The experiential learning theory (ELT) by Kolb provides a holistic model of the learning process, which is consistent with what we know about how people learn. Experiential learning  theory is based on Dewey’s philosophical pragmatism, Lewin’s social psychology and Piaget’s cognitive developmental genetic epistemology. To Kolb, Boyatzis and Mainemielis (2000) experiential learning views learning as the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience.
Knowledge results from the combination of grasping and transforming experiences. In line with this observation, Kelly (2007) observed that Mezirow, Freire (2000) and others had stressed that the heart of all learning lies in the way we process experience in particular and, our critical reflection of experience. They spoke of learning as a cycle that begins with experience continues with reflection and later leads to action, which itself become concrete experience for reflection. The views of those scholars helped to show the way the experiential teaching approach if adopted and utilized will help to enhance pupils’ achievement in Basic Science and technology.
            Indeed, current theory and practice have recognized experiential learning to predominantly constitute reflective, construction of meaning, with particular emphasis on critical reflection and dialogue (Fenwick 2000). Perhaps it is important at this point to discuss some of the educational theories of learning upon which experiential learning is anchored.

John Dewey’s Theory of Experience
            Among the notable empiricists is John Dewey, whose version of pragmatism is known as instrumentalism (Ward, 2008). John Dewey is regarded as the modern father of experiential (progressive) education. Dewey’s Major concern was to link experience with reflection, which essentially means linking undending with doing or participation. According to Itin (1999:92) It is impossible to simply know without doing and impossible to  fully understanding without doing?
            Dewey said that an educator must take into account the unique difference between each learner. Each person is different genetically and in terms of past experience. Even when a standard curriculum is presented, using established pedagogical method, each learner will have a different quality of experience. Thus, teaching and curriculum must be designed in ways that allow such individual differences (Ward 2008). For Dewey, the one way delivery style of authoritarian schooling does not provide a good model for life in a democratic society. Instead, learners need educational experiences which will enable them to become valued, equal and responsible members of the society. He however cautioned the interpretation of the term “freedom” as freedom in its entirety is not the solution. He rather affirmed that learning needs a structure and order, and must be based on a clear theory of experience, not simply the Whims of teachers or learners (Ward 2008). Thus, Dewey proposed that education should be designed on the basis of a theory of experiences. We must understand the nature of how humans have their experiences in order to design effective education. In this respect, Dewey’s theory of experience rested on two central tenets i.e. continuity and interactions. 

Continuity: Dewey argued that human are sensitive to (or are affected by) experiences. Human beings survive more by learning from experience after they are born than do many other animals that rely on pre-wind instincts. In humans, education is critical for providing people with skills to live in the society. Dewey maintained that we learn something from every experience, whether positive or negative and one’s accumulated learned experience influence the nature of one’s future experience. Thus every experience in some ways influences all potential future experience for an individual. Therefore, continuity refers to this idea that each experience is stored, carried on into the future, whether one likes it or not(Ward 2008).

Interaction: According to Dewey’s postulation, interaction builds upon the notion of continuity and explains how past experience interacts within the present situation to create one’s present experience. Dewey’s hypothesis is that your current experience can be understood as a function of your past (stored) experience. Any situation can be explained in profoundly different ways because of unique individual difference (Ward 2008). This is important for educators to understand. While educators cannot control learners past experiences, they need to understand those past experiences so that better educational situations can be presented to the learner. Ultimately, all the teachers have control over are present situations. The good teacher with good insight into the effects of past experience which learners bring with them better enables the teacher to provide quality education which is relevant and meaningful for the learner (Ward 2008).
