Leadership determines the direction of any organization. The progress and success of any organization whether the church or secular institutions – depend upon the quality and effectiveness of the leadership put in place. Corporate directors for years have understood that the success of their organizations is predicated on executive efficiency. In this discourse, we will concentrate on Biblical leadership.

What do we mean by “Philosophy of Leadership”? We don’t intend to teach philosophy in this discourse which we know as “the science of Enquiry” But by philosophy of leadership we mean the principles that underlie proper and effective leadership. A thorough understanding and appreciation of these principles is vital to our understanding of Biblical leadership. True learning is not merely the enlargement of the intellect but the development of a culture. What do we mean by culture here?
Leadership is the art of influencing and directing men in such a way as to obtain their obedience, confidence, respect and loyal cooperation to accomplish the mission of the organization. True leadership culture therefore envisions a leader who is aware of his responsibilities, capitalizes on his strong traits, corrects his weakness and is guided by the principles of leadership. It is on this note that we examine just ten of these principles.
(1)       CHARACTER: It is unequivocally stated that the foundation of leadership is character – the mental or moral qualities that make a man, a race, different from the others. God is more interested in who you are than what you are doing. In 1 Samuel 16:6-7, the man of God mistook good looks, elegance for the foundation for leadership. We often blame the devil for every bad conduct. The truth is that man is the creator of his character. God created man but gave him a considerable amount of freedom and power of creating his own character by which he is responsible for his actions. We know that there are two major factors in character moulding or formation – heredity and environment, but man is to blame for allowing the undesirable elements of his character to form.
            T. C. Hammonds in his book “Perfect Freedom” spoke of the four faculties in man that made him a “moral being” not just an animal. These are: 
(1)       Desire (2) will (3) motive and (4) intention. So, every character of a man is a product of desire, propelled by his will power, motivated by a factor in order to realize his intention. On this note we conclude that man must be held accountable for his actions, and therefore, it is morally wrong to trust one that is morally bankrupt with leadership positions: Since leadership has to do with directing and influencing people Rom. 2:17-23. The character we portray will make or mar our ministry, lift us up or let us down, open the way for us or close up our door of excellence. On thing is to have amounting, another thing is to have character.
(2)       Sacrifice: It is believed that the measure of leadership is sacrifice. In John 10, Jesus and Church leaders are likened to shepherds sheep. The are:
(1) desire (2) will (3) motive and (4) intention. S, every character of a man is a product of desire, propelled by his will power, motivated by a factor in order to realize his intention. On this note  we conclude that man must be held accountable for his actions, and therefore, it is morally wrong to trust one that is morally bankrupt with leadership positions: Since leadership has to do with directing and influencing people Rom. 2:17-23. The character we portray will make or mar our ministry, lift us up or let us down, open the way for us or close up our door of excellence. On thing is to have amounting, another thing is to have character.
(2)       SACRIFICE: It is believed that the measure of leadership is sacrifice. In John 10, Jesus and church leaders are likened to shepherds. Sheep symbolize the true followers (believers) of Jesus. Jesus warns his disciples to guard against three majored enemies of the sheep. They are:
1.         The thief: This is one who steals subtly and deceitfully. Jn, 10:1,8,10. The thief is the devil and those church leaders who are like him.
2.         The Robber/wolf. Jn 10:1,8, The robber steals by force, violently attacking others etc. Acts 20:29. False prophets and pastors etc. are wolves.
3.         The hireling Jn. 10:12, 13. The hireling is one whose only motive for working with the sheep is money, wages, or gain. Peters calls it filthy lucre 1Peter 5:2-3, Job. 7:2 He has no real care for the sheep and therefore will not watch his life and as a result “cannot spare the flock” Acts 20:29 there can be no real sacrifice where these are prevalent. What we give up as sacrifice in our effort to serve God’s people in leadership is a measure of our yieldedness.  
3.         The NATURE of leadership is service. Jesus said that he come not to be served, but to serve (MK 10:45).
4.         The MOTIVE of leadership is love- Jesus commanded us to love one another to the point of being willing to lay down our lives for others, if need be. If a leaders is motivated by any other motive, love of money, prestige, power etc- he is not likely to do this Jn. 10:13.
5.         The AUTHORITY of leadership is submission, submission to the lord and to his people (Jn. 14:15, Rom. 13:14) if in habit you offend your brethren, give up that habit (Rom. 14:15).
6.         The PURPOSE  of leadership is the glory of God (1Cor, 10:31) we must always ask ourselves: do our attitudes bring glory to God? The things we do, the thoughts in our hearts, the way we relate to others, our motives and dreams, do they bring glory to God?.
7.         The TOOLS of leadership are the word and prayer (Jn. 14:12-15) Through the word of God, we have knowledge and through prayer we are able to receive from God the miracles we need in order to succeed.
8.         The PRIVILEGE of leadership is growth. The more we are used of the lord, the more we increase in stature, and the sharper we become.
9.         The POWER is leadership is the Holy Spirit (Acts 1:8) it is He that equips the saints for the work of the ministry. Therefore, we must never grieve the Holy Ghost. A life of sin grieves him.
10.       The MODEL of leadership is Jesus Christ.

