Leadership, an amorphous phenomenon that has intrigued us since people started studying organization, is being examined now for its relational aspects. More and more studies focus on followership, empowerment, and leader accessibility (Wheatley, 1994). According to Atchison and Hill (1978), leadership represents a combination of behaviors exhibited by one who occupies an elected, appointed, or designated position of influence in a social system.  Leadership is most fundamentally, about changes. What leaders do is create the systems and organizations that managers need, and, eventually, elevate them up to a whole new level or change in some basic ways to take advantage of new opportunities (John P. Kotter).

To understand the concept of this broad aspect of management called leadership, firstly let’s start with what leadership is not … Leadership has nothing to do with seniority or one’s position in the hierarchy of a company. Too many people talk about a company’s leadership referring to the senior most executives in the organization. They are just that, senior executives. Leadership doesn’t automatically happen when you reach a certain pay grade. Hopefully you find it there, but there are no guarantees. Leadership has nothing to do with titles. Similar to the point above, just because you have a C-level title, doesn’t automatically make you a “leader.” In all of my talks I stress the fact that you don’t need a title to lead. In fact, you can be a leader in your place of worship, your neighborhood, in your family, all without having a title. Leadership has nothing to do with personal attributes. Say the word “leader” and most people think of a domineering, take-charge charismatic individual. But leadership isn’t an adjective. We don’t need extroverted charismatic traits to practice leadership. And those with charisma don’t automatically lead.

Leadership isn’t management. This is the big one. Leadership and management are not synonymous. Good management is needed. Managers need to plan, measure, monitor, coordinate, solve, hire, fire, and so many other things. Typically, managers manage things. Leaders lead people. So, again, what is Leadership? Leadership and management are two notions that are often used interchangeably. However, these words actually describe two different concepts. Leadership is a facet of management. Leadership is just one of the many assets a successful manager must possess. Care must be taken in distinguishing between the two concepts. The main aim of a manager is to maximize the output of the organization through administrative implementation. To achieve this, managers must undertake the following functions: organization, planning, staffing, directing and controlling. Leadership is just one important component of the directing function. A manager cannot just be a leader; he also needs formal authority to be effective. "For any quality initiative to take hold, senior management must be involved and act as a role model. This involvement cannot be delegated. In some circumstances, leadership is not required. For example, self motivated groups may not require a single leader and may find leaders dominating. The fact that a leader is not always required proves that leadership is just an asset and is not essential.

Differences in Perspectives: Managers think incrementally, whilst leaders think radically. "Managers do things right, while leaders do the right thing. This means that managers do things by the book and follow company policy, while leaders follow their own intuition, which may in turn be of more benefit to the company. A leader is more emotional than a manager. "Men are governed by their emotions rather than their intelligence. This quotation illustrates why teams choose to follow leaders. Leaders stand out by being different. They question assumption and are suspicious of tradition. They seek out the truth and make decisions based on fact, not prejudice. They have a preference for innovation.

SUBORDINATE AS LEADER: Often with small groups, it is not the manager who emerges as the leader. In many cases it is a subordinate member with specific talents who leads the group in a certain direction. "Leaders must let vision, strategies, goals, and values are the guide-post for action and behavior rather than attempting to control others. When a natural leader emerges in a group containing a manager, conflict may arise if they have different views. When a manager sees the group looking towards someone else for leadership he may feel his authority is being questioned.

LOYALTY: Groups are often more loyal to a leader than a manager. This loyalty is created by the leader taking responsibility in areas such as: Taking the blame when things go wrong, celebrating group achievements, even minor ones and giving credit where it is due. The leader must take a point of highlighting the successes within a team, using charts or graphs, with little presentations and fun ideas. Leaders are observant and sensitive people. They know their team and develop mutual confidence within it.