            The implication of this theory of experience in teaching of basic science through experiential teaching approach is that learners should always be provided opportunity to be actively involved in the learning process. Materials must be provided in the classroom, and learners should be guided to manipulate the materials in order to find out facts about concepts being thought. Their participation will help to construct, reconstruct or deconstruct beliefs or myths which they hitherto had prior to learning. The facts that arose from the classroom interactions help to build up children’s experience for future life and learning activities. In addition, participation may facilitate learning because learners may have been involved (past experience) in similar activity either in school or in the community.  Experiential teaching approach is orderly planned and sequential. Tyler (1971:85) identified planned “sequential practice” of what is being learned as a key element of learning system. The method offers learner opportunity to learn by practice. Dewey (1938:132) stated that “… All principles by themselves are abstract. They become concrete only in the consequences which result from their application”. This assertion is in line with Brookfield (1983;113) definition of experiential learning as “a method which reflects a desire to gain knowledge and skills”. Experiential learning provides learners opportunity for practical application of theory, the application provide knowledge and skills that are pervasive, permanent and life long. From the above discussion it is obvious that if experiential teaching approach is adopted as a teaching approach in teaching basic science and technology in schools, learners will have the opportunity to get involve in practical aspect of the learning in addition to theoretical aspect of it. This will lead to the pupils acquiring knowledge about science that will be long lasting, pervasive and permanent. This is the only way that the goal of government   in introduction of Basic science and technology in the Basic school curriculum will be achieved.                              
Piagetian theory of Cognitive Development
            Jean Piaget studied the development process of understanding knowledge and working of the child’s mind. He proposed that cognitive development proceeds through an orderly sequence of stages. His main concern was the study of how intelligence develops and the laws which govern this development. For Piaget, intelligence is the interaction between the individual and the environment, thus creating adaptation. He maintained that the functional process of intelligence consists of assimilation and accommodation. When a child tackles a new situation, he naturally goes about it in ways familiar to him, trying to understand the new situation in relation to what he had already known. According to Igboabuchi (1989) and, Chauhan (1989), assimilation is therefore the process whereby the individual gradually comes to include the new information acquired into his present thinking by adjusting his scheme of thinking so that the new one can be included.
            Accommodation on the other hand is a process where an ‘old scheme (or way of thinking about something) is modified in order to adjust to the new information. (Igboabuchi 1989) Thus in intelligent act, the individual will assimilate information into his thinking structure and at the same time accommodate this structure to deal more appropriately with the reality. Adaptation occurs when assimilation and accommodation are balanced. Piaget believed that schemas (cognitive structure) exists in primitive form at conception and progressively develops during the life time in certain systematic ways. Therefore, in seeking to explore and understand the world around him, perpetual functional process will generate mental structures (or overall picture) about how things fit together. These mental structures develop and change as the child grows. Igboachi (1989) Piaget identified four stages of these mental structure developments.
Each stage has a peculiar way of organizing information or experiences. The four stages are as follows: Sensori-motor stage, pre-operational stage, concrete operational stage and formal operational stage.( Igboabuchi, 1989)
A.        Sensori-motor stages: This starts from birth to the age of two. The child is in pre-nursery classes.
B.        Pre-operational stage: This starts from ages two to four years. The child at this stage is in nursery class.
C.        The concrete operational stage. This starts at the age of eleven (11) years
The concrete operational stage
Concrete Operational Stage according to Chauhan (1978:82) refers to “that stage of cognitive development when the child is able to direct his attention away from the static conditions and can focus on the whole set of successive changes that occur in the process of transformation”. This means that the child can reason well. This stage starts from age 7-12. the child at this stage can do “grouping” (Chauhan, 1978). Grouping is a term which piaget had coined to describe a set of operations which  a child at this stage can undertake (Chauhan 1978). At this concrete operational stage, the child finds it difficult to go beyond concrete situations and generalize what was learned in one situation to a new situation. (Igboabuchi 1989). At the concrete operational stage, what the child undertakes and operates with is the real, he/she does not comprehend the potential. Here, the child begins to learn concepts such as number, order (in sequence) and measurement. This means that such children can undertake addition, subtraction, multiplying and dividing. During the period of concrete operations, there are some logical inconsistencies in the child’s thinking. Piaget calls this “syncretism” (Chauhan 1978). At this period a child can now understand or recognize whole no matter the manner and ways parts of the whole are arranged or re-arranged. For instance, if water is transferred from a large cup to a small cup the child will still recognize that the volume has not changed. The major achievements at this stage according to Igboabuchi (1989:84) “are decentering, conservation and reversibility”. In fact at this stage the child can think logically.