1a.       authoritarian leadership: This is leadership based on the authority vested in the office by Biblical or other institutional authorities.
b.         PERSUASIVE LEADERSHIP: Leadership based on the personal influence of the leader brought to peak by his personality, character, persuasive ability, and dedication to the mission of the organi­zation,
3.         ELEMENTS OF LEADERSHIP (The 3 care factors involved) Each leader must formulate his own solution to each problem based upon his analysis of the three basic elements in the leadership environment which are the leader the group and the situation.
a.         The leader must analyze himself and develop those personal traits and professional techniques which will ensure his success in a leadership role.
b.         The group must be understood on the basis of its organizational structure, sub-leaders cultural background, and educational background it must be viewed also as an aggregation of individuals-involving personality, emotions, values, desires etc.
c.         Each must be faced as a new and separate problem with its own
answers, and there must be a continuous evaluation of the situation as it changes.  The various situations that confront a leader require substantial leadership adaptability.
4.         THE LEADER'S ROLE
a.         The leader must first of all Know himself. To do so, he must have the mental courage to evaluate his strengths and weakness in terms of morel, physical and mental characteristics.  The leader must seek an awareness of his image as viewed by the members positively (and) or negatively-positively through verbal or non-verbal feedback and constructive criticism, or negatively, through criticism.
b.         Next, the- leader must understand and be able to recognize individual differences in the people of his congregation.
c.         Each person has his own individual personality and each is affected differently by the aspects of his environment.
d.         The leader must understand and be able to recognize types and analyze Individuals, so that the proper appeal or approach can be selected which will cause the individual to respond willingly in the way which the leader desired.
e.         The leader's understanding of human behaviour patterns of individual differences and of the drive for satisfaction of basic human needs provides a basis for;
i           The establishment of good working relationships
ii          The development of desirable group interaction
iii        The accomplishment of the mission of the church.

It should be recognized, however, that the leader's goal the personalities of the people with whom he is working, and the circumstances of the specific situation will have a profound effect on which particular trait or traits needs the most emphasis.   
1a.       Judgment: judgment is the quality of logically weighting facts and possible solutions on which to base sound decisions. Enhance your judgment by being as technically qualified as possible. 
b.         To improve judgment
i .         Practice making estimates of the situation
ii.         Anticipate situations winch require decisions, so you may be prepared when the need arises.
iii.       Avoid making rash decisions.
iv.        As a Christian one can trust that the Holy Spirit will give insight.