THE LEADER IS FOLLOWED. MANAGER RULES: A leader is someone who people naturally follow through their own choice, whereas a manager must be obeyed. A manager may only have obtained his position of authority through time and loyalty given to the company, not as a result of his leadership qualities. A leader may have no organizational skills, but his vision unites people behind him. The table on the next page summarizes the above (and more) and gives a sense of the differences between being a leader and being a manager. This is, of course, an illustrative characterization, and there is a whole spectrum between either ends of these scales along which each role can range. And many people lead and manage at the same time, and so may display a combination of behaviors.

Leading people
Managing work
Sets direction
 Plans detail
Personal charisma
Formal authority
Appeal to
Excitement for work
Money for work
New roads
Existing roads
What is right
Being right

Assigned leadership is the appointment of people to formal positions of authority within an organization. Emergent leadership is the exercise of leadership is the exercise of leadership by one group member because of the manner in which other group members react to him or her. Although your position as a manager, supervisor, lead, etc. gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in the organization (called Assigned Leadership), this power does not make you a leader, it simply makes you a boss. Leadership differs in that it makes the followers want to achieve high goals (called Emergent Leadership), rather than simply ordering people around (Rowe, 2007).

What makes a person want to follow a leader? People want to be guided by leaders they respect and who have a clear sense of direction. To gain respect, they must be ethical. A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future. When people are deciding if they respect you as a leader, they do not think about your attributes, rather, they observe what you do so that they can know who you really are. They use this observation to tell if you are an honorable and trusted leader or a self-serving person who misuses authority to look good and get promoted. On the other hand, self-serving leaders are not as effective because their employees only obey them, not follow them. They succeed in many areas because they present a good image to their seniors at the expense of their workers. Good leadership is honorable character and selfless service to your organization. In your employees' eyes, your leadership is everything you do that effects the organization's objectives and their well-being. Let’s see how some of the most respected business thinkers of our time define leadership, and let’s consider what’s wrong with their definitions.  Peter Drucker: “The only definition of a leader is someone who has followers. Really? This instance of tautology is so simplistic as to be dangerous. A new Army Captain is put in the command of 200 soldiers. He never leaves his room, or utters a word to the men and women in his unit. Perhaps routine orders are given through a subordinate. By default his troops have to follow orders. Is the Captain really a leader? Commander YES, Leader NO. Drucker is of course a brilliant thinker of modern business but his definition of leader is too simple.
Warren Bennis: “Leadership is the capacity to translate vision into reality.”Every spring you have a vision for a garden, and with lots of work carrots and tomatoes become a reality. Are you a leader? No, you’re a gardener. Bennis’ definition seems to have forgotten “others.”
Bill Gates: “As we look ahead into the next century, leaders will be those who empower others.”This definition includes “others” and empowerment is a good thing. But to what end? I’ve seen many empowered “others” in my life, from rioting hooligans to Google workers who were so misaligned with the rest of the company they found themselves unemployed. Gates’ definition lacks the parts about goal or vision.
John Maxwell: “Leadership is influence – nothing more, nothing less.”I like minimalism but this reduction is too much. A robber with a gun has “influence” over his victim. A manager has the power to fire team members which provides a lot of influence. But does this influence make a robber or a manager a leader? Maxwell’s definition omits the source of influence

Leading is establishing direction and influencing others to follow that direction. But this definition isn't as simple as it sounds because leadership has many variations and different areas of emphasis. Common to all definitions of leadership is the notion that leaders are individuals who, by their actions, facilitate the movement of a group of people toward a common or shared goal. This definition implies that leadership is an influence process. The distinction between leader and leadership is important, but potentially confusing. The leader is an individual; leadership is the function or activity this individual performs. Leadership is a process of social influence, which maximizes the efforts of others towards the achievement of a goal. Henry Kissinger defined the art of leadership as the art of ‘taking people where they would not have gone by themselves’.
This highlights the basics of leadership: to be a leader, you need followers and secondly, you need to be taking them somewhere. Without followers, you are not leading. If you are not going somewhere new, you are a steward managing the status quo rather than a leader. Think back and remember good, even great leaders that you have known. What is the first thing that comes to mind when you remember them? Is it easiest to recall their personality, charisma when we focus on the personality and charisma of our leaders, we narrow the art of leadership to being specific to them as individuals? It seems that some people just seem to ‘have what it takes’ - and by definition, others just don’t. Leadership seems elusive and for those lucky few who’ve won the lottery of the ‘right qualities’.
Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Some other popular definitions of Leadership are:
·        It has been defined as a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal (North house, 2007, p3).
·        Leadership is inspiring others to pursue your vision within the parameters you set, to the extent that it becomes a shared effort, a shared vision, and a shared success (Steve Zeitchik, 2012).
·        Leadership is a process of social influence, which maximizes the efforts of others, towards the achievement of a goal (Kruse, 2013).