            Children in this stage are in basic school and only very few will be in secondary school. Teaching here requires enough use of teaching aids to help appeal to learning senses and make lessons real. Here the use of experiential method of teaching will facilitate the development of both small and large muscles as children will continuously be engaged in the manipulation of the teaching aids provided in the class. Children should be encouraged to participate actively in all class activities as this will help develop their senses of smell, sight and in some cases taste. This is because participation (involvement) in events makes children active. It creates satisfaction. This satisfaction that goes along with participation stems from one source; the exploratory drive, inquisitiveness, the need to get better grip on reality. The intrinsic interest in how things and people are the urge to experience and figure out. Their affective and psychomotor domains will also develop. This is the hallmark of experiential learning. The experiential teaching method should be combined with dramatization, experimentation, and demonstration techniques. Also, there should be extensive use of illustration and interesting stories in the classroom during all instructional delivery. Basic science and technology should be taught solely through experiential learning while the teacher encourages the pupils to experiment.
            The implication of Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development to learning is that teachers should try to find out what learners already know prior to the learning period. This is due to the fact that the way the child approaches the new learning situation will have bearing on the learners’ previous knowledge (old experience). If what the child already knows is related to what is to be learned, the process of new learning for assimilation will be facilitated. If it does not relate to what he had known, learning will not be enhanced very fast. The teacher who applies the experiential teaching methods can effectively achieve the above goal. This is because the teaching method builds on the past experience of learners in the presentation of new (present) experiences. More so, in line with the principle of the experiential teaching method, learners should be provided with learning materials that are appropriate to the Piagetian mental stage of the child. The teacher through facilitation should guide learners to find out fact about the topic for accommodation in their scheme. The learning materials must be adequate and preferably sourced from the learners’ environment. Teachers in Basic Schools should as well determine the piagetian mental age of children, so that they will know the appropriate teaching method to employ most especially in presentation of facts to learners. Furthermore, the knowledge of the mental stage of the learner shows that the material, the task to be assigned and the level of participation of learners should vary among learners.  Moreover, to teach basic science and technology in basic schools, teachers must provide concrete teaching/learning aids (materials) to learners. This is because learners are at the concrete operation developmental stage. Ideas should be presented one after the other. If for example, a teacher is teaching about flowering plants, he should not combine the lesson with topics on vegetative plants. If he does, the children will get confused. Concrete objects must be used as teaching aids. Topics that are abstract should not be taught in basic science and technology and if it must be taught at all, concrete objects should be used to illustrate or demonstrate the effect of such topics. Such concepts include air, wind, and energy. If such abstract concepts are not illustrated with concrete object; the lesson becomes meaningless to learners at such mental stage Experiential teaching method makes learning real and addresses the learning needs of learners, as learners come face to face with real life challenges/problems. The major task of the teacher is to appropriately match each task with materials that will reflect life situation and the mental stage of learners as specified by piaget theory.
            The major limitation of this theory is that human beings have individual differences; the mental development of children of the same chronological age may not be at exactly the same piagetian development mental stage. It is note worthy that Basic Science and technology is a subject that should be practical oriented. This becomes more obvious when the subject is taught to children that are still within the Piaget’s concrete operational state. To effectively teach the subject so that it will make meaning and as well bear the desired results, experiential teaching approach must be employed by teachers. This will help correct the faulty approach currently employed in teaching the subject which Nworgu and Nwazojie (2003:13) Lamented that in it “pupils’ activities are given less emphasis”. While Ling and Boo (2007:3) states that it makes pupils view science and technology as “pieces of information and do not see the big picture of a unit of learning”. If the experiential teaching approach is adopted by teachers in the teaching of science and technology, children will start to apply what they are taught in their science and technology lessons in their everyday activities. Therefore basic science and technology will not be made alien to pupils as was observed by Omotayo and Olaleye (2008:2) when they lamented that the current teaching approach makes ‘science alien rather than being tool for industry”.
