state that learning is structured around primary concepts and these concepts are integrated into a large concept which provides a context in which the learning of individual skills takes place.
4.         Constructivists believe that what students learn depends, to a great degree, upon the context in which they learn it. This means that knowledge is structured in the activity, context, and culture in which it was developed. When students learn in the context of meaningful activities, they are more likely to use information as a tool to solve problems.
5.         The constructivist learning philosophy emphasizes experiences as its subject matter. Subject matter is not perceived as an established body of knowledge. Knowledge about teaching and learning is constructed and reconstructed through the reflective analysis of experiences.
6.         The role of the teacher is that of a facilitator of student knowledge construction, thus, classrooms must be re-organized to allow students to interact with the teacher and with one another.
7.         Competency and its application to performance and assessment of appropriate tasks must be considered in contexts. A major goal of instruction is to provide settings in which all learners have an opportunity to engage in relevant and authentic activities to explore complex problems through interaction with teachers and peers in the classroom, as well as in the larger community.
            Constructivists believe that students learn in the context of meaningful activities. When teaching and learning is perceived as construction and reconstruction of knowledge through reflective analysis of experiences, information gathered becomes a tool for problem solving. Constructivism, when it forms the basis of Business Studies, makes the subject an important tool for the preparation of the individual for useful living within the society (Onuo and Shabi, 2008). This theory is important because according to Eze (2008), Business Studies primarily targets at providing students with the training that  will make them ready for the world of work.
            These theories actually provide a framework for this study. Effective implementation of the upper basic education business studies curriculum is synonymous with psychomotor skills acquisition which has been adjudged to require adequate human and material resources. Similarly, expectancy and equity theories address retention of teachers by ensuring that they get valuable reward from their labour and equitable treatment constructivism theory holds that learning is done in the context of meaningful activities. Since these activities are not done in a vacuum, they require adequate human and material resources which form the basis of this study.
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