2        JUSTICE
a.         Justice is the quality of being impartial and consistent in dealing with people. Justice involves the rendering of reward, and also to met out punishment in accordance with the merits of the case. Anger and other emotions must not enter into a situation. Prejudice of the race or creed must be avoided. Few things will disrupt the moral of an organization more quickly than unfairness or partiality of a leader toward a certain man or group of men.
b.         Your decisions relative to people are a test to your fairness.
It makes a- long time to build up a reputation of being fare. One thoughtless error or injustice can destroy a good reputation that took years to establish.
c.         To administer justice, you must understand human behaviour, study people with the idea of learning why certain individuals behave the way they do under certain conditions.  Analyze the asses that have been decided, and determine what you would have done had you been the one to make the decision.  This is personal mental process and should never be used as an occasion to criticize the decision of another leader.
d.         To develop the trait of justice
e.         Be fair, consistent and prompt when making a decision
ii.         Consider each case on its own merit
iii.       Correct in private, with dignity, and with spiritual understanding.
iv.        Search your mental attitudes to determine if you hold any prejudices, and if so, make conscious efforts not to permit them to influence your decision.
v.         Never punish a group for the faults of an individual
vi.        Be honest with yourself.  The Holy Spirit will help you to do so.
vii.      Recognize members worthy of commendation or award.  Do not be known as one who dispenses only criticism
3.         LOYALTY:(a) Loyalty is the quality of faithfulness to you, church, seniors, subordinates and associates.  This quality alone can do much to earn for you the confidence and respect of your seniors, subordinates, and associates, your action must reflect loyalty to your Lord.
b.         To develop loyalty
i.          Be quick to defend others .from abuse
ii.         Never give the slightest hair of disagreement with orders from leadership  when relating instructions to members.
iii.       Practice doing every task to the best of your ability, and wholeheartedly supporting your leadership’s decisions.
iv.        Never discuss the personal problems of your members with others.
v.         Be discreet in discussing church problems with individuals not    
4.         TACT (A) Tact is the ability to deal with others without creating offence.  In the field of human relations, tact is the ability to say and do the proper thing at the right time. Tact involves the understanding of human nature and consideration for the feelings of others.
b.         Tact is important in all personal relationships criticism must be clear, yet constructive.  It should not cause discouragement or detract from the drive and energy of the church member.  Every Pastor needs to be tactful when advising those who come to him with embarrassing personal matters. Avoid passing judgment on these matters, your role is primarily that of a counsellor. Sometimes the highest degree of tact is simply to listen with understanding interest and permit the member to arrive, at his own solution.  You may confirm his solution or suggest a different one.
c.         To demand courtesy, and to fail to return it in full measures, indicates either arrogance or a lack of interest. Courtesy stems from one's mental attitude and is expressed in both words and actions One leader may bark out directives impersonally and abruptly. Another may give his directives in a tone tinged with courtesy that implies the expectancy of obedience. Either method may get obedience and cooperation. Usually a calm, courteous, though firm tone of speech will bring a quick response. Thus, a tact and courtesy are closely related to mental attitude as well as to manner and language.
d.         To develope tact
i.          Be courteous and cheerful
ii.         Be considerate of others
iii.       Study the actions of ministers who work with your.
Be patient with your followers and give them time to understand both you and your system in order to adjust.

Unit 2

There is a tendency to have leadership in any given group or - society.
A society is organized in a way that needs would be met.
To meet the needs of a given society demands leadership. Apart from needs, there are also goals or aspirations to be attained as well as resources (human, natural, etc) to be used to meet the common goal of the society.
The big question therefore is:
v How do we organize the society to meet the goals, aspirations and needs of its members? Who will in turn work for the attainment of the goal of the organization.
This brings about two basic concepts:
(i)                Leadership: whether in a church, government or
(ii)             (ii) Followership: business.
Between leadership and followership, there is relationship for the free - flow of ideas to achieve the goals.
In Nigeria, our problem is not with goals or resources, but with the leadership and followership.

Leadership is a divine concept. It did not originate from the politicians. It existed from the beginning of the age. Gen. 1:26. - Adam and Eve plus other creatures constituted the first society. - Adam was to have dominion over creatures and that was leadership. He gave the animals names. From there, leadership developed into various kinds of governments, whether democracy or autocracy.
v God is the one who ordains leaders. Leadership also has relevance to the Church - It is a Biblical concept which affects the Church. The Church is one body with many members. The Head of the Church is Christ. The Church is then seen in an organizational form. The Church, though, is not an organization. but an organism.
Christ, the Head, has set authority in the Church - viz the Prophets, Teachers, etc.
The Church as organism entails that:  
*          Every member is functional
*          The function of every member is determined, controlled and sustained by the centre - i.e. the Head.   Eph.  4:16 gives us an idea of how the church is organized illustration.


The structure in which the world is organized is in pyramid form  

Leadership means different things to different people. There is a sharp contrast which Jesus made between organism and organization. Matt. 20:20-28 (illustration of the rulership in the world today).

Picture of what the request of John and James portrays.

When the other 10 heard it, they were moved with indignation – struggles for power which meant they might have been nurturing the same ambition in their mind. The disciples have been seeing the leadership of organization in their society and wanted it that way. But Christ said’ “No, it should not be so among you”.

Leadership in the church (organism) is different v. 26
Definition which Jesus gave
Leadership is not power but service. He that will be great among you let him be your servant. Whereas in the world it is power. He gave an example of himself, he who is the centre of the church became servant.

* Director 
* Facilitator – get things going
* Commander
* Encourager – he stirs people
* Exploiter
* Enabler – meets the needs of others
* Competitors
* Helper
* Extorter
* Equipper
* Exercises power
* Leads by example

* Illustration of Christ’s washing the feet of the disciples. He puts leadership like this:

 We cannot use the pattern of the world to run the spiritual organism. It is division of labour in organism. Operation is by gifts and calling in organism while it is by connection, tribalism etc in the organization.