Brunerian Theory
Jerome Bruner, an American Educational psychologist developed a theory of intellectual development. His theory favoured the use of discovery approach to learning (Igboabuchi 1989). This discovery approach to learning is what experiential teaching approach emphasizes.
            Bruner’s theory of cognitive growth shows that the child’s intellect develops in a sequential order or stage. This stages were labeled as presentation’s by him. (Igboabuchi 1989). The stages are as follows:
1.         Enactive representation:
2.         Iconic Representation:
3.         Symbolic Representation:
Enactive representation falls within the early childhood. This is between the first two years of the child. This is the time the child gains knowledge by means of his actions or activities. (Igboabuchi 1989).
Iconic representation: At this stage, the child’s central focus is on concreteness. This stage is similar to piaget’s concrete operational stage. In this stage whatever is presented to the child must be concrete for the child to grasp and make meaning out of it. This means that concreteness not abstract conveys meaning to the child.
            In this stage according to Igboabuchi (1989:86) “their (children’s) system of thought depends mainly on visual organization. The visual images aid the development of mental structures. The images formed help the child to engage in logical thinking”. Therefore, to teach a child that falls within this iconic stage needs presentation of concrete object. To achieve this, a teaching approach that encourages use of authentic or real object must be the most desired, such method must encourage  hands-on and minds-on, it must be an activity-based teaching approach.
            Bruner identified two major terms that characterizes stages of learning. These are
(a)       Concept formation- This refers to the process of primitive categorization of objects. (Chauchan 1978)
(b)       Concepts attainment. The number of dimensions or specific attribute values of concepts that are known to the subject before hand and hence he is properly set to find out the definite attributes of a concept. (Chanhan 1989)
According to the theory, there are three types of concepts
(1)       Conjunctive
(2)       disjunctive
(3)       Relational concepts
            The theory posits that the variety of concepts differ from individual to individual depending upon his environment, intelligence and language ability. The formation of concept by individuals is cumulative. The concept formed in individual’s later life also is determined by the early experiences of the person. Therefore the early experiences are very important and play important role in the cognitive development of the child in later life: The concept attainment of children begins with concrete and real objects in the children begins with concrete and real objects in the child’s environment.
            The child explores his physical environment and through the process of observation, imitation and conversation with older people he builds many concept (Chanhan, 1978).
            Bruner’s theory have implications for Educators, especially the teachers. These implications according to Chauhan (1978) and Igbobuchi (1989) include:
(1)       Educators (teachers) must provide direct experience of concepts of object taught to learners. This idea is consistent with the Philosophy guiding the application of experiential teaching approach. Included, experiential teaching approach emphasizes that materials for use in teaching should be sourced from the locality of the learners. This helps the learners to recognize the material and as well identify and independently utilize it in their homes. Moreover, direct experience gives first hand knowledge of the objects because first hand experience leaves better image of the object. (Chauhan 1978).
2.         Use of teaching aids is very important. They help to appeal to perceptual senses while teaching. Experiential teaching approach also emphasizes the use of teaching aids. In the method, children are provided with authentic materials in the class room, while the teachers’ role is to facilitate the process of meaning making from the materials.
3.         Use of Discovery approach and problems solving is essential in learning. This is because learners develop autonomy and self reliance and what is learnt is not easily forgotten. This is also encouraged by the experiential teaching approach. In it, learners are presented with real life problems. This helps learners to develop skills in solving similar problems outside the class room environment. It helps to build the self esteem of the learners.
