Strategies for Facilitating Retention
            Psychologists such as Unachukwu (1989), Chauhan (1978) and Cliford (1981) have suggested some strategies which classroom teachers should adopt to facilitate retention of learned materials by pupils. These are as follows:
1.         Over learning:  If a subject matter is well learned, retention is enhanced. Over learning is a term used to describe practice that continues after a perfect recall has been scored (Unachukwu 1989). To improve retention, over learning is essential.

            To enhance over learning teachers should provide learners opportunity to practice the activity with materials. In this way what is learned becomes part of the learner. Experiential learning provides a perfect opportunity for over learning to take place, since it involves pupils practice what they learn in order to discover facts and confirm or refute laws and principles.

2.         Meaningfulness and Organization of subject matter
According to Unachukwu (1989), retention is enhanced if materials are made to reflect things that learners can easily come in contact, or things that affect learners in real life. It is also necessary that materials are simple, sequential and logical. This is very essential in teaching science in basic school. Abstract concepts must be demonstrated with concrete objects, while teaching proceeds from simple to complex ideas. This will enhance the flow of ideas. For example, the knowledge of air will facilitate the learning about wind. This will be achieved through the adoption of experiential learning method in instructional delivery. This is because the method emphasizes learner’s previous experience, sequential progression from known to unknown, learners’ active participation and the use of authentic concrete objects are essential in instructional delivery.  

3.         Association
 Learning is retained more if what is learned is associated to a concept that is well known to learners. This is in conformity with the stimulus response (S-R) theory which says that learning is associative. (Unachukwu1989). Here what is meant is that learning is related to another earlier/previous experience. That is, relating one thing to another. The moment one of these two things is seen, the other can easily be recalled. In other words one becomes a cue to the recall of the other (Chauhan 1987). Experiential teaching method also provides opportunity for association. This is because of the use of concrete object as teaching aids. In the application of experiential teaching methodologies, emphasis are laid on teaching aids that are sourced from learners’ environment. This makes it possible for learners to be familiar with the teaching aid. As such, the learners easily come in contact with the materials on daily basis. Any moment a child sees a concrete object which was used to demonstrate/teach a particular topic in school, he/she will recall the knowledge that the topic imparted.

4.         Learning by Practice
This method is also known as learning by doing. In this method, the learners are encouraged to participate actively in the learning process and the experiences acquired will be remembered for a longer period (Unachukwu, 1989). This practice is the core of experiential teaching. Through practice with concrete materials learners construct and reconstruct meaning which is life long and transferable from one situation to another. If for example, a child is guided to find out the characteristics of living and non-living things, the chances of the child recognizing all living and non-living things any where he sees it are very high. If on the other hand, a child participates in conducting any experiment in a subject matter, such child can hardly forget it. Indeed, learning by practice is the best way to learn as it imparts knowledge which is life long to learners.

5.         Use of Mnemonic Devices
According to (Unachukwu 1989), the mnemonic devices are individually formulated abbreviation used by learners to aid recall of major points. Mnemonic devices are also used to learn materials that come close to meaningless materials. This is useful in the area of science subjects as formulas are represented with such devices. For example, H2SO4, HCl, CO2.
Imagery (AUDIO-visual Aids): Audio-visual Aids are mostly materials that are used to appeal to the senses of sight and sound of learners. These materials appear in various forms. They include radio, television, tape records etc. There is no point emphasizing the obvious fact that effective use of these materials as instructional materials in the class-room aids retention. The reasons these materials are needed in teaching is that there are people who can see but cannot hear well, while some other people can hear well but cannot see. This therefore means that for audio-video aids to serve properly, there should be joint use of  the materials. Audio-video should be well prepared (Unachukwu 1989). This enhances retention of learners. Therefore if educators want to enhance retention in learning, they should encourage the use of this method.