Note Associations are different from local churches. Local churches are spiritual entities. Associations must have and operate administrative systems but you cannot run local churches with secular administration constitutions. The only constitution the church has is the Bible and the Holy Spirit the Director.
Some examples of the leadership styles of Christ.
(a)       John 10: 1-3
1.         Leadership as shepherd hood
v Usurped leadership and v 1-2
v Given leadership vv. 3-5
A good leader is supposed to be in the forefront. He feels it more than the people. He goes before them. V 11. He inconveniences Himself. He makes a lot of sacrifices.
V. 14 Very much acquainted with His own. You will not be afraid of the people because of the intimacy between you and them.
V 17 – 18 – elements of authority. He voluntarily gave himself has authority but exercises it in humility and wisdom. Not drunk  with power. When he was arrested, he did not use the authority to free himself, rather he yielded to the arrest just for sake of those he was leading.
V. 27 Followership is voluntary.  It is not sustained by decree. Obedience is voluntary, not forced.
V 26 Security and safety for the sheep. At every time people came J to accuse his disciples, he defended them. He didn't rebuke them L openly i.e. in the presence of the people (in the public)
He protected the integrity of even the weakest among them. It is the responsibility of any leader to make sure that those under him make it and are preserved.
Jesus is an encourager. He chose them and though most of them were not very responsible. Their understanding was too low. They also deserted him when he was arrested. They struggled for power, yet He was so faithful to them, stuck to them and had confidence in them despite the fact that they failed him several times.
Leadership Qualities in Jesus Christ

A.        Courage - Living, sticking and speaking what he believes without compromising with opposition when everybody was on the majority and he on the minority. It takes courage. It involves telling the truth and standing by the truth without compromising. E.g of those who came the following day of the food miracle. All of them were offended and went back. (John 6)
* Most of the problems we are having in our churches today arise from the fact that few leaders are prepared to preach the truth and not succumb to the fear of the people going/leaving their church, thus making their purses leaner.
(B) Custom Breaking.

He didn't please people but God, e.g healing the sick on the Sabbath day which was against the rule of the land. It takes breaking certain customs to lead. The people made the word of God non-effect because of their rules. Such ungodly rules need to be disobeyed under certain circumstances.

Love and compassion come first - David, ate the food meant for the priest - He .broke a rule but fulfilled the law of love and compassion of God.  Jesus broke all those laws that prevented the manifestation of the love of God.  People first, the law second.
(C)  He recognized the ability of others

He identified their abilities and encouraged them.
The Roles of Leaders as facilitators
John 4:34 - 36 Goals to be achieved
John 9:4 - Needs to be met
Nehemiah as an example made a survey, before mobilizing the people to achieve the goal.
The leader is supposed to be a facilitator because you don't have all the gifts, you can't do all things yourself.
A leader as a facilitator must have the following characteristics:
1.  Clear vision of what God wants him and his people to do. Your own vision must be clear so as to help you lead the people.  An e.g. of Nehemiah. Neh. 2:12.  This will enable you not to be distracted. Nehemiah knew what his God wanted him to do.

Having a clear vision however, will lead to:

2.         A sense of direction: - knowing where to go despite oppositions (from Tobla & Sambalat and his people), thus not being distracted. He had a clear vision and focused on that.
3.         Awareness of cur abilities, resources, sources and limitations.

Awareness of the ability God has put in us and also being aware of our inability or limitations. You’ll be able to co-ordinate things together i.e. your ability that of others.  Leaders are not achievers, no one man achieve a corporate goal on a whole.

Awareness of the resources available & where to get it e.g feeding of 5,000 people in the wilderness. Phillip was not aware of the resources. Andrew was aware of the little resources of 2 loaves & 5 fish, but was overwhelmed by the needs. Jesus took what they had and prayed on it and gave it to them & miracle took place in their hand.

Many leaders do not know the source of the resources.

4.         Ability to mobilize and utilize all available resources. Nehemiah mobilized spiritual resources first (he prayed).
Neh. 2:17 - he mobilized human resources. In Chapter One, before he left for Jerusalem, all what he needed (material resources) were provided by the King.

5.         Flexibility and Willingness to adapt or change strategies as the Holy Spirit directs. Be flexible in the hand of the Holy Spirit. Any leader who is not flexible in the hand of the Holy Spirit, will become nobody. Nehemiah changed strategies also by asking some people to be on guard while some were building.