4.         New ideas are not easily assimilated by the mind, if they are not associated with the previous learned concepts. This is also the hallmark of the theory of experiential teaching. The method emphasizes previous experience. It was also developed based on Dewey’s theory of experience (Continuity and interaction). Therefore teachers should take cognizance of this. They should try to find out what the learner already knows in relation to the subject matter, so as to know the type of experience to provide to learners in order to facilitate learning of new concepts. If there is no link between what learners already know (Previous experience) and what is about to be learned (new experience), effective learning can hardly take place. Therefore experiential teaching approach is the most appropriate method to teaching based on Bruner’s theory of spiral curriculum.
Igboabuchi (1989:88) had noted that “to instruct someone in a discipline is not only a matter of getting him to commit results to mind. Rather, it is to teach him to participate in the process that makes possible the establishment of knowledge”. The above view is strongly supported by the proponents of experiential teaching approach, as the method emphasizes participation or involvement of learners in discovering facts about a subject matter. The approach believes that learning occurs through linking of understanding with doing. To do this, learners are involved or made to engage intellectually, emotionally, socially and practically in an uncertain environment where he/she may experience success, failure, adventure and sometimes risk taking. In the process, the learning most times involves interaction between learners, learners and educators, learners and environment. The educator’s roles according to Itin (1992:93) “includes selecting suitable experiences posing problems. Setting boundaries, supporting learners, insuring physical and emotional safety, facilitating the learning process, guiding reflection and providing the necessary information”. Bruner’s theory that emphasizes learning by discovery supports the science method as Wikipedia (2008:4) had defined science as “a reasoned-based analysis of sensation upon our awareness”. As such, the teaching method that is most effective in the study of since must be such that involves observation of natural phenomena, or experimentation, analyzing and predicting future events. Therefore, Bruner’s theory provides basis for the adoption of a teaching approach that will enhance the learning of science and technology at all levels of education. Such teaching approach must be activity-based and must challenge learners to effectively engage their sense of reasoning in discovering facts for themselves. Experiential teaching approach possesses all the features that the Bruner’s theory and science method require. Therefore, Educators should take advantage of this and adopt it in the teaching of science, mostly at the basic education level, as the foundation laid at this stage will affect positively or negatively the study of science at other levels.

Kurt Lewin’s Cognitive Field Theory and Motivation
            Kurt Lewin’s field theory has its roots in Gestalt theory (Chanhan (1978). A Gestalt is a coherent whole. It has its own laws and is a construct of the individual’s mind rather than reality: for Kurt Lewin, behaviour was determined by totality of an individual’s situation. In the field theory, a field is the totality of co-existing factors which are conceived of as mutually interdependent. Individuals were seen to behave differently according to the way in which tensions between perceptions of the self and of the environment where the individual is located (Chauhan1978). Cognitive field theory on the other hand lays emphasis on cognitive structure or perception of the total field by the individual. From the theory, Lewin established that patterns of human behaviour are regulated and directed by cognitive structure which the individual develops in the course of his experience. Behaviour therefore is a function of the field that exists at the time the behaviour occurs. In the field theory, Lewin proposed that tension within the organism is created by disequilibrium within the life space, which the individual wants  to release through activities (Chanhan 1978. Those activities, which help the individual to release tension, are called to have positive valence and those, which have opposite effect, are
said to have negative valence. Tension persists till the goal or intention is completed. Lewin proposed two types of needs; genuine needs and quasi-needs(Igboabuchi 1989).
