UTILIZING AVAILABLE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING OF BUSINESS STUDIES IN IKWO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
            Effective teaching of any subject depends on the availability and utilization of suitable instructional materials. This is mostly noticed in the vocational subjects such as business studies. Nwije (1999) emphasized that instructional material are intrinsic part of the teaching and learning process and that achievement of the aims and objective of education depends primarily on the proper utilization of instructional materials.

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            National Teachers Institutes (2002) defined instructional material as those materials which promote the effectiveness of instruction and help the teacher to communicate more effectively. Also Ifeagwu (2000) stated that instructional materials facilitates teaching of subject matter with increasing effectiveness at all levels of learning. The same vein, Ughamadu (1992) defined instructional materials as the resource that the teacher and students use to influence the effectiveness of teaching and learning process.
            However, Fadeije (2005) noted that it is the creative use of such resources that will increase the probability of making the students learn and improve their performance of skills that are to be developed. Bozimo and Ikwumadu (2002) grouped instructional materials into reading materials, Audio-Visual materials and non-reading materials.
            According to Esene and Oluweri (2005) business subject have not been popular in the Nigerian secondary schools because of the bias against vocational education. The public perception of business subjects which forms part of vocational education is education for the school drop outs. This is further reinforced by the attitude of Nigerian parents who prefer the conventional grammar schools to business schools whose curricular were directed toward the training of secretarial and clerical personnel. This erroneous impression was corrected by the release of the national policy on education. The policy which recommended the 6-3-34 educational system was instrumental to the inclusion of business subject in the secondary school curriculum at the junior secondary level, prevocational subjects were introduced, and they were, Home economics, Introductory Technology, Practical Agriculture and business studies.
            Business studies consist of aspect of Book-keeping, shorthand, typewriting, commerce, office practice and computer which are integrated. In order to develop and progress in business studies, there is need to emphasize the actual practical performance in business education. Therefore, this study is focused on the utilization of instructional materials in teaching business studies in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
Statement of the Problem
            One of the aims of business education in any level is to develop within an individual the knowledge, skill, abilities and attitudes that would enable such individual to use sound reasoning in making personal decision as a consumer of goods and services. But unfortunately, students in the Junior Secondary School perform poorly in JSSCE and this made the researcher to ask whether the available instructional materials meant for teaching of business studies in Ikwo Local Government Area are effectively utilized or that the students do not make use of such materials while learning. Therefore, the study will focus on the extent of using available instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of business studies.

Purpose of the Study
            The general purpose of the study is to determine the extent of utilizing available instructional materials for effective teaching of business studies in Ikwo Local Government Area. Specifically, the study tends to:
1.         Identify the availability of instructional materials for business studies teaching
2.         Determine whether teachers make use of the available instructional materials while teaching.
3.         Determine whether students are interested in learning with the available instructional material.
4.         Determine some problems encounter by teachers in utilizing the instructional materials.
Significance of the Study
            The findings of this study will be beneficial to:
_          Business studies teachers.
_          Jss Students studying business studies
_          Principals
_          Curriculum planners
(a)       Business Studies Teachers: It will be beneficial to business studies teachers because they will understand the importance of using instructional materials in teaching business studies and this will enhance their performance as teachers.
(b)       JSS Students Studying Business Studies: Students will benefit as they will be aware of the available instructional materials for business studies teaching and make effort to have theirs.
(c)       Principals: Principals of individual schools will benefit from this study as they will make use of the data to request for instructional materials and finally,
(d)       Curriculum Planners: Curriculum planners will utilize the result of this study to adjust the content of business studies in the secondary schools.
Research Questions
            The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.
(1)       To what extent are instructional materials available for teaching business studies?
(2)       To what extent do teachers make use of the available instructional materials while teaching?
(3)       To what extent do students have interest in learning within the available instructional materials?
(4)       What are the problems usually encountered by the teachers in utilizing the instructional materials?
Scope of the Study
            This study is concentrated on the utilization of instructional materials in teaching business studies in the secondary schools in Ikwo Local Government Area, Junior Secondary Schools Students and business studies teachers are to be focused.





CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
            The discussion of the findings was done according to the four research questions that guided that study. The 4 research questions were as follow:
(1)       To what extent are instructional materials available for teaching business studies?
(2)       To what extent do teachers make use of the available instructional materials while teaching?
(3)       To what extent do students have interest in learning within the available instructional material?
(4)       What are the problems usually encountered by the teachers in utilizing the instructional materials?
            The finding in table 1, showed that the available instructional materials for teaching business studies in Junior secondary schools include; The chalk board, the bulletin board, chart, over head projector, dictating machines, tape recorder, type writer and computer. This is in line with the observation of Onu (2003) who states that the use of instructional materials in business studies.
 Stimulates the desire of students to learning and arouses interest in them.
            The findings in table 11 showed that discussion method, demonstrative method, inductive approach method, model office plan method, drilling method were identified as method used by teachers in utilization of instructional material in teaching business studies. As a result, one may not doubt the authenticity of the finding of Okoro (1993) that teaching method is a procedure for utilizing resources and providing opportunities for students to encounter the content.
            The findings in table 111 showed the facts expressed by respondents on students interest in using instructional materials while learning business studies, which confirms that students interest is paramount in the use of instructional materials, in teaching and learning activities indicates their interest in that particular activity. In terms of learning, students are prone to learn more effectively in those things that seem to interest them. Students interest and attitude have a far reaching effect on the study of business studies considering the finding of study on students interest.
It is the researcher’s conviction that students like to carry out activities in which their personal goals, values and interest are reflected; content and learning experiences selected in relation to student’s interest give them satisfaction.
            The findings in table iv showed that teachers encounter a lot of problems in utilizing the available instructional materials which indicates that teachers lack time to utilize the instructional materials effectively, this is in line with Obi (1999). Another one is that teachers do not have basic knowledge and skill for effective utilization of the instructional materials. Rapid change in technology has thrown some teachers out of balance. Poor finding for the maintenance and acquiring up-to-date equipments and that teacher need in service training to measure up to the new trend.


CHAPTER SIX
SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
            This chapter highlighted the re-statement of the problem, summary, conclusion and recommendations.
Re-Statement of the Problem
            This study is aimed at identifying the utilization of the available instructional materials for effective teaching of business studies in Junior secondary schools in Ikwo local Government Area of Ebonyi State. This was due to the failure and poor performance of students in this subject over years in Junior Secondary school. Unfortunately, it has been discovered that most students who claim to have studied business studies do not possess the required skill to help consolidate in the area of business studies. Teachers in this field tend to teach the very little they know and most cannot even boast of the practical aspect. This leads to degradation in business education, where by teachers produce quack students. 
Description of Procedures Used
            The questionnaire was used as an instrument for collection of data for this study, containing twenty (20) item statements administered to respondent in 20 secondary schools in Ikwo LGA of Ebonyi state.
            The data collected were analyzed using mean to answer the questions the researcher found other means in which the problem can be solved or improved. A number of questions were also formed to guide the study and this is related to the available instructional materials for teaching business studies, method used by teachers in the utilization of instructional materials in teaching business studies, interest of the students, teaching and learning business studies and the problems encountered by the teacher in the utilization of instructional material while teaching business studies.


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Principal Findings
            The principal finding of these study are the available materials used for teaching business studies which includes:- The chalk board, the bulletin board, chart, overhead project, dictating machine typewriter and computer, it is also discovered that the method used by teaching in the utilization of instructional materials in teaching business studies are: Discussion method and demonstrative method inductive approach method, model office plan method, drilling method and field trip method. It was also discovered that students like to carry out activities in which their personal goals, values, motives and interest are reflected, content and learning experiences, selected in relation to students interest give them satisfaction,, the more interested a child is in what a teacher is teaching, the more attention he will pay to it and so on. The findings of the study further indicates that teachers do encounter some problems while utilizing the instructional materials which includes that some teachers do not have enough time to utilize the instructional material effectively, some teachers do not have basic knowledge and skill for effective utilization of instructional materials, rapid change in technology has thrown some teachers out of balanced and poor finding for the maintenance and acquiring up-to-date equipment.

