Quality management can be considered to have three main components; Quality control, Quality assurance and Quality improvement. Quality management is not focused only on product/services quality, but also the means to achieve it, quality management therefore uses quality assurance and control of processes as well as products to achieve more consistent quality. Quality management adopts a number of principles that can be used by upper management to guide their organizations towards improved performance. The principles covers;

           Customer focus
           Involvement of people
          Process approach
          Factual approach to decision making
          System approach to management
          Mutually beneficial supplier relationship
          Continual improvement (Godfrey 2009).
Quality management is a recent phenomenon, advance civilization that supported the arts and craft which allowed clients to choose goods meeting higher quality standards than normal goods. In societies where art responsibilities of a master craftsman ( similarly for artist) was to lead their studio, train and supervise, the importance of craftsman was diminished as mass production and repetitive of work practices were instituted. The aim was to produce large number of same goods (Thareja 2008).
The first proponent in the U.S for this approach was Eli Whitney who proposed (interc1nangeabie) parts manufacture for muskets, hence producing the identical components and creating a musket assembly line. The next step forward was promoted by several people including Fredrick Winslow Taylor a mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency, who is sometimes called “The father of scientific management”. He was one of the intellectual leaders of the Efficiency Movement and part of his approach laid further foundation for quality management, including aspects like standardization and adopting improved practices.
Henry Ford also was important in beginning process and quality management into operation in his assembly lines. In Germany Karl Friedrich Benz, often called the inventor of the motor car, made a step in the evolution by pursuing similar assembly and production practices, although real mass production was properly initiated in Volkswagen after World War II from this period onward, North American companies focused predominantly upon production against lower cost with increased efficiency (Cook and Frank 2010).
In the evolution of Quality management Walter A. Stewhart made a major step by creating a method for quality control for production, using statistical methods, first processed in 1924. This became the foundation for his ongoing work on statistical quality control. W. Edwards Deming later applied statistical process control methods in the United States during World War II, thereby successfully improving quality in the manufacture of ammunitions and other strategically important products (Cook and Frank 2010).
Quality management leadership from a national perspective has changed over the past five to six decades. After the Second World War, Japan decided to make quality improvement a national imperative as part of building their economy, and sought the help of Shehwart, Deming and Juran amongst others. W. Edwards Deming championed Shewharts ideas in Japan from 1950 onwards. In the 1950s and 1970s, Japanese goods were synonymous with cheapness and low quality, but over time their quality initiatives began to be successful, with Japan achieving very high levels of quality in products from 1970s onward. A number of highly successful quality initiatives have been invented by the Japanese; many of the methods not only provide techniques but also have associated quality culture (i.e. people factors). These methods are now adopted by the same western countries that are decades earlier derided Japanese methods; these countries amongst many others have raised their own standards and quality in order to meet International Standards and customers demands. The I.S.O 9000 series of standards are probably the best known International standards for quality management (Wikipedia encyclopedia 2010).

Total Quality Management
Total Quality Management (T.Q.M is a management concept coined by W. Edward Deming, The basis of total quality management is to reduce the errors produced during manufacturing or services process, increase customer satisfaction, streamline supply chain management, aim for modernization of equipments and ensure workers have the highest level of training. One of the principal aims of Total quality management is to limit errors to one per one million its of products produced. Total quality management is often associated with the development, deployment and maintenance of organizational systems that are required for various business processes (wikipedia encyclopedia 2010).
According to Juran and Gryna (1999) it is an effective technique for integrating the quality development, quality maintenance and quality improvement efforts of the various groups in the organization so as to guarantee production and services at the most economical level that ensures customers satisfaction. Total quality management connotes a way of doing things in an organization that enables the organization to consistently achieve planned and continuous improvement in the quality of all its activities, processes and results in order to meet or exceed the expectation of the customer. Total quality management is a management system for a customer focused organization that involves all employees in continual improvement of all aspects of the organization. TQM uses strategy, data, and effective communication to integrate the quality principles into the culture and activities of the organization. To achieve this objective of the organization through Total quality management, the organization should ensure that the customers’ requirements (in all aspects) are clear, such that the products will be designed for complete satisfaction, and waste elimination at every stage. Hence this will ensure the running of the business in a coordinated fashion. in a Total quality management environment all employees must strive to “DO the right things first, first time every time” (‘Munro-Faure 1992).
Total quality management has a newer concept in the approach to management known as Six Sigma which focuses on improving quality by reducing the number of defects while Total quality management originally tries to improve quality by ensuring conformance to internal requirements (Wikipedia 2010).

