DEPT.: Economics and Developmental Studies
FACULTY: Humanities and Social Sciences
COURSE TITLE: Principles of Management
TOPIC: Organizing as a function of Management.

Organizing in a general sense means systematic arrangement of activities. In this sense, organizing is done by each individual. However, organizing as a process of management essentially relates to sub-dividing and grouping of activities. Organizing becomes necessary when two or more persons work together to achieve some common objectives. When a player is playing alone, there is perhaps no need of organizing. But organizing becomes important when players are playing in a team. In that case, it is important to determine the role of each player and for the team as a whole to attain victory over the rival team. Similarly, in a one-man business, all the activities are performed by the owner himself. But when the owner employs someone to assist him, he has to determine the work to be done by the employee and give him the right to use materials, machinery, equipment, etc. This is the point when organizing becomes necessary. As more people are appointed, there has to be further division of work among them. When an organisation becomes large, separate departments are created to perform different functions. Each department has to be divided into a number of smaller units. Ultimately, the work of the organization is divided into a number of positions of employees and managers. Relationships are then established among the different positions in the organization. The outcome of the organizing is a set of formal relationships which is known as ORGANISATION STRUCTURE.

Organizing as a function of management.
Organizing is the process of defining and grouping activities and establishing authority relationships among them to attain organizational objectives. Organizing is the function of management which follows planning. It is a function in which the synchronization and combination of human, physical, and financial resources takes place. All the three resources are important to get results. Therefore, organizational function helps in achievement of results which in fact is important for the functioning of a concern.

Organizing, according to Chester Barnard,''is a function by which the concern is able to define the role positions, the job related and the coordination between authority and responsibility.

"Organisation is the process of identifying and grouping of the works to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility and authority and establishing relationships for the purpose of enabling people to work most efficiently". - Louis A. Allen.

Hence, a manager always has to organize in order to get results. A manager performs organizing function with the help of following steps:-
1.      Identification of activities - All the activities which have to be performed in a concern have to be identified first. For example, preparation of accounts, making sales, record keeping, quality control, inventory control, etc. All these activities have to be grouped and classified into units.
2.      Departmentally organizing the activities - In this step, the manager tries to combine and group similar and related activities into units or departments. This organization of dividing the whole concern into independent units and departments is called departmentation.
3.      Classifying the authority - Once the departments are made, the manager likes to classify the powers and its extent to the managers. This activity of giving a rank in order to the managerial positions is called hierarchy. The top management is into formulation of policies, the middle level management into departmental supervision and lower level management into supervision of foremen. The clarification of authority help in bringing efficiency in the running of a concern. This helps in achieving efficiency in the running of a concern. This helps in avoiding wastage of time, money, effort, in avoidance of duplication or overlapping of efforts and this helps in bringing smoothness in a concern’s working.
4.      Co-ordination between authority and responsibility - Relationships are established among various groups to enable smooth interaction toward the achievement of the organizational goal. Each individual is made aware of his authority and he/she knows whom they have to take orders from and to whom they are accountable and to whom they have to report. A clear organizational structure is drawn and all the employees are made aware of it.

Importance of Organizing Function
1.      Specialization - Organizational structure is a network of relationships in which the work is divided into units and departments. This division of work is helping in bringing specialization in various activities of concern.
2.      Well defined jobs - Organizational structure helps in putting right men on right job which can be done by selecting people for various departments according to their qualifications, skill and experience. This is helping in defining the jobs
1.      properly which clarifies the role of every person.
2.      Clarifies authority - Organizational structure helps in clarifying the role positions to every manager
3.      (status quo). This can be done by clarifying the powers to every manager and the way he has to
4.      exercise those powers should be clarified so that misuse of powers do not take place. Well defined jobs and responsibilities attached helps in bringing efficiency into managers working. This helpsvin increasing productivity.
5.      Co-ordination - Organization is a means of creating co-ordination among different departments of the enterprise. It creates clear cut relationships among positions and ensure mutual co-operation among individuals. Harmony of work is brought by higher level managers exercising their authority over interconnected activities of lower level manager. Authority responsibility relationships can be fruitful only when there is a formal relationship between the two. For smooth running of an organization, the co-ordination between authority- responsibility is very important. There should be co-ordination between different relationships. Clarity should be made for having an ultimate responsibility attached to every authority. There is a saying, “Authority without responsibility leads to ineffective behaviour and responsibility without uthority makes person ineffective.” Therefore, co-ordination of authority- responsibility is very important.
6.      Effective administration - The organization structure is helpful in defining the jobs positions. The roles to be performed by different managers are clarified. Specialization is achieved through division of work. This all leads to efficient and effective administration.
7.      Growth and diversification - A company’s growth is totally dependant on how efficiently and smoothly a concern works. Efficiency can be brought about by clarifying the role positions to the managers, co-ordination between authority and responsibility and concentrating on specialization. In addition to this, a company can diversify if its potential grow. This is possible only when the organization structure is well- defined. This is possible through a set of formal structure.
8.      Sense of security - Organizational structure clarifies the job positions. The roles assigned to every manager is clear. Co-ordination is possible. Therefore, clarity of powers helps automatically in increasing mental satisfaction and thereby a sense of security in a concern. This is very important for job- satisfaction.
9.      Scope for new changes - Where the roles and activities to be performed are clear and every person gets independence in his working, this provides enough space to a manager to develop his talents and flourish his knowledge. A manager gets ready for taking independent decisions which can be a road or path to adoption of new techniques of production. This scope for bringing new changes into the running of an enterprise is possible only through a set of organizational structure.