Self Recitation
            This is a method of continuously rehearsing what was learned. This rehearsal could be done by heart or aloud by the learner. Learners can also recite individually in groups. Therefore, to encourage learners to retain what they had learnt, teachers should organize them in groups or encourage individual rehearsal of what they learnt.
Building blocks Psychologists have generally acknowledged building blocks as a method that enhances retention of learning. One way of doing this is to use Advance Organizer (Unachukwu 1989). Advanced organizer according to Unachukwu (1989:200) means that if the teacher teaches in advance of the actual lesson the main ideas of that lesson”. This helps students in many ways as well. It enables them point out the similarities between what they already know and what is to be learnt.
The implication of all these methods to the educational system is that Educators (teachers) should understand the teaching method which will lead to the adoption of these strategies that facilitate retention. In fact the process of education will be meaningless if children do not retain the knowledge transmitted in school. That is why the use of experiential teaching method is being recommended. The strategies discussed above are similar with the process of experiential teaching method. Educators must strive at fashioning out strategies that will enhance retention of knowledge transmitted in school. This will enhance transfer and application in the context outside the learning environment.
6.         Transfer of learning
 The essence of any form of education (formal or informal) is to equip the learner with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that will enable the learner to adapt and survive in the society. Formal education becomes irrelevant if the knowledge transmitted to those who submit themselves to it cannot be used to solving the problems of learner outside the school environment. It will be absurd situation if what children were taught in formal school had no relevance outside the context of the school (Nwachukwu 1989). Therefore, to make sure that the knowledge transmitted in schools are useful in overcoming the challenges of the society, educators must emphasize on strategies that enhance transfer of learning. Children are educated to prepare them for living. They are also educated to enable them acquire values and deep sense of morality. Based on those expectations, and in line with the implicit faith the society places on the efficacy of education, one should expect that all school learning should have a positive carry-over effect on challenges or problems in society. That is why government spends large percentage of her annual budget in education.
Knowledge transfer implies carrying knowledge across contextual boundaries (Fernwick 2000). To Chanhan (1978:200) knowledge transfer is “the application or carryover of knowledge, skill, habits, attitudes or other responses from the situation in which they were initially acquired to some other situation for which they were not specifically learned.” From the above therefore, achievement in any school subject can only be adequately measured in relation to the extent to which learners are able to utilize the knowledge acquired in school to solve their daily problems or life challenges. Teachers and curriculum planners have the grave responsibility of ensuring that the teaching method for use in teaching and the curriculum content make provision for transfer of learning. Psychologists on their own have identified three possible knowledge transfers. They include positive transfer, negative transfer and zero transfer (Nwachuku 1989). If knowledge in basic science and technology enhanced understating a concept in health education, positive transfer has taken place. If the same knowledge has inhibited learning in another subject area, it is negative transfer. But if it has neither enhanced nor inhibited acquisition of other knowledge or skill then it is zero transfer.       
            In transfer, there are three types of transfers these include: sequential, lateral and vertical transfers. Each of these may take place depending on the nature of its task, its levels of difficulty and the conditions which result in transfer (Nwachuku 1989).
            Lateral transfer involves using knowledge gained to solve the same level of task of equal difficulty in another situation. Vertical transfer occurs if knowledge acquired is used to solve a complex problem from the same knowledge area. This implies that there is a movement from lower level to higher level of difficulty. (Chauhan 1978)
            Indeed transfer is critical to learning, in that, if there is no transfer, there is hardly any learning, because the essence of learning is for the acquisition of knowledge, and skills needed to solve problems in life. Experiential teaching approach guarantees transfer of learning.