            Genuine needs arise from the psychological condition of the organism, such as hunger and taste. Tensions arising from intentions, acts of will, etc or even less arbitrary commitments of the person are called quasi-needs. Individuals have characteristic structure of needs, which creates tension and the organism in order to reduce tension is activated. The desirability of an activity is described by Lewin as Valence. Force is the tendency to engage in it. Valence helps to account for choice but force may be more useful for speed or persistence of behaviour. When a need arises, there will arise a force or a field of forces, signifying a valenced activity. If the individual has no need then the environment registers no valence for him nor does it generate any force for him. In the application of the cognitive field theory emphasis is laid on present experiences on the motivation of the Learner. Also, there is emphasis on the past experiences of the individual. Past experiences are very crucial but the cognitive theory focuses on present experiences of the individual. The importance of Kurt Lewin’s Field theory to education is that educators should try to know the learner from the learners’ own point of views. He should start from where the learners’ perceptions are; and not where the perceptions of the educators happen to be (Igboabuchi 1989)..
            Secondly, Educators should set goals and purposes for learners. Individual goals should be set. Goals according to Lewin’s field theory create tension, which is reduced by action on the part of the learners. Goals activate the learners. More so, since environment determines the bahviour of an individual, school environment should be conductive for learning. Furthermore, educators should explore the immediate and concrete experiences of the learners, so as to determine the type of learning materials to be provided to learners. To this Nwachukwu (1989; 215) inferred that “perception of structure, the use of memory and previous experiences are the key factors in insightful learning. The emphasis is on restructuring of present field in order to extract the important elements.”
            Again, the theory posits that learning is a process of interaction between an organism and its environment. Exploratory action, problem solving, creativity are all-important dimension of learning. This implies that children should be encouraged to explore the world as much as possible, ask questions, show excitements and express doubts. Experiences along such lines equip them to grow up as complete human beings(Nwachukwu 1989). This will help to develop skills which are indispensable to growth of knowledge in the learner. Learners through this process will acquire skills to test sciences laws, discover new ones, and challenge science laws that are inconsistent with facts that arise from experiments conducted. The above features are consistent with experiential teaching. This is contrary to other forms of learning, such as rote, which is meaningful where comprehension is tested, or expository learning, where the entire content of what is to be learned is presented in its final form. In both cases, the learner is passive, reproducing the learning that has been identified by the teachers (Ausubel 1968). It is in line with the above consideration that experiential teaching approach is being advocated for use in teaching of not only science but other subjects in our basic schools. This will enable the children to interact with the teaching/learning aids which the children will contribute to source from their environment. Experiential teaching will also develop in children the needed skills to explore their environment, ask questions and express doubts in situations that are inconsistent with facts on ground. This approach will develop the science process skill in the young learners and will lead to greater understanding and achievement in Basic science and technology. 
Theory of Transfer
            In an attempt to explain factors that influence learning transfer, psychologists propounded the following transfer theories: Generalization theory, theory of identical elements, formal discipline, theory of transposition. These theories are  also consistent with the experiential teaching approach theory.     
1.         Generalization Theory: This implies the ability to state a relationship between two or more concepts (Chauhan 1978; Nwachukwu 1989). If a child learns a concept and is able to transfer its attributes to a new situation, which did not play a part in the original learning, the implication is that the child has generalized. If the human person did not have the capacity for generalization, he would have to learn the reaction to each stimulus with each new day. Experiential teaching approach enhances knowledge transfer through generalization by linking activities in school and home and with even past experiences.(Fenwek; 2000). It is evident from the theory that if experiential teaching approach is adopted by teachers in Basic Schools to teach basic science and Technology, children will learn to generalize knowledge or skills acquired from their science classes. This is the only way the knowledge they acquired will be useful to themselves and the society.
2.         Theory of Identical Elements:     This theory believes that transfer only occurs if there are identical elements present in both situations. (Chauhan 1978) The elements may be facts, skills, or methods. Fact may be colour, length, number, height, etc. skill includes; football playing, driving, playing guitar. while method may be effective way of teaching a concept, or problem solving. These mean that the curriculum should focus on the society so as to enable it impart knowledge that will be appropriate in solving the contemporary issues. Experiential teaching method employs proffering solution to real life problems in school. This enables learners to solve similar problems at homes. Experiential Teaching approach will therefore apply this theory of identical element to impart knowledge in science and technologies that will assist children solve contemporary problems within the learners’ category and ability.
