Terry in Okoroma (2006) considers a policy as an overall guide that gives the general limits and direction in which administrative action will take place. He believes that a policy defines the area in which decisions are to be made. On this premise Okorma (2000) describes educational polices as initiatives that determine the direction of an education system. Similarly, Ogboru (2008) opines that educational policies form a framework of the direction governments intend the education sector to take in order to enhance the efficiency and productivity of its human resources.

            Fabunmi (2005) traces Nigerian educational policies to the colonial administrators’ education ordinances and codes, such as the 1882, 1887, 1916, 1926 and 1946 education codes. He believes that these ordinances and codes served as the basis for the modern day educational policies, education laws and techniques of educational administration in Nigeria. Agreeing with this view, Okoroma (2006) reveals that prior to 1977 Nigeria operated an educational policy inherited from Britain. He believes that the unpopularity of this policy led to 1969 National curriculum conference and the 1973 National Seminar (organized by the National Educational Research and Development Council) which gave rise to the National policy on Education in 1977. according to Ogburu (2008), the national Policy on Education 1977  (revised 1981, 1998 and 2004) attests to Nigeria’s commitment to education for all. He links the Universal Basic Education (UBE) to the 1948 Universal declaration of Human rights to Education. He believes that poor implementation of this declaration led to the world conference on Education for all in Jomtien, Thailand out of which Universal Basic Education grew.
            Okoroma (2006) observes that the gap between educational policies and goal attainment is due to inadequate implementation of these policies. He believes that no matter how good a policy is, its implementation may introduce some elements of imperfection. He affirms that the gap that exists between policy formulation and implementation provokes inquiring to identify the factors that constrain the effective implementation of educational polices. He identifies good planning a an effective tool for the implementation of educational polices. However, Adesina in Okoroma (2006) notes that planned implementation may be constrained the following factors: over-estimation of available resources, under-estimation of he cost of implementation, over-reliance upon external assistance, inaccurate statistical data, poor communication process, incapability, and dispositional conflicts.
            The Universal Primary Education (UPE) was assessed to have failed due to what Taiwo in Okoroma (2006) describes as short-sightedness in planning on the part of Federal Government. He regrets that the Federal Government acted inconsistently, resulting to short supply of everything required for the effective implementation of the UPE policy. Okoroma in Okoroma (2006) affirms that the implementation of the 3-3 aspect of the National policy on education in rivers State was hindered by inadequate teaching staff; inadequate workshops; inadequate laboratories and libraries; insufficient funds; and non-availability of guidance and counseling services. He again identifies the constraints of effective implementation of UBE as inadequate qualified teachers; insufficiency of funds; inadequate teaching and learning facilities; poor motivation of teachers; and lack of guidance and counseling services.
Share on Google Plus


The publications and/or documents on this website are provided for general information purposes only. Your use of any of these sample documents is subjected to your own decision NB: Join our Social Media Network on Google Plus | Facebook | Twitter | Linkedin