Life skill: These are the basic skills or techniques which individuals require to cope effectively in life and for every day functioning (UNICEF, 2001). By definition, experiential learning is seen as a process through which a learner generates knowledge, skills and value from direct experiences (Houle 1980). The skill may be vocational skill or life skills. Skill is an indispensable component of learning such that any form of education that does not incorporate skill development or acquisition is grossly inadequate. Skills are indispensable to the growth of knowledge. At the basic school level, knowledge in science and technology should impart basic life skills to learners, most especially those that relate to science process skills. This will enable learners develop the needed skills to cope in a society dominated by scientific and technological innovations and skills in doing further science. Typical examples of skills needed here are, perseverance, close observation, curiosity, testing, precisions in use of instruments, measurement and accuracy in interpretation. Children are empowered when they can exercise age-appropriate control, make choices that impact themselves, their resources and participate in the society. Life skills when appropriately mainstreamed into relevant subject matters contributes to young people’s empowerment by helping them to understand their rights and responsibilities while building their skills to understand and benefit from opportunities around them, UNICEF (2013). Life skill gives rise to critical thinking. This means that any child that acquires relevant life skills in the course of doing science must weigh every decision, viz-a-vis the merits and demerits of the usage of the knowledge acquired. The child must consider the impact of the application of the knowledge to himself and the larger community.
            Life skills on the other hand are seen by World Health Organization (WHO, 2001;4) as “the abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands of every day life”. To UNICEF (2001:7), life skill means “a behaviour change or behaviour development approach designed to address a balance of these areas; knowledge, attitudes and skill”. Life skills promote mental well being of and competencies in young people to enable them face the realities of life. Life skill include, skills in problem solving, critical thinking, creative thinking, coping with stress and emotions (UNICEF, 2001). Well-motivated teachers through the use of certain method and tools could develop these skills in learners, which enables learners change from passive recipients of knowledge to active participants in the learning process (UNICEF, 2001). Life skills are not only indispensable in developing learners’ interest in doing science but are necessary in dealing with the realities of life. Educators should be cognizant of this important point and plan all basic science and technology lessons in such a way that each unit of instruction contains relevant life skill component. It is important to note that Education is not complete if it does not impart relevant life skills to its clientele. These life skills are very essential and are considered as major results/out-comes of quality education (science or art). In most developed educational settings such as U.S.A, United Kingdom, Canada, life skills are strongly emphasized as it is a means to empower young people to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life. Science as we know being critical to the social and economic wellbeing of every individual should promote the development of life skills right from the formative level of education. Science education that does not include the requisite life skills in every unit of course may lead to children acquiring scientific knowledge which may turn to be destructive as the recipient of the knowledge may put the knowledge into wrong usage. It is therefore necessary that experiential teaching method which emphasizes the acquisition of skills could be used in the teaching of Basic Science and Technology. The major task before the teacher in employing the method is to carefully guide the learners so that the skills that will be emphasized in the course of instruction will be those that are useful to the development of the learners themselves and the society at large. Indeed, it is evident that the world at present has gone scientific. Social and economic lives are becoming more complex. It is becoming more important to gain scientific skills that will help young and adult people become competent and confident in achieving results to the best of their abilities. Therefore, a pedagogical approach that is suitable in equipping people to adapt to this present challenges is the one that equips learners with life skills in addition to imparting knowledge to the learner about the subject matter. Experiential teaching method is one of those teaching approaches and educators should encourage teachers to adopt and extensively use it in not only teaching of science and technology but all other subjects taught in basic schools. Through life skill education, children acquire a greater sense of belonging and confidence, their ability to take positive actions and make important decisions in their lives are enhanced. It enables to make better career choice in life. When life skills are built into the teaching of basic science and technology, children are placed in a better position to make positive career choices in sciences. This becomes obvious as UNICEF (2013) had stated that the definition of life skill includes a range of skills and knowledge. Essential in its definition are the personal, interpersonal and cognitive psychosocial skills that enable people to interact appropriately, manage their own emotional states and make their own decisions and choices for an active, safe and productive life (UNICEF 2013). Life skill gives rise to critical thinking. This means that any child that acquires relevant life skills in the course of doing science must weigh every decision, viz-a-vis the merits and demerits of the usage of the knowledge acquired. This could be achieved through the use of experiential teaching method in its delivery. Experiential teaching method brings to bear the creativity and ingenuity in learners. This is so because it challenges learners to discover fact about issues through the use of their sense or reasoning.

Gender Sensitivity
            In a bid to providing equal opportunities to both male and female learners to fully participate in basic science or other subjects in school, using the experiential teaching approach, educators (teachers) should be gender sensitive.
            Gender sensitivity in instructional delivery refers to the use of non-sexist expression. It refers to the selection of teaching materials that do not portray gender discrimination. Such teaching materials include: story illustrations, textbook illustrations etc. it extends to the non-assignment of responsibility to a particular gender, if on the other hand teachers emphasize or de-emphasize any gender, it will limit the extent to which the de-emphasized gender will succeed in the course of instruction, especially in science course. This issue has become necessary since we are living in a society that believes that science and all science allied professions are not meant for girls.
            It is against this backdrop that Njoku (2006:16) had observed that “strong gender biases pervade science and technology (S&T) curricular used in Nigeria basic and senior secondary schools”. The biases according to him are in terms of choice of drawings, or pictures of illustration of S&T activities, language of expression used in S&T books, teachers’ choice of activities used in science teaching. He lamented that girl’s interest and daily experiences are rarely considered for inclusion in the S&T books. It is evident as was observed by Okeke and Rufai (2003:5) that “teachers’ teaching styles, attitudes, interactions, expectations and even the task they assign such as male and female leadership positions, work to reduce girls participation in class and eventual achievement”. If the above claim is true, it then means that if such ugly practices are not checked, teachers may extend it to this experiential method of instructional delivery. This will further deepen girls’ disadvantaged position in the study of basic science. Any discrimination in providing any type of education (science or art) as is in the case of boys and girls cannot be accepted as it cannot be justified. It constitutes breach of fundamental human right.
            Gender response pedagogy must be adopted and used by teachers. Gender responsive pedagogy refers to the specific learning needs of girls and boys…in the process of lesson planning, teaching, and classroom management and performance evaluation (ADEA, 2006).