3.         Formal Discipline: This theory focuses on the mind. It believes that the learning/training the mind receives through education would have automatic transfer effect on out-of-school situation and on practical problems associated with daily existence. (Nwachukwu 1989) The theory emphasizes on the need to provide hard intellectual work to the learner to train his mental faculties (Nwachukwu 1989). From the above foregoing theories, it implies that education is sterile where there is no maximum provision for transfer of learning to occur. Educators have the responsibility to facilitate, direct, moderate, and guide the learning process to possess the much needed transfer effects. Transfer can be enhanced by the acquisition of ability of learning to learn.(Fenwick 2000) This enables the learner to discover creative ways of solving variety of problems. Moreover learners can discover variety of ways of solving problems only through active involvement in construction and reconstruction of meaning. They should be involved in all aspects of classroom activities. This will enable them develop the skills in solving problem which will later be transferred to out-of-school/classroom. Active participation in classroom activities is only guaranteed by the use of experiential teaching method. If a child is taught personal cleanliness using the method, the child should be able to practice regular brushing of mouth, hand washing before and after eating, or after visiting of toilets and at all other critical times. A child who learnt factors that supports combustion, should apply the technique at home while boiling water or lighting a match. Educators should avail themselves the knowledge, which those theories of transfer present in order to develop in their pupils the strategies to transfer all knowledge transmitted in the classroom to the wider society. The curriculum and teachers’ choice of instructional delivery approach must make provision for transfer of learning to occur. Experiential teaching method presents educators with maximum opportunities to ensure that knowledge transfer occurs. Educators should utilize the opportunity offered by the adoption and utilization of this teaching approach in order to ensure that children transfer knowledge acquired in classroom in Basic Science and technology lessons to the wider society. This is the only way Basic science and technology will become useful by serving as tool for industry and solution to problems.
Theory of transposition:  This theory is based on the Gestalt theory of learning. This theory of transfer of learning states that transfer of learning occurs because of perceptual similarities between situations and that it is in the form of generalization that concepts or insights that are developed in one learning situation are usable in others (Chanhan 1978) Transposition has also been called  pattern of experience. Based on the Gestalt’s theory of cognitive development, to learn is to form or to complete a Gestalt pattern or configuration which has meaning. The processes of the mental operations involved are as follows.
*          There is grouping, re-organisation, and structurization of materials
*          Process of inner relatedness of form and size.
*          Inner structure
*          Consistent thinking
This theory is in line with the experiential teaching theory as both of them consider past experiences in one situation enhancing learning in the new environment. Secondly, the theories consider processing of inner structure. This occurs through reflection on both the past and the present concrete actions under taken. By consistent thinking, the learner reflects to relate past and present events.
Theory of learning to learn: Improvement in learning ability by individuals or learners results if the individuals practice a series of tasks of a related or similar task regularly. For example, if pupils regularly practice classification of living and non-living things each time topic related to classification in the class room with the teacher using authentic objects, the pupils can master classification of objects so well that they can easily classify any other object other than living and non-living things both at schools and their homes. Moreover if learners solves problems related to velocity regularly for some days, they will master it so well that they will not only solve problems relating to velocity but they become progressively more efficient in it and can solve related problems in acceleration and can know their differences with speed. The progressive improvement is brought about by a type of transfer known as ‘learning to learn”. Learning to-learn ranges from rote memory to problem solving. The similarity or relationship involved appear to be learning general approaches or modes of attack, becoming familiar with situation and learning related classes of materials (Chauhan 1978). This therefore means that teachers can foster transfer of learning in their learners by providing them opportunities to constantly learn or practice learning how to learn. For this to occur, teachers must adopt an activity based teaching approach such as experiential teaching method in instructional delivery. Experiential teaching approach is unique and can foster learning-to-learn as it encourages learning through play using real or authentic objects that learner can easily locate in their local environment
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