Global consumption of poultry products especially poultry meat, has consistently increased over the years. The global demand for poultry products will be in developing countries and such growth in the poultry industry is having a profound effect on the demand for feed and raw materials.

            The requirements for the four traditional feed ingredients such as maize, soy bean meal, fish-meal and meat meal is becoming clear but cannot be met even according to optimistic forecasts. A wide rage of alternative feedstuffs are available for feeding in the three poultry production systems and the greatest potential for efficiently utilizing of these feeds Stuffs will be in tradition poultry systems (scavenging and backyard) and the semi commercial system.
            In the semi – commercial system, only part of the feed requirement is purchased from commercial compunder, so there is opportunity for on farm mixing or dilution of purchased feeds with locally available and alternative feedstuffs.

            Alternative feedstuffs are often referred as “non-t-traditional feedstuffs” because they are not normally used in commercial animal diets. Some feedstuffs may have started as non – tradition, but are now being used in reasingly in commercial diets example palm kennel meal, which is a non-traditional feedstuff in western Africa.
            It is recognized that in a developing African and Asian countries, the existing feed resources in many circumstances are either unutilized and wasted or used in efficiently and these alternative feedstuffs have obvious potential but their use has been negligible owing to constraints imposed by Nutritional technical and socio – economic factors.
            The major criteria that determines the regular use of feedstuff in commercial diets are as follows:
-              It must be available in economic quantities, even if its availability is seasonal
-              The price must be competitive against the moonfaced stuff
-              Its nutritive value must be understood, including its nutrient content, existing variation and nutrient digestibility.
Energy supplements feed:
It is advisable to offer small amounts of grains such as millets, maize and sorghum as energy supplements and damaged tubers and roots of cassava, sweet potatoes and yams, which are unfit for human consumption are available in many areas and could be processed into a high energy animal feed.
            Residues from the production of fermented cassava products can also be useful energy supplements and a number of locally available fruit by products can as well be used to provide energy example banana peels.
            Protein supplements feed:
Green materials are the cheapest sources of protein available to poultry and a wide range of materials are available, which include herbs, fodders leaves examples Leucaena, Calliandra, Sesbania leaves from Cuetivated plants example cassava and aquatic plants example Azolla, water hyacinth, Duckweed.
            The advantage in using green materials is their high dry matter yields, which can be harvested and fed directly to poultry in fresh form. The green materials are also rich in pigments, vitamins and minerals, minerals and vitamin supplements feed:
            The scavenging birds haven a great opportunity to balance their own micronutrient requirements. The minerals and vitamins are often provided from organic and non-organic materials pecked from the environment by the birds. Examples include snail shells, insects, fruits and fresh green material.

Ban of Antibiotics
Antibiotics as growth promoters have a long side effects on products like microbial resistance and increase of the blood cholesterol level in the livestock which lead to the ban of the antibiotics.
            Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has banned certain uses of cephalosporins in food producing animals like cattle, pigs, chickens and turkeys. The use of antibiotics in food producing animals, whether for treatment, disease prevention or growth promoters, allows resistant bacteria and resistance genes to develop and spread from those animals to humans through the food chain.
            The ban of antibiotics is to protect health of both humans and animals according to Micheal R. Taylor, the Deputy commissioner for Food and Drug administration. The food and Drug administration said that the reason for he ban is to preserve the effectiveness of cephalosporin drugs for food producing animals that have not been approved for use in those animals for instance, some cephalosporins are approved only for treating humans or companion animals and to prevent disease in the food producing animals.

Thyme and Rosemary:
            Thyme (thymus vugaris) a perennial shrub, which belongs to the labiatae family of shrubs that grows up to 15cm to 30 on in height. Thyme has a dark lilacfflowers and tiny green leaves.
            According to aronmatherapy, the aroma of thyme is pervasive, persistent, strong and has a powerful disinfectant and bactericidal effects, which are helpful in preventing infections and have been used as a herbal remedy for many other ailments. Thyme is also called Banagwain in Hindi. Thyme has been recognized for its miraculous medicinal benefits in patients suffering from lung disorders. According to Galen, the Greek physician and philosopher, thyme is use for people suffering from Joint disorders and he also considered thyme as the most powerful antiseptic.
            Rosemary herb (Rosematinus Officianlis), also known as the herb of love, is a perennial herb mostly grown as an ornamental plant. Rosemary is well known for its herbal and therapeutic properties and its oil is now being used for various purposes.
            It is one of the most fragrant herbs, most popularly used as incense. Biologically, rosemary extract improved feed conversion efficiency of broiler fed diet supplemented with rosemary herb (Singletar and Rokusek, 1997)

Origin and important or thyme and Rosemary thyme existence is quiet unknown some historians believe that it wad Romas who introduced thyme in England and some say that thyme began from North of Alps between 850 and 1250.
In 16th century, thyme was cultivated everywhere in the world. Neumann, the German chemist, was the first person who extracted the essential oil of thyme in year 1725. thyme is stillin use for various pharmaceutical, cosmetic preparations, natural and alternative medicine.
Rosemary originated from the Mediterranean.

Important of thyme and Rosemary
            The essential oil of thyme has antiseptic and antibacterial properties.
-           Inhalation of thyme oil has expectorant effect, flu of the bronchial origin.
-           Thyme essential oil massage tones the skin
-           Thyme essential oil inhalation stimulates appetite.
-           thyme is anti-fungal herb
-           Medicinal use of thyme essential oil helps the body’s immune system.
-           Rosemary when in used in teas, meat substitutes or as a marinade, it add flavor to the food and improves digestive health, cures disorders related to the digestive system like constipation and diarrhea.
-           rosemary herb is abundant in vitamin E which helps in fighting against free radicals rosemary herb is known to have cancer prevention which is an important health benefit and the use of rosemary leaves in culinary has proven to reduce the risk of the development of cancer like colon caner and lung cancer.
-           Rosemary oil is an important aromatherapy and have properties that are excellent in relaxing musdes, relieving stress, tension, anxiety, and in treatment and cure of insomnia if use as a massage oil for head and back.
-           Rosemary oil is beneficial as a hair oil and can be used to treat hair problems like thinning hair, hair loss and Dandrug.
-           Rosemary is used in treatment of asthma and other respiratory disorders.
-           Rosemary stimulates the central nervous system and circulation for low blood pressure and sluggishness.
-           rosemary oil and rosemary extract essential oil are used to alleviate the pain of sprains, arthritis, sciatica and neuralgia and as well a way to stabilize and extend the shelf life of cosmetics, creams, lotions and other herbal compounds.

Haematology and serum Biochemistry.
Blood samples were randomly samples were randomly collected from two birds form each treatment on the last day of the experiments in the morning hour. 2mls was collected into a treated bottle  with ethylene Diamine tetre acetic acid (EDTA) labeled coated for hematological assay.
The Blood samples were analyzed and the following haematological parameters were determined, packed cell volume (PCV) haemoglobin content (HB), Red Blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC).

Serum Biochemistry: Serum was separated from the blood samples centrifugation at 400 RPM for 15 minutes and there after stored at-20oC. An minutes and there after stored at -20oC. An auto-analyzer was used to determine the concentration of serum protein, albumin, globulin and urea. All analysis followed the procedure described by Jerry et al.

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