Implication Of The Study
            The findings of this study have implication for teachers, parents and government. Business studies teachers should allot more time to the teaching of business studies, so that both the theoretical and practical aspect will be well taught. Teachers should once in a while give students time to practice with the available instructional materials to enable them improve in their skill. Also they should try to up grade their knowledge by engaging on work shop and reading book related to business studies.
            The study have also implication for the parents as well as government parents should try as much as they can to help children develop their skills by encouraging them when they are carrying out their assignment or mid-tern projects. They should also help in providing the students with some of the materials they need for their studies. Also the government should utilize the result of the study to provide the inadequate instructional material that are not available for the teaching of business studies in junior secondary schools of Ebonyi State.

Conclusion
            This study aimed at identifying the utilization of the available instructional materials for the effective teaching of business studies in Junior secondary schools of Ebonyi State. In the course of the study, various questions were formulated to guide the study, these related to the available instruction materials for teaching business studies in Junior Secondary Schools. Method of utilization of instructional materials by business studies teachers, student’s interest in teaching and learning business studies with the available instructional materials and problems encounter by teachers in utilizing the instructional materials in teaching business studies.
            The respondent posited that the following method are normally used in teaching and learning of business studies in Junior Secondary Schools are Discussion methods and demonstration method, inductive approach method, model office plan method, drilling method, and field trip method.
            The available instructional materials in teaching business studies in Junior Secondary schools are: Chalk board, bulletin board, over head projector, dictating machine, typewriter and computer. The study reveals that student can easily be captured by the use of instructional materials and also students like to carry out activities in which their personal goals, values and interest are reflected.
            This study also identify the problems teachers encounter in utilizing the instructional material in teaching business studies which includes lack of time to utilize the instructional materials. Teachers do not have basic skills for effective utilization of the instructional materials, poor funding for the maintenance and acquiring up-to-date equipment and rapid change in technology, which hs thrown some teachers out of balance.
Recommendations
            Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made:-
(1)       Business studies should be given enough timetables to enable students to learn properly and master it.
(2)       Business studies should be introduced to study in their early days, this is to enable them learn theoretically and also give them room for practical work before the student graduates.
(3)       Instructional materials should be made available during business studies lessons in order to stimulate learning and arouse student’s interest in learning.
(4)       Effective method of teaching should be adopted by teachers teaching business studies.
(5)       Contemporary instructional materials should be used in teaching business studies in order to help student measures up-to the new technology.
Suggestion for Further Studies
            The researcher suggests that further studies should be carried out in the following areas:-
(1)       Adequacy and availability of business studies facilitates for teaching business studies in Junior Secondary Schools.
(2)       The effect of business studies equipment on the students comprehension of business studies.
(3)       Selection of significant instructional materials for teaching business studies in Junior Secondary Schools.
(4)       Problems of inadequate provision of instructional materials in the study of business studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Ikwo LGA of Ebonyi State.            
           