Note that all the definitions have a couple of processes in common:
A person influences others through social influence, not power, to get something accomplished. Leadership requires others, who are not necessarily direct-reports, to get something accomplished. There is a need to accomplish something. Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership knowledge and skills. This is called Process Leadership (Jago, 1982). However, we know that we have traits that can influence our actions. This is called Trait Leadership (Jago, 1982), in that it was once common to believe that leaders were born rather than made.

Leaders seek to influence the actions, beliefs and the feelings of others. This is a complex process: effective leadership requires the leader’s qualities and skills to connect with people and their needs as well as the needs of the leadership situation. This complexity is reflected in the evolution of leadership theory over the past 80 years. Early leadership theories focused on the qualities and behavior of successful leaders. Leadership theory evolved with greater understanding of the Needs and expectations of people at work; Impact of different leadership styles on followers and how the attitudes, behavior and competence of followers impact leaders; and the Effectiveness of different leadership styles in different situations. Later leadership theories recognize the needs of modern employees. Today’s leaders need to understand the increased expectations of their people to be consulted and involved in decision-making, and to have the autonomy to achieve objectives in the way they see as most effective.  The main approaches to leadership theory are:

THE QUALITIES OR TRAITS APPROACH: leaders are born, not made; leadership consists of certain inherited personality traits or qualities. Theories abound to explain what makes an effective leader. The oldest theories attempt to identify the common traits or skills that make an effective leader. Contemporary theorists and theories concentrate on actions of leaders rather than characteristics. A number of traits that appear regularly in leaders include ambition, energy, and the desire to lead, self confidence, and intelligence. Although certain traits are helpful, these attributes provide no guarantees that a person possessing them is an effective leader. Underlying the trait approach is the assumption that some people are natural leaders and are endowed with certain traits not possessed by other individuals. This research compared successful and unsuccessful leaders to see how they differed in physical characteristics, personality, and ability.

Leadership can be learned and developed. It focuses on the accountabilities, responsibilities and functions of the leader and the nature of the group. Examines how the leader’s behavior affects and is affected by the group of followers. One of the key theories of the functional approach is Adair's Action-Centered Leadership. This approach focuses on what leaders do and the need to balance the needs of the individual, the task and the team.

Focuses on the behavior of people in leadership positions, the importance of leadership style and how it influences group performance. When it became evident that effective leaders did not seem to have a particular set of distinguishing traits, researchers tried to isolate the behavior characteristics of effective leader (stoner et al, 1995). Behavioral theories try to identify behaviors that differentiate effective from ineffective leaders. In order words, researchers tried to find out what effective leaders do in terms of how they communicate with and try to motivate employees, how they carry out their jobs and so on (Owolabi .K, 2004:87). Likert, Blake and Mouton and Blake and McCanse compared behavioral styles across two dimensions: concern for production (relates to McGregor Theory X) and concern for people (relates to McGregor Theory Y).

This aspect focuses on leadership styles and how they impact those being led. The premise is that subordinates are more likely to work effectively for managers who adopt a certain style of leadership than others: Lewin defined three basic styles of leadership: autocratic (or authoritarian), participatory, democratic, laissez-faire style. No matter what their traits or skills, leaders carry out their roles in a wide variety of styles. Some leaders are autocratic. Others are democratic. Some are participatory, and others are hands off (laissez-faire). Often, the leadership style depends on the situation, including where the organization is in its life cycle.