Classification of Organizations

Organizations are basically classified on the basis of relationships. There are two types of organizations formed on the basis of relationships in an
1.      Formal Organization - This is one which refers to a structure of well defined jobs each bearing a measure of authority and responsibility. It is a conscious determination by which people accomplish goals by adhering to the norms laid down by the structure. This kind of organization is an arbitrary set up in which each person is responsible for his performance. Formal organization has a formal set up to achieve pre-determined goals.
2.      Informal Organization - It refers to a network of personal and social elationships which spontaneously originates within the formal set up. Informal organizations develop relationships which are built on likes, dislikes, feelings and emotions. Therefore, the network of social groups based on friendships can be called as informal organizations. There is no conscious effort made to have informal organization. It emerges from the formal organization and it is not based on any rules and regulations as in case of formal organization.

Relationship between Formal and Informal Organizations
For a concerns working both formal and informal organization are important. Formal organization originates from the set organizational structure and informal organization originates from formal organization. For an efficient organization, both formal and informal organizations are required. They are the two phase of a same concern. Formal organization can work independently. But informal organization depends totally upon the formal organization. Formal and informal organization helps in bringing efficient working organization and smoothness in a concern. Within the formal organization, the members undertake the assigned duties in co-operation with each other. They interact and communicate amongst themselves. Therefore, both formal and informal organizations are important. When several people work together for achievement of organizational goals, social tie ups tends to build and therefore informal organization helps to secure co-operation by which goals can be achieved smooth. Therefore, we can say that informal organization emerges from formal organization.

Line Organization
Line organization is the oldest and simplest method of administrative organization. According to this type of organization, the authority flows from top to bottom in a concern. The line of command is carried out from top to bottom. This is the reason for calling this organization as scalar organization which means scalar chain of command is a part and parcel of this type of administrative organization. In this type of organization, the line of command flows on an even basis without any gaps in communication and co-ordination taking place.

Features of Line Organization
1.      It is the simplest form of organization.
2.      Line of authority flows from top to bottom.
3.      Specialized and supportive services do not take place in these organization.
4.      Unified control by the line officers can be maintained since they can independently take decisions in their areas and spheres.
5.      This kind of organization always helps in bringing efficiency in communication and bringing stability to a concern.

Merits of Line Organization
1.      Simplest- It is the most simple and oldest method of administration.
2.      Unity of Command- In these organizations, superior-subordinate relationship is maintained and scalar chain of command flows from top to bottom.
3.      Better discipline- The control is unified and concentrates on one person and therefore, he can independently make decisions of his own. Unified control ensures better discipline.
4.      Fixed responsibility- In this type of organization, every line executive has got fixed authority, power and fixed responsibility attached to every authority.
5.      Flexibility- There is a co-ordination between the top most authority and bottom line authority. Since the authority relationships are clear, line officials are independent and can flexibly take the decision. This flexibility gives satisfaction of line executives.
6.      Prompt decision- Due to the factors of fixed responsibility and unity of command, the officials can take prompt decision.

