Definition of Goiter
It simply means the e inflammation or the swelling of the thyroid gland.

Types of goiter:
1. Endocrine goiter:
 In’ certain mountainous places, such as the Swiss Alps, Himalayas and Andes where iodine is lacking is the diet. Goiter is widespread and is then said’ to be endemic. In such areas most bf the populations are affected and the swellings in the neck increase with age giving rise to pressure on the trachea, esophagus and great vessels and causing much ill heath. In addition, goitrous mothers in such areas may give birth to cretins, who are of low mentality and stunted bodies.

2. Toxic goiter:
It is a condition when the thyroid may become over active and produces a characteristic clinical picture. The patient, usually a young woman, is nervous and has palpitations. The hands are warm and moist with sweat and the eyes prominent. The appetite is increased and bowel motions are frequent.

3. Malignant goiter (thyroid cancer)
Malignant goiter otherwise known as thyroid cancer is commoner in those parts of the world where goiter is endemic, part of the world where iodine is lacking in the diet. It occasionally occurs in young people, when it is usually slow growing and spreads by the lymphatic nodes.
Finally, in patients over sixty, a much more malignant for of thyroid cancer is encountered which grows rapidly and obstructs the trachea causing dyspnoea and eventually asphyxia.

4. Preventions of goiter:
Goiter of all type can only be prevented by addition of iodine to the table salt, since the thyroid secretes a hormone otherwise called thyroxin which stimulates the metabolism of all the cell of the body causing in the uptake of oxygen and greatly increased output of heat and energy. In order to make their hormone, the thyroid gland needs a supply of iodine.
Our body cannot make iodine on its own, therefore it is very important that we include it in our diet.

Iodine is essential in our body and the only way to include it in our diet is through iodized slat-the enrichment of the table slat with appropriate amount of iodine.
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