The four types of leadership styles are briefly explained in the next page;

AUTOCRATIC: The manager makes all the decisions and dominates team members. This approach generally results in passive resistance from team members and requires continual pressure and direction from the leader in order to get things done. Generally, this approach is not a good way to get the best performance from a team. However, this style may be appropriate when urgent action is necessary or when subordinates actually prefer this style.

PARTICIPATORY: The manager involves the subordinates in decision making by consulting team members (while still maintaining control), which encourages employee ownership for the decisions. A good participative leader encourages participation and delegates wisely, but never loses sight of the fact that he or she bears the crucial responsibility of leadership. The leader values group discussions and input from team members; he or she maximizes the members' strong points in order to obtain the best performance from the entire team. The participative leader motivates team members by empowering them to direct themselves; he or she guides them with a loose rein. The downside, however, is that a participative leader may be seen as unsure, and team members may feel that everything is a matter for group discussion and decision.
LAISSEZ-FAIRE (also called freerein): In this handsoff approach, the leader encourages team members to function independently and work out their problems by themselves, although he or she is available for advice and assistance. The leader usually has little control over team members, leaving them to sort out their roles and tackle their work assignments without personally participating in these processes. In general, this approach leaves the team floundering with little direction or motivation. Laissezfaire is usually only appropriate when the team is highly motivated and skilled, and has a history of producing excellent work.
Many experts believe that overall leadership style depends largely on a manager's beliefs, values, and assumptions. How managers approach the following three elements—motivation, decision making, and task orientation—affect their leadership styles:
MOTIVATION: Leaders influence others to reach goals through their approaches to motivation. They can use either positive or negative motivation. A positive style uses praise, recognition, and rewards, and increases employee security and responsibility. A negative style uses punishment, penalties, potential job loss, suspension, threats, and reprimands.

DECISION MAKING: The second element of a manager's leadership style is the degree of decision authority the manager grants employees—ranging from no involvement to group decision making.

The final element of leadership style is the manager's perspective on the most effective way to get the work done. Managers who favor task orientation emphasize getting work done by using better methods or equipment, controlling the work environment, assigning and organizing work, and monitoring performance. Managers who favor employee orientation emphasize getting work done through meeting the human needs of subordinates. Teamwork, positive relationships, trust, and problem solving are the major focuses of the employeeoriented manager. Keep in mind that managers may exhibit both task and employee orientations to some degree. Belbin also defined two diverging styles of leadership: the Solo Leader and the Team Leader. Tannenbaum and Schmidt presented a continuum of leadership styles based on the degree of authority exercised by the manager and the degree of autonomy available to followers in making decisions.

The situation itself determines the leadership style that will be most effective and no single style of leadership is appropriate for all situations. Major leadership contingency models include:
Fiedler: Favorability of leadership situation (leader- member relations, task structure and the power in the position held by the leader)

TRANSFORMATIONAL AND TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP: An approach that looks at two levels of leadership:
Transactional: appeals to the self-interest of followers to achieve organizational goals and is based on the leader’s position of authority in the structure.
Transformational leadership: It takes a further step. It creates a vision for transforming the performance of the organization and appeals to the higher ideals and the values of the organization’s people to make it happen. People are motivated by more than just their own self- interest, and they are motivated to give more effort than what transactional leadership alone can achieve. Transformational leadership is viewed as an extension of transactional, rather than an alternative to it. Inspirational or charismatic leadership: is based on the personal qualities or charisma of the leader. These leaders are seen as having a strong vision and sense of mission and arouse strong emotions in followers.

DRIVE: Leaders are ambitious and take initiative
MOTIVATION: Leaders want to lead and are willing to take charge.
HONESTY AND INTEGRITY: Leaders are truthful and do what they say they will do.
SELF-CONFIDENCE: Leaders are assertive and decisive and enjoy taking risks. They admit mistakes and foster trust and commitment to a vision. Leaders are emotionally stable rather than recklessly adventurous.
COGNITIVE ABILITY: Leaders are intelligent, perceptive, and conceptually skilled, but are not necessarily geniuses. They show analytical ability, good judgment, and the capacity to think strategically.
BUSINESS KNOWLEDGE: Leaders tend to have technical expertise in their businesses.