Pupils’ Participation:
            Participation in the context of this study refers to involvement. This means involving pupils adequately in science class room instructional process. Low or total none involvement of pupils in science delivery process is the bane of science instruction in Nigeria as was reported by some science education researchers.
            Science is referred to as a system of acquiring knowledge based on the scientific method as well to the organized body of knowledge gained through such research (Wikipedia, 2012). The scientific method according to Harlen (1992:8) refers to “the first hand use of physical and mental skills to generate and test reliable knowledge and generalization”. The skills involved in doing science is called the “process-skills”. The process skills involve process such as observation, question raising inquiry, hypothesizing, predicting, planning, experimenting and interpreting of observation. Science also involves using the knowledge that has been generated through the process skills to create and continually refine testable models of nature that help us to describe, explain, predict and to conceptualize observable phenomenon of nature (Harlen 1992). The implication of the above facts of science is that science is an activity-based subject. As an activity based discipline, children involved in the study of science are expected to be involved deeply and at all times in carrying out activity, asking questions while carrying out the activities and giving explanations on the outcome of the activities carried out. By so doing that children will study science with understanding. But contrary to the above stated approach in effective teaching/learning of science, Education science researchers have independently decried the none participation (involvement) of children in any doing activity in the science classes. For example, Omotayo and Olaoye (2008) had noted that one of the allegations against the poor quality of science instructions in Nigeria is the “total lack or insufficient participation of students in the learning process. Nworgu and Nwazojie (2003:13) had on their own lamented that “the didactic method which teachers currently employ in teaching primary science emphasizes rote memoration and regurgitation of facts. Pupils’ activities are given less emphasis”. Ling and Boo (2007:2) on their own stated that “the teaching of science in primary schools is often didactic. It is not surprising that pupils learn science concepts by rote---- there is often lack of understanding of concepts and principles”. The implication of the above observations is that if the teaching approach employed in teaching of science and technology is not changed from the current didactic to an activity-based, such as the experiential teaching approach, learners in Nigerian basic education will continue to perform abysmally in the study of Basic Science and Technology.
            Participation (involvement) fosters commitment, ownership and interest. Therefore if children are to show sense of commitment and interest in the study of science, they must be involved in the process of generating ideas, explanation of facts and experimenting. They should be given tasks to carry out both in and outside the class room, while their teachers will facilitate the process. The class room science teaching approach must be such that is constructed in a way that brings children to the highest level of involvement (participation). This is what could bring about deep-level-learning. The adoption of Experiential teaching approach in class room science delivery will be a panacea to the total lack or insufficient participation of students in the learning process as was observed by Omotayo and Olaleye (2008).
            Ajiboye and Ajitoni (2008:59) had observed that” children learn best by being interested fully in their own work; by seeing themselves; by doing themselves; by puzzling themselves; by verifying their own suppositions; by experimenting themselves; by drawing conclusions themselves on the strength of evidence which they have collected themselves”. Children could make mistakes which they then could rectify themselves in the light of new information and evidence which they have uncovered themselves (Omotayo and Oladeya 2008). For this to occur, an activity-based teaching approach such as experiential teaching method should be used in teaching/learning in the class room. This is because this teaching approach fosters participation (involvement) in class room activities. An involved person narrows his/her mind or attention to a particular activity that he is involved or participating. Involvement goes along with strong motivation, fascination and total implication: there is no distance between the person and the activity, no calculation of the possible sacrifice. Furthermore, there is an openness to relevant stimuli and the perceptual and cognitive functioning has an intensity, lacking in activities of another kind (Leavers 2002). Involvement or participation gives rise to state of flow in children. The state of flow according to laevers( 2002:13) is “sought stream of energy felt through the body” people actively seek this “sought-stream of energy”