6. Openness to criticism and willing to make amends/take correction where necessary.

Criticism enables us to know the parts that we take for granted or the aspect where correction is to be made. Criticism is not to harm but to correct.

It also helps you to know the spiritual barometer of the people you are leading. When we see that the problem is with us, we should be ready to change for this doesn't reduce anything from our leadership status.

7.         Willingness to make sacrifice.  Neh. 5: 1- end.
8.         Boldness and courage for the truth and against falsehood.
You cannot correct the people with whom you are doing the same thing. This helped" Nehemiah.
9.         Staying on course insplte of all odds. Any leader who runs away when the going is tough is not supposed to be a leader. Nehemiah stayed with the people insplte of all oddities. Jesus described such people who flee during times of trouble as hirelings i.e those who run away when things get tough.
10.       Being able to sustain peoples confidence through your own dedication and commitment.

If people doubt your integrity, dedication, etc, you'll not have their co-operation.

A leader should be able to know where he is going to be able to carry people along.

A farmer plants - to reap
An athlete runs - to receive reward
Christ was able to say that He had finished the work.  So also Paul saying he had fought the good fight of faith. This implied they've achieved their goals.  So also is a leader needed to have a clear goal and to know when he has attained it.

What is a goal?  Luke 14:28 - 32

A  goal is a statement of faith about what is to  be  accomplished within  a given period of time based on  an  inspiration (vision) from God, relying on God (trusting and having confidence in God)  for the accomplishment of such.
John 9:4 – Goal setting.

Jesus was a goal setter.
A vision is a conviction of an idea of what God wants you to do at a given period.

Difference between Goal and Objective:    

Objective is what is to be done, while
Goal is how and when to do it.

 (1) It gives us a sense of direction
Helps to know when we've arrived.  Everything you do must be geared towards the goal.

Keeps on course - keeps from drifting

Helps in motivation. Easy to mobilize people when you know where you are going.
2.         Helps us to do proper evaluation. We'll be able to ask ourselves whether we've achieved anything or not. This helps to safe-guard against distraction and dissipated efforts.

3. It helps us in planning. It is man's responsibility to plan and God guides his steps. Planning helps us to manage and apply our resources wisely. Neh. 2:7- 6

Planning gives us directions in our prayer.
4.         It helps us in achieving results. Result brings encouragement. You'll be able to know when the goal is achieved.
Mark 3:13 -'14.  Christ set a goal for himself
Phil. 3: 12 -14 Paul also had a goal

Jesus and Paul knew their goals and these helped them against distraction.

Characteristics of a Goal - S.M.A.R.T.
1.         Must be Specific & clear - e.g Nehemiah: To rebuild the wall in Jerusalem.
2.         Must be Measurable - e.g reaching 5 tribes in 10 yrs
3.         Must be Attainable - something that can be achieved.
4.         Must be Realistic - something that can be achieved in the light of reasonable circumstances
5.         Must have Time target - e.g. to make ten converts in three months.

Short term goal-procedures (steps) that lead to long term goal. Nehemiah gives a vivid illustration of how each tribe built parts of the wall which led to the building of the whole wall.

Long term goal is the ultimate goal.
Disadvantages of Long-term Goal
- Drifting a lot      
- Waste of resources
- No early result to show for it.  


For an effective mobilization, there is the need to first of all carry out an evaluation of the goals of your ministry as well as the current output of your organization.

Mobilization entails the following basic steps:
A.   Information Sharing
(i)  Facts
(ii) Figures highlighting: needs, problems, solutions, possibilities, opportunities. - Matt 9: 35 - 10:5 Christ created an awareness.

Neh. 2:12 - 18 - did a research & then shared the information with the people.

We car share information, through oral presentation or publications, visual or written.

What your people will do will depend on how much you mobilize them.

In information - sharing, we aim at the three levels of the soul i.e. intellect (information), emotion (motivation) or will (decision -or action).

B.  Exposure.             
Expose them to the realities i.e. to the need. Bring those in need to your people. Or you take your people to the areas in need.

C.  State the gains and losses.

Let the people know what they will gain spiritually if they do it and the losses if they don't do it. E.g. Jesus disciple at a point thought it is not use doing the work. Jesus told them that there is no one who left his mother, house etc who will lose his/her reward.

D. Demonstrate your personal commitment to the cause for which you are mobilizing the people. Acts 1:1,2, Nehemiah 2:17,16. Lead by showing example.

E.  Highlight the possibilities.

Focus on the possibilities and not on negatitive things. E.g. The 12 Spies Moses sent to spy Canaan. The report of the ten (negative) and the two (positive).
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