Effective leaders develop and use power, or the ability to influence others. The traditional manager's power comes from his or her position within the organization. Legitimate, reward, and coercive are all forms of power used by managers to change employee behavior and are defined as follows:
·        Legitimate power: stems from a formal management position in an organization and the authority granted to it. Subordinates accept this as a legitimate source of power and comply with it.
·        Reward power: stems from the authority to reward others. Managers can give formal rewards, such as pay increases or promotions, and may also use praise, attention, and recognition to influence behavior.
·        Coercive power:  related to power is a specific kind of power called coercion. Coercive leaders use force to cause change. These leaders influence others through the use of penalties, rewards, threats, punishments and negative reward schedules (Daft, 2015). It is the opposite of reward power and stems from the authority to punish or to recommend punishment. Managers have coercive power when they have the right to fire or demote employees, criticize them, withhold pay increases, give reprimands, make negative entries in employee files, and so on. Coercion is different from leadership, and it is important to distinguish between those who are coercive versus those who are influencing a group of people toward a common goal. Using coercion counters to influencing others to achieve a shared goal and may have unintended, negative consequences (Dubrin, 2007; Yukl, 2006).

Keep in mind that different types of position power receive different responses in followers. Legitimate power and reward power are most likely to generate compliance, where workers obey orders even though they may personally disagree with them. Coercive power most often generates resistance, which may lead workers to deliberately avoid carrying out instructions or to disobey orders.
Personal power: Unlike external sources of position power, personal power most often comes from internal sources, such as a person's special knowledge or personality characteristics. Personal power is the tool of a leader.  Subordinates follow a leader because of respect, admiration, or caring they feel for this individual and his or her ideas. The following two types of personal power exist:
Expert power results from a leader's special knowledge or skills regarding the tasks performed by followers. When a leader is a true expert, subordinates tend to go along quickly with his or her recommendations.
Referent power results from leadership characteristics that command identification, respect, and admiration from subordinates who then desire to emulate the leader. When workers admire a supervisor because of the way he or she deals with them, the influence is based on referent power. Referent power depends on a leader's personal characteristics rather than on his or her formal title or position, and is most visible in the area of charismatic leadership.
The most common follower response to expert power and referent power is commitment. Commitment means that workers share the leader's point of view and enthusiastically carry out instructions. Needless to say, commitment is preferred to compliance or resistance. Commitment helps followers overcome fear of change, and it is especially important in those instances. Keep in mind that the different types of power described here are interrelated. Most leaders use a combination of these types of power, depending on the leadership style used. Authoritarian leaders, for example, use a mixture of legitimate, coercive, and reward powers to dictate the policies, plans, and activities of a group. In comparison, a participative leader uses mainly referent power, involving all members of the group in the decisionmaking process.