Principles of Total Quality Management (TQM)
1.         Be Customer Focused: Whatever you do for quality improvement, remember that ONLY customers determine the level of quality. Whatever you do to foster quality Improvement, training employees, integrating quality into processes management, ONLY customers determine whether your efforts were worthwhile
2.         Insure Total Employee Involvement: You must remove fear from work place, then empower employee.., you provide the proper improvement

Submission guidelines
3.         Process Centered: Fundamental part of TQM is to focus on process thinking.
4.         Integrated System: All employees must know the business mission and vision. An integrated business system may be modeled by MBNQA or ISO 9000
5.         Strategic and systematic approach: Strategic plan must integrate quality as core component.
6.         Continual Improvement: Using analytical, quality tools, and creative thinking to become more efficient and effective.
7.         Fact Based Decision Making: Decision making must is only on data, not personal or situational thinking.
8.         Communication: Communication strategy, method and timeliness must be well defined.
TQM Implementation Approaches
You can’t implement just one effective solution for planning and implementing TQM concepts in all situations. Below we list generic models for implementing total quality management theory:
1.         Train top management on TQM principles.
2.         Assess the current: Culture, customer satisfaction, and quality
management system.
3.         Top management determines the core values and principles and communicates them.
4.         Develop a TQM master plan based on steps 1, 2, 3.
5.         Identify and prioritize customer needs and determine products or service to meet those needs.
6.         Determine the critical processes that produce those product’s or services.
7.         Create process improvement teams.
8.         Managers support the efforts by planning, training, and providing resources to the team.
9.         Management integrates changes for improvement in daily process management. After improvements standardization takes place.
10.       Evaluate progress against plan and adjust as needed.
11.       Provide constant employee awareness and feedback. Establish an employee reward! recognition process. (Shane 2003).
Commitment to Quality
Quality in engineering and manufacturing, business has a pragmatic interpretation as the non-conformance or superiority of something. Quality is a perpetual, conditional and some what subjective attribute and may be misunderstood differently by different people. Consumers may focus on the specification of quality product and services, or how it compares to competitors in the market place. Producers might ensure the conformance quality, or degree to which the product/services were produced correctly, many different techniques and concepts have evolved to improve product/services quality. There are two common quality related functions within a business, one is quality assurance which is the prevention of defects, and the other is quality control which is the detection of defects, commonly associated with testing which takes place within a quality management system typically referred to as verification and validation (Feldman 2005).
In the business world quality has various interpretations, ISO 9000; Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements or expectations (Wagner and Mesinger 2006).
In the manufacturing industry it is commonly stated that “Quality drives productivity”. Improved productivity is a source of greater revenues, employment opportunities and technological advances, however, this has not been the case historically, and in the early 19th Century it ias recognized that some markets, such as Asia, preferred cheaper products to those of quality. Most discussions of quality refer to a finish part, wherever it is in the process. Inspection, which is what, quality assurance usually means, is historically, since the work is done. The best way to think about quality is in process control, if the process is under control, inspection is not necessary Wegner and Mesinger 2006).
However, there is one characteristic of modem quality that is universal, in the past when we tried to improve quality. typically defined as producing fewer longer cycle time. However when modem quality techniques are applied correctly to business, engineering, manufacturing or assembly processes, all aspects of quality, customer satisfaction and fewer defects/errors, cycle time and task time/productivity and total cost etc must all improve or at least remain stable and not decline (Almeida and Merria 2007).
The most progressive view of quality is that it is defined entirely by the customer or end user and is based on the persons evaluation of his/her entire customer experience, which is the aggregate of all the touch points that customers have with the company’s products and services (Selden 1998).
According to Drucker (2005), quality in a product or service is not what the supplier puts in but what the customer gets out and is willing to pay for. The dimension of quality refers to the attributes that quality achieves in operation, management supports dependability, dependability supports speed, speed supports flexibility, and flexibility supports cost. 

(Almeida and Meria 2007).
Total quality management commits an organization to achieve quality in everything because quality is a means of attaining production excellence. Therefore a company that consistently maintains high standards of product and service quality. in the face of changing environments and customers demands will achieve production excellence (Munro  Faure 1992).
Quality Standards
The international organization for standardization (ISO) created the quality management system(QMS) standards in 1987, they were the 1509000: 1987 series of standard comprising ISO 9001: 1987, ISO 9002: 1987 and ISO 9003: 1987 which were applicable in different types of activity or process, designing, production or service delivery (ISO Journal 2010).
The standards are reviewed every few years by the International organization for standardization. The version in 1994 was called the ISO 9000: 1994 series comprising of the ISO 9001:1994:9002:1994 and 9003:1994 versions. The last major versions was called ISO 9002 and 9003 standards were integrated into a single certifiable standards ISO 9001:2008, after December 2003, organizations holding ISO 9002 or 9003 standards had to complete a transition to the new standards.
The last released versions, ISO 9001:2008, contains many of the changes to improve consistency in grammar, facilitating translation of the standard into other languages for use by over 950,000 certified organization in the 175 countries of the world that uses the standard. The ISO 9004:2000 document gives guidelines for performance improvement over and above the basic standard (ISO 9001:2000). This standard provides a measurement framework for improved quality management, similar to and based upon the measurement framework for production assessment, and to certify the processes and the system of an organization, not the product or service itself (ISO Journal 2010).