Indeed, young people or children usually find it in play (Laevers 2002). This therefore demands that the teaching approach in school should be the type that involves play method. Experiential teaching approach therefore is the most suitable teaching approach especially for teaching of science and technology as it makes teaching/learning to be fun for learners. Infact, if we want our children to develop and become science literate, we cannot do without adopting Experiential teaching approach in teaching science and technology in basic schools as it fosters involvement (participation). The satisfaction that goes along with participation (involvement) stems from the facts that it arose exploratory drive in children. Exploratory drive is the interest which learners (children) develop that pushes them to get better grip on reality, the intrinsic interest in knowing how things and people are, the push to experience and find out more about things. But teachers and Educators should understand that involvement (participation) is only meaningful if the activity and materials in use are age appropriate and match the capabilities of the children. Indeed, If we want to achieve government’s objectives in basic science and technology for children, we must implore teachers to start using the experiential teaching approach, in teaching of science and technology since it will guarantee pupils participation in instructional process.
(Laevers, 2002) had suggested that teachers who use experiential teaching
approach in the class room should increase their pupil’s (Learner)
involvement/participation by:
Supplying stimulating intersections or open impulses that engender a claim of actions in children like; suggesting activities to children.
Offering materials that fit into an on going activity.
-           Inviting  children to communicate
-           Confronting them with thought provoking questions and giving them information that can capture their mind.
-           Being sensitive to the basic needs of the child. This includes; needs for security, for affection, for attention, for affirmation; for clarity and for emotional support.
-           granting children autonomy.
This means to respect children’s sense of initiative by acknowledging their interest.
*          Giving them room for experimentation
*          Letting them decide upon the way and how an activity is performed and when a product is finished.
*          Implicating them in the setting of rules and the solution of conflicts
*          Granting children autonomy.
This means to respect children’s sense of initiative by acknowledging their interest.
*          Giving them room for experimentation
*          Letting them decide upon the way and how an activity is performed and when a product is finished.
*          Implicating them in the setting of rules and the solution of conflicts.
            Indeed, teachers should use the experiential teaching approach to develop  children skills in using science process skills; the process skills will make children participate (be involved) in science delivery process. This is quite necessary as the science process skill is the driving force in effective class room teaching-learning process.
Experiential Learning Models
            A philosophy in any subject matter is only useful if it can be translated into action. If it cannot be translated into any action, it is useless; so also is the case with Dewey’s theory of experiential teaching approach. Itin (1999) had stated that “one step in explicating the philosophy of experiential education is through developing a model of the process”. According to him, all models are by definition, idealized visions or representations that help one examine the key principles within a theory. The purpose of designing any model is to demonstrate or illustrate graphically the interrelationship between the principles.
            The intent of this model of experiential teaching approach is to provide the teachers and other readers with a holistic picture of how the philosophy might look in practice (Itin 1999).
Davis’ Model of Experiential Learning
Davis (1993) in his Conceptualization of the Experiential Learning model, looks at it as the transactive process between teacher and learners. Here, teaching in this model is defined as interaction of the student and a teacher over a subject. As a  transitive process which his model portrays, the teacher brings information and so also the learner. Both of them bring information to the process. The teacher and the learners not only interacts but also exchange knowledge. This means that learners learn from the teachers and teachers also learn from the learners. Similarly student learners learn from the environment, but they also affect or change the environment. The educational process does more than take place within a setting. It interacts and transacts with numerous environmental aspects (Itin 1999).
            The environment does not only refer to the immediate place where the teaching is taking place, but also the wider society including its socio-political and socio-economic sub-sectors, the entire learners in the class, and any other systems that impacts on the teaching learning process (Itin, 1999).