However, when we focus on leadership skills, we can shift our attention to the aspect of leadership that can be learned. If leadership is a skill, or requires the mastery of a number of skills, then the good news is that we can all be leaders. No matter what skill level we start out with, we can work to become more proficient in each skill and continue to grow and become better and better leaders. Importantly, we can use these skills to lead from anywhere from within our organization, we don’t have to be at the top to influence those around us and take them somewhere new.
Our leadership skills are also not pre-determined by our education. In all spheres of leadership, many of our best known and most influential leaders have no degree or formal qualifications, let alone an MBA from an elite business school. So what are these leadership skills that will bring people on a journey with us? And what qualities will help us be a leader that others will even want to follow?
·     Relate to, connect with and bring out the best in others: interpersonal skills, emotional intelligence
·     Interested in people, their views and perspective, their needs and what makes them tick; Authentic; Self aware - understands strengths, weaknesses and impact on others
·     Build Trust Trustworthy Influence and persuade Integrity, Credibility, Honesty
·      Motivate yourself and others Positive energy, resilience; understands the needs and expectation of others
·     Create a compelling vision for the future
·     Dissatisfied with the status quo; have the passion and ambition to make things better in order to achieve a higher purpose
·     See the best strategy to get there Action orientated and practical
·     Communicate the vision and strategy in a way that builds support and commitment to delivering it’s Lives mission, purpose and values
·     Set clear goals and achieve them Performance driven, ambitious
·     Make decisions and live with them Willing to take calculated risks; Willing to learn from others and from mistakes
·     Cope with uncertainty and ambiguity Has belief and keeps moving forward
·     Instill belief, inspire and empower Connects with others by being authentic
·     Find solutions, be Curious and always remain Positive
·     Focus on what creates most value Proactive, not reactive, set the agenda
·     Develop others Honored to coach and share knowledge
·     Build an effective team Trustworthy, Authentic
·     Actively listen and ask the right questions Curious, Humble; Driven by data and facts, not opinions
·     Give and receive information and feedback Driven by learning and continuous improvement
·     Handle a crisis Accountable; Focuses on the right outcomes not blame or excuses
·     Envision and lead change in a positive way Agile and adaptable; driven by continuous improvement and continuous learning.
·     Focus time and effort on what makes a difference; priorities
·     Knows what is right for the organization’s stakeholders and is committed to delivering it
Remember, there is no consensus or single view on what makes a great leader. This list of leadership skills and qualities contains no reference to personality, charisma, heroism or being ‘an inspiration’. Instead, these leadership skills are practical and we use them every day. They are the skills that you’d expect any person to develop no matter where they operate in the organization, not just those labeled as ‘leaders’ on the organization chart. Similarly, these leadership qualities are qualities that we’d hope we’d bring with us into work every day and would want our colleagues to do the same. Of course, it isn’t always so easy, but imagine how much more productive our working days would be if we all did! But as a leader sets the standard for his or her area of responsibility, the values and behaviors they role model will greatly impact trust, working relationships, productivity and the working environment around them. There is no perfect leader, and no perfect leadership approach. As leaders, we need to focus on how to be an effective leader in each situation. Developing these leadership skills and role modeling these qualities will improve our chances of getting this right.

According to a study by the Hay Group, a global management consultancy, there are 75 key components of employee satisfaction (Lamb, McKee, 2004). They found out that:            Trust and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization. Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to winning organizational trust and confidence:
1.      Helping employees understand the company's overall business strategy.
2.      Helping employees understand how they contribute to achieving key business objectives.
3.      Sharing information with employees on both how the company is doing and how an employee's own division is doing.
So in a nutshell — you must be trustworthy and you have to be able to communicate a vision of where the organization needs to go.

1.      Know yourself and seek self-improvement - In order to know yourself, you have to understand your- be, know, and do, attributes. Seeking self improvement means continually strengthening your attributes. This can be accomplished through self-study, formal classes, reflection, and interacting with others.
2.      be technically proficient - As a leader, you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees' tasks.
3.      Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions - Search for ways to guide your organization to new heights. And when things go wrong, as they often tend to do sooner or later — do not blame others. Analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move on to the next challenge.
4.      Make sound and timely decisions - Use good problem solving, decision making, and planning tools.
5.      Set the example - Be a good role model for your employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see. We must become the change we want to see - Mahatma Gandhi
6.      Know your people and look out for their well-being - Know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for your workers.
7.      Keep your workers informed - Know how to communicate with not only them, but also seniors and other key people.
8.      Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers – Help to develop good character traits that will help them carry out their professional responsibilities.
9.      Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished - Communication is the key to this responsibility.
10. Train as a team - Although many so called leaders call their organization, department, section, etc. a team; they are not really teams... they are just a group of people doing their jobs.
11. Use the full capabilities of your organization – By developing a team spirit, you will be able to employ your organization, department, section, etc. to its fullest capabilities.

Respected leaders concentrate on Be, Know, and Do. Who they are [be] (such as beliefs and character), what they know (such as job, tasks, and human nature), what they do (such as implementing, motivating, and providing direction).