Pillars of Total Quality Management
According to Agoiagoh (1995), Total Quality Management rest on four pillars in which are:
          A total commitment to the customer
          A total commitment to continuous quality improvement
          A total commitment to quality
          A total commitment to employee ownership
Total Commitment to Customer
As noted by Agoiagoh (1995) the traditional concept of customer sees the customer as being external to an organization, that is the end user of the organizations finished products or service. But in Total quality management concept of consumer, two types of consumers exist, the external customer and the internal customer, while the external customer is as traditionally conceived i.e. end-user of the organizations final products or services, the internal customer is employee inside the organization who uses the end product or services of another employees work. Since in any organization, each employee will both give and receive services from other employees, the implication of TQM concept of customers to one another and therefore need to be regarded exactly the same way as the external customer is regarded.
The Commitment to Continuous Quality Improvement
The objective of improvement is to continuously improve quality by eliminating non-conformance in every activity through out the company. The benefits that occur from a successful Quality improvement programs include; improvedcustomer satisfaction, elimination of errors and wastes, reduction in operation costs; increased motivation and commitment of employees; increased profitability and competitiveness. Agoiagoh (1995), described commitment to continuous quality improvement as the backbone of TQM which emphasizes on:
          Seeking better ways to perform activities and achieve results
          Quality improvement as a never ending process that will go on forever
           Continuous quality improvement as always planned and brought in a structured rather than in a haphazard way.
           Management’s commitment to quality as being continuous and for all time.
The Commitment to Quality
Total quality management commits an organization to achieve quality in everything because quality is a means for attaining production excellence, therefore an organization that consistently maintains high standards of products and service quality, in the face of changing environments and customer demand will be an excellent company. Though quality is one of the misunderstood issues in business today, yet it is central to the survival of even the largest organizations Mnro-Faure 1992).
The TQM concept of quality is radically different from other concepts on the following grounds:
It is customer centered, which means that quality if it does not meet the needs of the customer as defined by the customer. That the customer expectation/needs in product or service can be precisely defined and measured. Indeed from this point of view, if the expectation/needs is not precisely defined before hand, then it is not quality. This could be done using questionnaires and interviews. Quality is achieved not by reducing cost parse but by reducing certain types of cost. The emphasis on providing defect free goods and services means higher investment in preventing rather than correcting defects after the have occurred. As Munro-Faure (1992) noted, correction is often more expensive than prevention.
Quality Cost Reduction

P - Prevention Cost
A - Appraisal Cost
F - Failure Cost
NAC - Normal Activity Base
                                    Business to ensure that total services provided t ;

The customer conforms to the customer’s requirements. They include
          The cost directly associated with providing the end product or
service which the customer purchases
          The cost associated with support activities
          The hidden cost such as missed opportunities and poor morale.
Basically, quality cost is classified into cost of conformance and cost of nonconformance.
1.         Cost of conformance
As Crosby (1979), noted cost of conformance or prevention cost are cost of all activities undertaken to prevent defects in design and development, purchasing, labour and other aspects of beginning and creating products or services.
2.         Cost of non-conformance.
Cost of non-conformance is all cost incurred because failure occurs, if there were no failure, there would be no requirement for appraisal and correcting activities. These costs are incurred as a result of either, not doing the right job, or not completing an activity right. Non-conformance cost includes:
          Appraisal Cost
          Internal Failure Cost
          External Cost
Appraisal cost
Crosby (1979) described appraisal cost as cost incurred while conducting inspection test and other planned evaluation used to determine whether produced hardware, software or services conform to their requirements. An example includes prototype inspection and test, production specification conformance analysis, supplier surveillance, receiving inspection and test.
Internal Failure Cost
According to Montgomery (1979), internal failure costs are cost incurred when products components materials and services fails to meet quality requirements and failure is discovered prior to delivery of the product to the customer. Example includes scrap, rework, reset, failure analysis and downgrading.
External Failure Cost
External failure cost occurs when the product does not perform satisfactorily after it is supplied to the customer. Example includes complaint adjustment, return products/materials and warranty charges.

The Commitment To Employee Ownership
Total quality management recognizes the contribution which every employee can make and therefore seek to harness the skill and enthusiasm of every one in the organization.
Paluchowski (1998) noted that a company will get to no where if all thinking is left to management, the attainment of quality objectives is therefore “everybody’s” job, from top management to the foreman. This means that TQM commits the organization to tap into and rely heavily on the creative abilities of all the employees which otherwise would remain dormant. TQM empowers every all employee to take part in taking decisions that were taken previously only by the managers.
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