The Diamond Model of Experiential Learning
There is also the Diamond model of experiential teaching approach. The Diamond model emphasizes four principle system and the transactive process between them. This transactive  process which is part of the experience is between the four principle system (teacher, learner, subject and learning environment). The core of this diamond model is a teaching process which marks a shared concrete experience. The teacher trys to encourage the transactive process. That is how the experience is used to guide the educational and process.

The Diamond Model of the Philosophy of Experiential Education
In experiential teaching, experience plays vital roles in the learning process. Experiential learning describes the type of learning whereby learners are provided with the chances to acquire and apply knowledge and develop skills in a relevant setting. This means that learners get direct involvement with actions or activities that lead to knowledge acquisition. It was based on the above consideration and the belief that knowledge results from the combination of grasping and transforming experience that David Kolb in 2000 designed his own model of experiential teaching. The David Kolb’smodel portrays two related modes of grasping experiences. Concrete Experience (CE) and Abstract Conceptualization (AC). He then classified another two modes of transforming the experience as Reflective observation (RO) and Active Experimentation (AE).  Focusing on the above, Kolb designed a four-stage learning cycle.   
Concrete Experience           (1)
Observation and Reflection (2)
Forming Abstract Concept    (3)
Testing in new Situation        (4)

The four-stage learning cycle by Kolb (2000)

            According to the learning cycle, immediate or concrete experiences are the basis for observation and reflections. The reflections are assimilated and sieved out into abstract concept from which new implications for actions can be drawn. These implications can be actively tested and serve as guide in creating new experiences, (Kolb Boyaltus Mainemielis: 2000). The model therefore suggests that to undertake learning requires specific abilities. For example, in grasping experience, some people perceive new information through experiencing the concrete, tangible, felt qualities of the world, relying on our senses and immersing oneself in concrete reality. Others tend to perceive, grasp, or take hold of new information through symbolic representation (abstract conceptualization) (David Kolh et al 2000).
            In transforming or processing experience some people tend to carefully watch others who are involved in the experience and reflect on what happens, while others chose to jump in and start doing things. The watchers favour reflective observation while the doers favour active experimentation. Each dimension of learning process presents us with a choice. Moreso, human beings are naturally equipped with hereditary or with our past life experiences and the demand of our present environment, we develop a preferred way of choosing. To solve the conflict between concrete or abstract and between active or reflective, we resort to patterned characteristic ways. This is what is called the learning styles (David Kolh et al 2000).
         The learning styles can be broadly classified into four groups. They include:
1.         Diverging
2.         Assimilating
3.         Converging
4.         Accommodating.
Diverging: The Diverging style’s dominant learning abilities according to Kolb et al (2000) are concrete experience and reflective Observation. People with this learning styles are best at viewing concrete situations from many different angles or points of view. They look at things from many perspectives. It is labelled “Diverging” because a person with it performs better in situations that call for generation of ideas, such as brain storming session (Kolb et al 2000). People with diverging learning style are characterized by having interest in broad cultures and like to collect information. Research according to Kolb et al (2000) shows that they are interested in people, sometimes imaginative and emotional.  In schools, people with diverging style enjoy and favour working in group. They like listening with open mind.
Assimilating: For this group, their dominant learning abilities are Reflective Observation (RO) and Abstract Conceptualization (AC). (Kolb etal 2000). The people who possess this learning style are good at understanding a wide range of information and processing it into a concise and logical form. They are mostly in ideas and abstract concepts. The assimilating learning style is critical for efficiency in information and science careers. In schools especially at the basic level, children with this style prefer reading, exploring analytical models and having time to think things through (Kolb etal 2000).
Converging:  Children with this learning style like to experiment with new ideas, simulations, laboratory assignment and practical applications. This learning skill is important for effectiveness and efficiency in technology careers. The converging learning style is a combination of Abstract Conceptualization and Active Experimentation (AE). In fact the people with this style perform well with finding practical uses for ideas and theories. They demonstrate strong ability in solving problems and making decisions based on finding solutions to questions and problems. Indeed they prefer to deal with technical tasks and problems rather than interpersonal issues (Kolb etal 2000).
Accommodating: This learning style is a combination of concrete Experience and Active experimentation. Children who have this learning style have the ability to learn from” hand-on” experience. According to Kolb et al 2000:6) People with this learning style “enjoy carrying out plans and involving themselves in new and challenging experiences”. They rely heavily on people for information when solving problems. In adult, this learning style is important in action-oriented careers such as marketing. In schools, children with this learning style work more with others in order to get assignment done or to do field work and also to test out approaches to completing project.
            Research studies as was reported by Kolb et al (2000) have shown that there are some adaptive competencies that are associated with the four learning styles. The accommodative learning style is associated with acting skills; The Diverging learning style is associated with valuing skills. The assimilating learning style is related to thinking skill, while the converging learning style is associated with decision skills (quantitative analysis, use of technology and Goal setting) Kolb; 2000).
The description and explanation of the learning styles are further shown in table below.
Table 2: Learning Styles  
Learning style
Learning characteristic
Abstract conceptualization + Active Experimentation
v  Strong in practical application of ideas.
v  Can focus on hypo deductive reasoning on specific problems.
v  Unemotional
Concrete experience + reflective observation
v  Strong in imaginative ability.
v  Good at generating ideas and seeing things from different perspective
v  Interested in people.
v  Broad cultural interest.  
Abstract conceptualization + reflective observation
v  Strong ability to create theoretical models
v  Excels in inductive reasoning.
v  Concerned with abstract concept rather than people.
Concrete experience + Active Experimentation
v  Greater strength in doing things.
v  More of risk taker
v Performs well when required to react to immediate circumstance.
v  Solve problems intuitively.
Kolb and Fry on learning styles (Tennant 1996).
From the table 2, we can deduce that convergers are good at experimenting with new ideas, simulations, laboratory assignment and practical application. The Divergers on the other hand are good at listening with open mind and receiving personalized feedback. They also prefer to work in groups. The assimilators are good at science carriers and on information. In school, such learners prefer reading, lectures, exploring analytical models and having time to think things through. The accommodators are effective in action-oriented carriers; they can do field work and test out different approaches to completing a project.
Processing:  In the application of experiential teaching approach processing plays vital role. Luckner and Nadler (1997) stated that processing is designed to encourage individuals to plan, describe, reflect upon, analyze and communicate about their experience. Therefore processing according to them can be viewed as the driving force behind the experiential learning cycle, much like the sun’s energy drives the weather cycle of the earth. Processing can occur prior to during, and after the experience. Those teachers who become skilled in the experiential learning activities provide their learners with avenues to bring their thoughts, feelings, insights, metaphors, and behaviours patterns form the unconscious level to the surface (Luckner and Nadler 1999).