BE a professional. Examples: Be loyal to the organization, perform selfless service, and take personal responsibility. BE a professional who possess good character traits. Examples: honesty, competence, candor, commitment, integrity, courage, straightforwardness, imagination.

·        KNOW
·        KNOW the four factors of leadership — follower, leader, Communication, situation.
·        KNOW yourself. Examples: strengths and weakness of your character, knowledge, and skills.
·        KNOW human nature. Examples: human needs, emotions, and how people respond to stress.
·        KNOW your job. Examples: be proficient and be able to train others in their tasks.
·        KNOW your organization. Examples: where to go for help, its climate and culture, who the unofficial leaders are.

·        DO provide direction. Examples: goal setting, problem solving, decision making, planning.
·        DO implement. Examples: communicating, coordinating, supervising, evaluating.
·        DO motivate. Examples: develop morale and esprit de corps in the organization, train, coach, counsel.

Every organization has a particular work environment, which dictates to a considerable degree how its leaders respond to problems and opportunities. This is brought about by its heritage of past leaders and its present leaders. Goals, Values, and Concepts Leaders exert influence on the environment via three types of actions:
1.      The goals and performance standards they establish.
2.      The values they establish for the organization.
3.      The business and people concepts they establish.
Successful organizations have leaders who set high standards and goals across the entire spectrum, such as strategies, market leadership, plans, meetings and presentations, productivity, quality, and reliability.
Values reflect the concern the organization has for its employees, customers, investors, vendors, and surrounding community. These values define the manner in how business will be conducted.
Concepts define what products or services the organization will offer and the methods and processes for conducting business.
These goals, values, and concepts make up the organization's personality or how the organization is observed by both outsiders and insiders. This personality defines the roles, relationships, rewards, and rites that take place.

Roles are the positions that are defined by a set of expectations about behavior of any job incumbent. Each role has a set of tasks and responsibilities that may or may not be spelled out. Roles have a powerful effect on behavior for several reasons, to include money being paid for the performance of the role, there is prestige attached to a role, and a sense of accomplishment or challenge.
Relationships are determined by a role's tasks. While some tasks are performed alone, most are carried out in relationship with others. The tasks will determine who the role-holder is required to interact with, how often, and towards what end.  Normally the greater the interaction, the greater the liking. This in turn leads to more frequent interactions. In human behavior, it’s hard to like someone whom we have no contact with, and we tend to seek out those we like. People tend to do what they are rewarded for, and friendship is a powerful reward. Many tasks and behaviors that are associated with a role are brought about by these relationships. That is, new task and behaviors are expected of the present role-holder because a strong relationship was developed in the past, either by that role-holder or a prior role-holder.

There are two distinct forces that dictate how to act within an organization: culture and climate. Each organization has its own distinctive culture. It is a combination of the founders, past leadership, current leadership, crises, events, history, and size (Newstrom, Davis, 1993). These results in rites: the routines, rituals, and the “way we do things.” These rites impact individual behavior on what it takes to be in good standing (the norm) and direct the appropriate behavior for each circumstance. The climate is the feel of the organization, the individual and shared perceptions and attitudes of the organization's members (Ivancevich, Konopaske, Matteson, 2007). While the culture is the deeply rooted nature of the organization that is a result of long-held formal and informal systems, rules, traditions, and customs; climate is a short-term phenomenon created by the current leadership. Climate represents the beliefs about the “feel of the organization” by its members. This individual perception of the “feel of the organization” comes from what the people believe about the activities that occur in the organization.
These activities influence both individual and team motivation and satisfaction, such as: How well does the leader clarify the priorities and goals of the organization? What is expected of us? What is the system of recognition, rewards, and punishments in the organization? How competent are the leaders? Are leaders free to make decisions? What will happen if I make a mistake? Organizational climate is directly related to the leadership and management style of the leader, based on the values, attributes, skills, and actions, as well as the priorities of the leader. Compare this to “ethical climate” — the feel of the organization about the activities that have ethical content or those aspects of the work environment that constitute ethical behavior.
The ethical climate is the feel about whether we do things right; or the feel of whether we behave the way we ought to behave. The behavior (character) of the leader is the most important factor that influences the climate. On the other hand, culture is a long-term, complex phenomenon. Culture represents the shared expectations and self-image of the organization. The mature values that create tradition or the “way we do things here.” Things are done differently in every organization. The collective vision and common folklore that define the institution are a reflection of culture. Individual leaders cannot easily create or change culture because culture is a part of the organization. Culture influences the characteristics of the climate by its effect on the actions and thought processes of the leader. But, everything you do as a leader will affect the climate of the organization.