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REFERENCES
Bozimo, and Ikwumadu (2000) Foundation of vocational Education. Nsukka Faluda publishing company.
Dale, A. (2001) The role of teachers in selected innovative schools in Ibadan. Teachers Educational Press.
Dike, C(2003) Ineffective classroom communication. The bane of knowledge and understanding the educator magazine (vol. 18 page 24-28).
Esene, N. (2007) The principles of Educational technology in educational foundation: Enugu. TMC Publishers company.
Eya, E. (1999) The status of construction Material in schools. Journal of curriculum development organization of Nigeria. Vol.1. page 67-73 publisher limited.
Eya, P.E (2000) The basic of Educational Technology, Enugu J.Tc Publisher.
Eze, I. (2003) Audio Visual methods in business Education. Onitsha Generation Publisher Limited.
Eze, K.C. (2006) Lecture Note presented on Teaching methodology. Abakaliki, Ebonyi State University.
Fadenje, B.O. (2005) The Fundamentals of Education technology in Nigeria: Ondo. Wisdom Publisher Limited.
Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) National Policy on Education (Revised Edition) Lagos. Federal Ministry of Information printing Division.
Ibitayo, A. (2001). The place of instructional materials in curriculum Development. A Journal of Nigerian Education Research Council 2 (2) p.103.
Igboke, S.A (2005) Principles and practice in business Education. Enugu Jones Communication Publishers limited.
Ijeagwu, C.O. (2000) Production and utilization of Educational technology materials. Education technology in Nigerians Education. Owerri Landmark Publishing company.
Jones, F.S (1970) Introduction to business management analysis New York: Wasley publishing company.
Nenje, C.E. (1999) Principles and methods of business and computer Education. Enugu. Cheatum Agency Limited.
Nwani, A. (2004) Curriculum development in education. Abia, Mba Printing and Publishing company limited.
Obi, C. A.C. (1999) The Teaching of business studies, Unpublished lecture Note, University of Nigeria Nsukka.
 Obi, C.A. (1999) Curriculum Modification and standards in Business Education. A paper presented at the annual conference of NABE. Port-Harcourt.
Ofoefula, M. O (1996) The basic of Educational technology. Enugu ITC publisher.
Okapala, E. (1999) Technology Utilization in business Education Business Education Journal vol. 3 p 105.
Okorie, E.O. (1998) New Emphasis in curriculum pre-vocational training. A journal of Nigeria Education research Association.  Vol. 5 p 123
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QUESTIONNAIRE
SECTION A
(1)       Sex:    male    1   Female   1
(2)       Status:    Teacher  1            Students         1
(3)       Name of school--------------------------------------------------------------
(4)       Local Government Area---------------------------------------------------
SECTION B
Please tick (ΓΌ) in any option that suits your opinions with regard to each of the research question: Very Great Extent (VGE) Great Extent (GE) Less Extent (LE) Very Less Extent (VLE)
QUESTION 1
Response on the extent of available instructional materials for teaching business studies
S/No
Item statement
VGE
GE
LE
VLE
1
There are more that 20 typewriters used in teaching business studies




2
Computers have been used to teach business studies instead of typewriters.




3
There is no space for typing lessons




4
There is no tape recorder for teaching shorthand




5
There is no overhead projector for previewing dictations.





Question II responses on the extent in which teachers make use of the available instruction materials while teaching.
S/No
Item statement
VGE
GE
LE
VLE
6
The business studies teachers use inductive approach in teaching




7
The teacher dictates interesting outlines during shorthand




8
the teachers uses model office plan in teaching office practice




9
The business teachers takes us on field trip for learning




10
Business studies teachers uses drilling in teaching typewriting






Question III responses on students interest in learning business studies with the available instructional material
S/No
Item statement
VGE
GE
LE
VLE
11
Students like to carry out activities in which their personal goals, values, motives and interest are reflected.




12
Content and learning experiences selected in relation to students interest give them satisfaction




13
The more interested a child is in what the teacher is teaching, the more attention he will pay.




14
Students interest and attitude can affect the learning of business studies positively or negatively




15
Students interest is easily captured by the use of instructional materials







Question IV: response on the problems usually encountered by teachers in utilizing the instructional materials.
S/No
Item statement
VGE
GE
LE
VLE
16
Teachers do not have enough time to utilize the instructional materials effectively




17
Some teachers do not have basic knowledge and skill for effective utilization of the instructional materials.




18
Rapid changes in technology has thrown some teachers out of balance




19
Poor funding for the maintenance and acquiring more up-to-date equipment




20
Teachers need in-service training to measure up to the new trend.





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