Demerits of Line Organization
1.      Over reliance- The line executive’s decisions are implemented to the bottom. This results in over- relying on the line officials.
2.      Lack of specialization- A line organization flows in a scalar chain from top to bottom and there is no scope for specialized functions. For example, expert advices whatever decisions are taken by line managers are implemented in the same way.
3.      Inadequate communication- The policies and strategies which are framed by the top authority are carried out in the same way. This leaves no scope for communication from the other end. The complaints and suggestions of lower authority are not communicated back to the top authority. So there is one way communication.
4.      Lack of Co-ordination- Whatever decisions are taken by the line officials, in certain situations wrong decisions, are carried down and implemented in the same way. Therefore, the degree of effective co-ordination is less.
5.      Authority leadership- The line officials have tendency to misuse their authority positions. This leads to autocratic leadership and monopoly in the concern.

Line and Staff Organization

Line and staff organization is a modification of line organization and it is more complex than line organization. According to this administrative organization, specialized and supportive activities are attached to the line of command by appointing staff supervisors and staff specialists who are attached to the line authority. The power of command always remains with the line executives
and staff supervisors guide, advice and council the line executives. Personal Secretary to the Managing Director is a staff official.
       ↓                                                ↓                                  ↓
Production Manager.   Marketing Manager    Finance Manager
           ↓                                               ↓                                  ↓
Plant Supervisor           Market Supervisor               Chief Assisstant
         ↓                                             ↓                                          ↓
Foreman                           Salesman                            Accountant

Features of Line and Staff Organization
There are two types of staff :
a.      Staff Assistants- P.A. to Managing Director,
1.      Secretary to Marketing Manager.
b.      Staff Supervisor- Operation Control Manager,
2.      Quality Controller, PRO
3.      Line and Staff Organization is a compromise of line organization. It is more complex than line concern.
4.      Division of work and specialization takes place in line and staff organization.

The whole organization is divided into different functional areas to which staff specialists are attached. Efficiency can be achieved through the features of specialization. There are two lines of authority which flow at one time in a concern:
c.      Line Authority
d.      Staff Authority
Power of command remains with the line executive and staff serves only as counselors.

Merits of Line and Staff Organization
1.      Relief to line of executives- In a line and staff organization, the advice and counseling which is provided to the line executives divides the work between the two. The line executive can concentrate on the execution of plans and they get relieved of dividing their attention to many areas.
2.      Expert advice- The line and staff organization facilitates expert advice to the line executive at the time of need. The planning and investigation which is related to different matters can be done by the staff specialist and line officers can concentrate on execution of plans.
3.      Benefit of Specialization- Line and staff through division of whole concern into two types of authority divides the enterprise into parts and functional areas. This way every officer or official can concentrate in its own area.
4.      Better co-ordination- Line and staff organization through specialization is able to provide better decision making and concentration remains in few hands. This feature helps in bringing co-ordination in work as every official is concentrating in their own area.
5.      Benefits of Research and Development- Through the advice of specialized staff, the line executives, and the line executives get time to execute plans by taking productive decisions which are helpful for a concern. This gives a wide scope to the line executive to bring innovations and go for research work in those areas. This is possible due to the presence of staff specialists.
6.      Training- Due to the presence of staff specialists and their expert advice serves as ground for training to line officials. Line executives can give due concentration to their decision making. This in itself is a training ground for them.
7.      Balanced decisions- The factor of specialization which is achieved by line staff helps in bringing co-ordination. This relationship automatically ends up the line official to take better and balanced decision.
8.      Unity of action- Unity of action is a result of unified control. Control and its effectively take place when co-ordination is present in the concern. In the line and staff authority all the officials have got independence to make decisions. This serves as effective control in the whole enterprise.

Demerits of Line and Staff Organization
1.      Lack of understanding- In a line and staff organization, there are two authority flowing at one time. This results in the confusion between the two. As a result, the workers are not able to understand as to who is their commanding authority. Hence the problem of understanding can be a hurdle in effective running.
2.      Lack of sound advice- The line official get used to the expertise advice of the staff. At times the staff specialist also provide wrong decisions which the line executive have to consider. This can affect the efficient running of the enterprise.
3.      Line and staff conflicts- Line and staff are two authorities which are flowing at the same time. The factors of designations, status influence sentiments which are related to their relation, can pose a distress on the minds of the employees. This leads to minimizing of co-ordination which hampers a concern’s working.
4.      Costly- In line and staff concern, the concerns have to maintain the high remuneration of staff specialist. This proves to be costly for a concern with limited finance.
5.      Assumption of authority- The power of concern is with the line official but the staff dislikes it as they are the one more in mental work.
6.      Staff steals the show- In a line and staff concern, the higher returns are considered to be a product of staff advice and counseling. The line officials feel dissatisfied and a feeling of distress enters a concern. The satisfaction of line officials is very important for effective results.

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