Ohaukwu is one of the thirteen local government area in Ebonyi state south East-Nigeria. It was created in 1989 out of the former Ishielu local government council. The local government is made up 19 major communities. The three major extractions that make up Ohaukwu are Izhia, Ngbo, and Effium. 

Some of the autonomous communities that make up the entire Ohaukwu from the above three groups are Umuagara, Amaechi, Amike, Ishielu Nsulakpa, all from Izhia, while Ngbo is make up of Ekwasi, Umuogudu Akpu, Umuogudu Oshia, Okposhi Eheku, Okposhi Eshi, Amofia Enwezaka and Ukwagba while Effium is made up of Umuezeokoha and Effium indigenes. Ohaukwu is popularly known as the seat of the permanent site of the Ebonyi state University found in the year 1999 by the first executive governor of Ebonyi state Dr. Sam Ominyi Egwu when he was the commissioner for Education under the former military Governor of Ebonyi state-Rear Admiral Walter Feghabor.
The headquarters is located at the ancient land-Izhia. The headquarters has been the seat of government since the pre- independence years when the local government was known and addressed ad Ishielu county council. The common language is Igbo language. According to the 2006 population census figure, the local government has a total of 196, 337 people. The local government is delineated politically into fifteen wards and each ward is represented by an elected councilor for three years tenure.
Administratively, the council has a total of eight departments namely,-Administration, finance and Accounts, works, Education, Agriculture, Health Budget, Planning and research and procurement and supplies department. Each department performs functions synonymous with their name.
However, the entire departments in the local government are mutually interrelated. Each department is being supervised by the head of department. The heads of departments are super-intended by a political head called supervisory councilor. The supervisors are appointed by the chairman usually, the chairman nominates the names of his supervisory councilor while the elected councilor ratifies the appointment.
In the local government system, the executive chairman, vice chairman, secretary and supervisory councilors form the executive arm of government. They are being assisted by other political AIDS and career civil servants. The elected councilors form the legislative arm of government. They make by-laws and approve the local government appropriation bills. They are assisted by the clerk of the House and other civil servants.

Major Economic Activities of the People
The majority of the people of Ohaukwu are farmers. They produce the following crops in commercial quantities – yam, cassava, maize, palm oil and palm kernel. The local government has potential for Agro based industries but, has not been fully utilized. A good percentage of the rural populace are grossly engaged in livestock farming as they rear cattle, goat, pig, sheep and poultry. Furthermore, good percentage of the population engages in trading at various degrees both at medium high scale and petty trading. Few of the population are civil servants. Most of the civil servants are police; teachers and low ranking office messengers majority of the youths are engaged as farm labourers using their hoe and cutlasses to work for people and earn their living.
However, we also have few doctors, lawyers’ engineers, architects and technicians.
There are numerous dependants and unemployed masses struggling on daily bases to make ends meet. Some of the unemployed youths have turned into political jobbers. Politicians engage them during election and usually abandon them after elections.
Economically; Ohaukwu Local Government has viable market. Notable among them are Okwor Mgbo market where the best garri in South East is sold. Lorries of garri and yam are loaded every five days at the market at commercial quantities. Others are Eke Izhia, Idokpo, Effium market. All these markets are patronized by buyers across the nation who come to buy various commodities at commercial quantities. Apart from these big markets we have other four (4) day market days such as the, Orie, Afor and Nkwor in four communities in Izhia.
Ohaukwu also has animals market close to the local government headquarters where trades both Igbo and Hausa buy all kinds of animal such as horse, donkey, sheep and goat from northern Nigeria and deposit at the market at commercial quantity and people come from far and near across the nation to buy on daily basis. Banks are located across the Local Government. Generally, the standard of living is very poor especially in the rural areas of Ohaukwu Local Government Area. Very few persons lives above the poverty level.

Religious Life of the People
The major religion in Ohaukwu Local Government is Christianity. The people are predominantly Christians because of their encounter with the early Church missionaries in the 18th century. However, few people still believe in African Traditional Religion. They still  hold tenaciously to the religion of their forefathers. Indeed, western education, civilization and Christian evangelism are causing a decline of follower of the traditional religion.
Also, there is a small segment of Muslim worshippers. This religion is alien to the indigenous people. The settlers among the Hausas and Yorubas and very few indigenes who are their converts practice Islamic religion.

Culture of the People
            The people of Ohaukwu local government Area has rich cultural heritage. Their language includes Mgbolizhia for Izhia and Mbgo people, Effium Ntsu for Effium and Ezza dialect for Ezza people. Their common language is Igbo.
            The communities in Ohaukwu Local Government are proud of their tradition and cultural heritage which include Itukwe festival, Omebe and Ekpe masquerade, Ofie obodo and other festivals like Iphori Ndiegu. All these cultural celebrations are often blended with warm hospitality that earns the area a prominent place in the realm of respectability and entertainment. Other dances that are popular are Igede which is danced only by the few wealthy ones. Odabara and Ode-Aribo.
            However some of the cultural dances are gradually dying away.

Social Life of the People
            The people of Ohaukwu Local Government Area are socially inclined. All the communities are organized into chieftaincy stools. Each community chief oversees the activities of the communities as traditional rulers. There is also the presence of the age grades (Ndi Ogbo) they are the security men of the community. They maintain law and order in the community. They organize communal work in the rural link toads, market square and carry assignment as may be directed by the traditional rule and his cabinet and the village.

