Exercise is the performance of any physical activity that improves health or for the correction of physical injury or deformity (Brown et al, 2007). Inactivity is one of the major risk factors for heart disease. However, exercise helps to improve heart health and can even reverse some heart disease risk factors (Harvey et al, 2009).

            Exercise has a number of effects that benefits the heart and circulation (blood flow throughout the body). These benefits includes improving positively cholesterol and fat levels, reducing inflammation in the arteries, helping weight loss programs and helping to keep blood vessels flexible and open (Gazino et al, 2007).studies continue to show that physical activity is the most successful means of reaching and maintaining heart-healthy levels of fitness and weight (Brown et al, 2007).   
            Studies have revealed that the masai pastoralists in Tanzania, have low rates of coronary heart disease despite a diet high in saturated fats based on the traditional staple food of milk, dairy products, meats from their animals (Mbalilaki et al, 2008). Despite the overwhelming evidence of a link between saturated fat and coronary heart disease (CHD), the near absence of coronary heart disease in masai people , despite a diet based on meat and milk, has intrigued researchers for decades  (Howard, 1977). Regular walking or cycling to and from work was common to masai people. The westerners would have to walk at least 19km more per day to expend the same amount of energy as the masai people do (Cordain et al, 1998).
            Inspite of the high fat intake, coronary risk factors level such as body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure and lipids were favourable among the masai people. The masai people probably are not genetically protected from developing cardiovascular disease, but the high energy expenditure through physical activity and maintenance of low body weight may play an important role in their low risk of cardiovascular disease (Mbalilaki et al, 2007).

            The Fulani of northern Nigeria are semi-nomadic pastoralists who consume diet rich in saturated fat derived from diary product and cooking oil such as palm oil and butter oil (Glew et al, 1999) such diet might be expected to adversely affect an individual’s blood lipid profile and to raise one’s risk of cardiovascular disease (Glew et al, 1999). Their main occupation is cattle rearing, the men are constantly moving in search of pasture and water for their cattle while the women tend to the children, gather firewood and water, cultivate subsistence garden (Glew et al, 1999).

The mean cholesterol (total HDL and LDL) and triacylglycerol concentration in the Fulani men and women were favourable with respect to the risk of cardiovascular disease of hypertension, an independent risk factor for cardio vascular disease among the Fulani men and women was low compared with other Nigerian population (Kaufman et al, 1996, Kadiri et al, 1997). Despite a diet high in saturated fat, Fulani adults have a lipid profile indicative of a low risk of cardiovascular disease.

This finding is likely due to their high physical activity level and their low total energy intake which override whatever negative effects their diets high in fats might have on their risk of cardiovascular system (Glew et al, 1999).

            Studies show that people who maintain an active lifestyle have a 45% lower risk of developing heart disease than do sedentary people. Beneficial changes in low cholesterol and lipid levels, including lower low density lipoprotein level, occurs when people perform moderately or high intensity exercise, such as walking or jogging 12miles a weeks (Harvey et al, 2009) Exercise is also required to significantly change cholesterol levels positively and notably increase the high density lipoprotein level (Harvey et al. 2009). Therefore, for the greatest heart protection, it is not the duration of a single exercise that counts but the total weekly amount of energy expended (Brown et al, 2007). 
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