Processing in experiential learning model by Luckner and Nadler 1997
            It is obvious from the foregone discussions on the models of experiential teaching/learning presented that in  each of the models experience plays a vital role in the application of the experiential teaching model as a pedagogical tool in class room interaction. It is also pertinent to note that each of the models portrays the role of the learner as being vital in the teaching/learning process. This is not the case with traditional teaching approach where the learner remains passive and commits knowledge already packaged in final form to memory. The models of experiential teaching/learning emphasizes the need to engage learner in activities and views teaching learning as a transitive process between the teacher, and the learners. The models also shows that learning occurs as a result of interaction between learners and teachers over the subject matter. It shows further that there is interaction between the learners and the learning environment. If the models of experiential teaching are adopted, it will facilitate learning in learners that will be real, permanent and transferable to situation outside the learning environment as the learners will be practically involved in discovering facts about the subject matter.
            The major feature of the models is the role of the teacher. His role is central to the transmission of knowledge as he is responsible for presenting opportunities for the experiences. He directs the nature of the experience that will occur, he helps learners utilize these experiences, he establishes the learning environment. It is also the teacher who places boundary on the learning objectives; he shares necessary information that will facilitate the experience to take place. Therefore, teachers have knowledge which is valuable and learners want and require the knowledge. The models impel teachers into facilitating the experiential learning process for students. (Itin 1999).
            From the models presented, the learners are not passive, the learners actively engage in creating with the teacher the educational process. The learner is challenged to move beyond what he/she already knows which forms his/her initial experience. It is important to note that neither the teacher nor the learners dominate the process, the teacher and the learners both bring their skills, talent efforts and other resources to the educational process. This is what empowerment based education is all about. In empowerment based-education according to Shor (1992:17) “is student centered, but not necessarily student directed”. Finally, the model shows that teachers and learners create educational process through their interaction and transaction.

            The information in the Kolb et al’s model of experiential learning is highly enriching. Educators are presented with ample opportunity of understanding their learners’ learning styles in order to offer them career guidance. It is equally important to note that of the learners themselves discover their learning style and its implications on carreer decision or choices, they will be in position to make informed decision adequate on selection of careers choice in life.
            Therefore the application and understanding of the use of experiential teaching approach will have far reaching effect in the educational system, based on the above model of the approach by Kolb. There is compelling need that educators should adopt it as a teaching method not only in teaching basic science and technology but all other subjects taught in Nigerian Basic Schools.
Share on Google Plus


The publications and/or documents on this website are provided for general information purposes only. Your use of any of these sample documents is subjected to your own decision NB: Join our Social Media Network on Google Plus | Facebook | Twitter | Linkedin