The road to great leadership (Kouzes & Posner, 1987) that is common to successful leaders:
·        Challenge the process - First, find a process that you believe needs to be improved the most.
·        Inspire a shared vision - Next, share your vision in words that can be understood by your followers.
·        Enable others to act - Give them the tools and methods to solve the problem.
·        Model the way - When the process gets tough, get your hands dirty. A boss tells others what to do; a leader shows that it can be done.
·        Encourage the hearts - Share the glory with your followers' hearts, while keeping the pains within your own.


Leaders are made not born. They learn, develop and gain skills and expertise by learning, experimenting and experience. Describing what a leader is, does or is required to do is not easy. Leaders to have to adapt to different circumstances; some leaders seem to perform in some circumstances but not others. You often hear of leaders being brought into ‘turn a situation around’ and then having done that, they are ‘not the right person to take the organization forward’.
Your organization will need leaders to display skills and attributes that will help you achieve your aims and objectives. You will have leaders in their own technical fields, but overarching this will be a need to see leaders behave in a certain manner and exhibit certain qualities. Rather than the limited and somewhat vague view of defining requirements through ‘leadership skills’ , many organizations define a leadership competency framework that focuses on outcomes, attitudes and behaviors as well as skills that can be tangibly described, measured and demonstrated. Such a framework sets consistent, measurable standards that define what is expected of leaders
Many organizations are moving beyond loose, ad hoc or individual definitions of 'leadership skills' towards defining exactly what leadership competencies they want their leaders to demonstrate using Leadership Competency Frameworks. Competencies are more than just skills. Competencies include attitudes and behaviors as well as skills. They define the outcomes that should be observed, and the way that those outcomes should be delivered.
Leadership Competency Frameworks define and communicate to everyone in an organization the competencies that the organization views as critical to its success and achieving its goals. Examples of leadership competencies within a Leadership Competency Framework could include: ‘thinking and acting strategically’, ‘demonstrates a passion for customers’, ‘delivering our vision’.

Why do leadership competencies matter?
By specifically defining for each leadership competency the (a) required outcome and (b) way that the outcome is delivered, the organization communicates to everyone the leadership skills, attitudes, behaviors and outcomes that it expects its leaders to demonstrate. . It defines each job and role in the organization and the leadership competencies that need to be demonstrated in order to: Be assessed as competent in that role and In order to progress to the next. For the organization and its people it provides: A framework for job-role definition and recruitment, A framework for career progression visible to all ,A way of aligning skills and simplifying understanding of requirements, A way of driving behavior and objectives across the organization and a way of achieving cultural change and alignment The organization then has an objective, consistent and tangible means of assessing: Potential competence in a particular role as part of the recruitment process whether people are demonstrating competence in their current role Development and training needs in order to be able to demonstrate competence in the current or a higher role. This gives everyone a level playing field for measuring their competence, assessing their development needs and suitability for promotion and improving their performance. Leadership Competency Frameworks therefore aim to replace subjectivity and individual approaches to assessing leadership skills and performance with a consistent approach that is applied in the same way to everyone.

In conclusion, leaders are completely responsible for anything that happens within the organization. It is important that we set forth standard operating procedures that are easily communicated, practical, and appropriate to the organization. Everhart and Krisonis (1996) believe that leaders must be consistent and fair, yet firm in putting into action any disciplinary or positive reward system.

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