Political Life of the people
Politically, Ohaukwu Local Government Area is a force to reckon with in Ebonyi State politics and Nigeria at large. The Local Government is the home of major political leaders of the state and the nation in general. Sons and daughters of the Ohaukwu Local Government had occupied and are still presently occupying various enviable political positions in the state and the national level. They are regarded as the king makers. The Local Government upon the creation of Ebonyi state has produced  the first executive governor of the state in the person of Dr. Sam Ominyi Egwu. It is the home of the former deputy governor of Enugu state, late Dr. Icha Ituma. Ohaukwu is the home of the current assistant national secretary of people’s Democratic Party (PDP) Bar. Onwe S. Onwe. The home of the member of the supreme court Barr Obande Ogbuinya and the former minister for Education Dr. Sam O. Egwu to mention but a few. Many of the sons and daughters are currently occupying strategic political positions in the state level e.g Barr. Ndubuisi Chibueze Agbo the commissioner for Education.
The Local Government has a total of 15 council wards represented by 15 councilors.
The Local Government headquarters is situated at Izhia though the smallest in terms of population and land mass but vary prominent in the political and economic affairs. It is made up of only two 2 political wards out of the 15 wards but currently produces the chairman of the council. The commissioner for education and also produce a legislator at the state house of assembly.

3.1.6 Educational life of the people    
Ohaukwu local government houses most of the educational institutions in Ebonyi state including the Ebonyi state university, federal government girls college Izhia, school of Health Technology Ngbo, saint Augustines seminary Izhia (Run by Catholic), two(2) pilot schools where students are mandated to live in the boarding house. Ohaukwu has 124 primary school total number of pupil as at July, 2013 is 41,334 it has 29 government owned secondary school with 15, 145 students. Total number of school children is 56,489 with over 3,020 staff strength. Ohaukwu has many private primary and secondary schools including Wesley secondary school Izhia (run by Methodist) Anglican secondary school (run by Anglican) to mention but a few. Ohaukwu local government has produced many professors and doctors that constitute bulk of the labour force in the Ebonyi State University and other educational institutions across the country.

Economic Viability
Though, the people of Ohaukwu local government are not generally rich, the local government is rich in mineral deposit many chipping wells are deposited across the local government. These laterite wells are located at Umuagara–Izhia, Amaechi, Ukwagba and Amofia and there is also large deposits of kaolin clays, gypsum, limestone not yet tapped. The laterite wells are controlled by foreign companies who pay royalties to the government.

According to Oguonu (2002), the revenue flows in the local government area are:-
1.         Statutory revenue grants through the federation account and through the state joint account
2.         Project grants and non statutory receipts from state government agencies
3.         Internally generated revenues namely:-
i.          Taxes and rates
ii.         Licenses and fees
iii.       Earnings and sales
Similarly, Nwankwo (2002) highlighted the following

Sources of Local Government Revenues:-
1.         Imposition of community rates and poll tax on cattle, horses, dogs and other livestock’s.
2.         Payment of licenses, permits, personal identification, registration of births, marriage and court fires
3.         Payment of urinary, toilet, motor parks, cemeteries market, halls, transport services, agriculture farms and schools built and maintained by the local government.
4.         Statutory allocations, grants-in-aids and state governments
5.         Interest and premium accruable to local government from investment of funds in public or private economic interest
6.         Money which may be given to local government as gifts or grants by a public or private company and philanthropists.
7.         Money that may be granted to the local government by another or paid to a local government by a joint board.
8.         Loans from a government, a public corporation or private financial institutions.
Also, Ezeani (2006) summarized the sources of local government finance into two sources. The external and internal sources. The external sources include statutory allocation, grants and loans. While the internal sources are rates, taxes, receipts, rents, investments and money derived from fees.

Ohaukwu Local Government has both internal and external sources of revenue.
The Internal Sources are
1.         Rent for hire of council hall
2.         Payment of licenses of business premises
3.         Payments for personal identifications
4.         Sale of vehicles and motorcycle tricycle emblems
5.         Tickets sales in motor parks
7.         Registration of marriages
8.         Registration of birth, Taxes and rates
9.         Other fees such as cemetery fees
10.       Returns from agricultural investments such as veterinary farm Izhia

External Sources of Funds
1.         Statutory allocation from federal government including VAT and Excess crude funds
2.         Loans from financial institutions
3.         State government grants for specific projects and rewards
Inspite of the various sources of revenue for the for the council, Ohaukwu Local Government depend largely on statutory allocation from the federal government. It was observed that the internal sources of revenue were not fully annexed. There is also a lot of malpractices in tax mobilization and generation for the council.
Furthermore it was observed that about 90% of the local government revenue comes from statutory allocation. This accounts for the reliance of the local government on statutory allocations for the payment of staff salaries. The council can not generate enough revenue to pay its salaries worst still, the state government is not remitting to the local government their share of revenue generated from the state. Also, the state government sometimes deducts funds from the local government joint account to fund certain projects. These unwholesome practices reduce the local government funds and hence impair rural development. 

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