Back ground of the Study
  All nations of the world seemed to have accepted the tremendously Compelling arguments to make education the corner stone of national development. These arguments raged form the vital role education plats in economic and technological development, education of the citizenry to remove illiteracy and poverty and developing a culturally and socially tolerant people who exercise ethical and moral consideration in national and local affairs, with a common spirit.

The new challenge to conventional thinking is that Literacy should be glided by three beacons enunciated by Shamus (1995) the etching of idea mainly to develop appreciation and awareness of the enterprise, that is as cultural imperative and not primary for content focus on technology as a practical imperative and for developing social (Civic) Literary.
Education is one of those prophetic activities designed by people for the propagation and perpetuation of their culture and for improvement of than seines and their environment. Dr J.S cookery quoted in Ukeje (1984; 13) State inter alias education in a wider sense could mean the training of the entwine person to enable him not only to be able to read and rite and calculate, or to be proficient in a given job, but also to enable him fit himself for living society than Jacques maintain (1943) stated.
Among other things that education is any process by means of which man is shape and led towards fulltime. The National policy on education (1981) describes education as an instrument par excellence foe effecting national duello pimentos. In line with this assertion, obaji (1993) cited in any (1999) sees education as a wheel based which can canny any nation to its development centre.
From the foregoing we can deduce that education is the vehicle for self fulfillment as well as for socio-economic and political development. This is why the national policy on education was enunciated to inculcate high- Leal literacy and awareness to the citizenry of this country –Nigeria therefore education for all” means ensuring that all children have access to basis education action of good quality”. This implies cheating an environ mat in schools and in basic educational programmes in which children are both able and enable to learn. Such an environment must be inclusive of children, can   effective with children friendly and welcoming to children healthy and protective for children and gender sentinel.
The development of such child-friendly learning environment is an essential part of the overall effort by countries aroma to increase to and impose the quality of their schools.
Poor health malnitnutrction, Unemployment of a family member especially the stead –wirer loses his job through any of these ways a serious crisis results in the family .it means that  family needs cannot be met. For instance, the education of the children can come to an erupted
1.         Divorce - A broken marriage means a broken home. Divorce is a serious crisis in a family. It tears family homes apart. In many cases, the children are worst hit. It leads to change of hopes for male child. It can even result in misbehavior or delinquency for children.
2.         Crop failure and declining markets – these may bring sudden changes in family life. Families may lose their sources of livelihood through crop failure and declining markets.
Death or loss of family member who is the bread-winner is a serious Crisis in any family. The death of a bread-winner may shelter the lives of other members. For instance, the death of the head of the family (bread-winner) could mean the cost of hope for children’s education opportunity. More all so, other factors responsible for low male school enrollment among the youths are get-rich-quick syndrome, attraction of apprenticeship lack of trust in ability of the formal, education in ensuring self-sufficiency and visible preponderance of unemployed graduates etc.
Statement of the Problem
            The problem of low school male enrollment in secondary school has become a source of worry as the contemporary social vice and decadence in moral standards has been traced to such background. The make low male enrollment a concern of parents, teacher, pathologies, , social workers, guidance councilors and society at large.
            Thus lack of access to skills factions and opportunities is seen as most basic cause of low male enrollment in schools mostly in secondary schools. The reasons for such lack of access relates to the patterns of social and economic organization, especially to the patter of soc-economic organization and social economic in quality.
            Other related causes of low enrollment are unemployment capital for trade death of a spouse, family background, and social circumstances, social class, size of family, like a large family may have to cope with extra express.

The major purpose of this study is to investigate the cause of low male enrollment and its effects in 1zzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. On the specific, the study finds fit the target of achieving the following objectives;
1.                  To determine the possible causes low male enrollment in secondary school in 1zzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
2.                  To examine the extent of low male enrollment in secondary schools in 133i local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
3.                  To find  out the side effect of low male enrollment in secondary schools, on parents and the entire society of 1zzi  Local Government Area of Ebonyi State .
4.                  To suggest possible ways of reducing or eliminating such practice, of low male enrollment in secondary schools.
                                     RESEARCH QUESTION
Following the basics of research work, four (4) questions were formulated to guide this study
1.                  Does low male enrollment in secondary schools exists in 1zzi Local Government Area.
2.         What are the possible causes of low male reenrollment in secondary schools?
3.                     Does it has side effect on parents and society
4.         What are the possible ways to reduce or eliminate such practice?
Of low male enrollment in secondary schools in lzzi Local Government of Ebonyi State
Significance of the study
This research will lead to a greater understanding of the way and major factored which causes and effects of low male enrollment in secondary schools in lzzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
The research afford the of port unit for the society government educational and school administrator, teachers, parents and students themselves to reexamine the existing trend that affects leering adversely  and form and informed effective response to the problem
The country State society and school system will be able to form its policies and proceedings to come out with the best practices that can foster bather academic performance of male students in lzzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

Scope of the Study
This lessens was conducted on find out the cause and effect of low male enrollment in secondary school in lzzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The researcher’s review of many books and write ups on the subject of the cause and effect of low male enrollment in lzzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State was Limited as follows
1.      It was discovered that a man hardy succeeds in an act. Hence things have got repulsive that some even faked than answers and so did not give true opinions on the items proving information form such respondents
2.      The research was faced with distance disposition of the respondents and materials male the work pose much trouble in appropriate cover of researcher scope .this was again aggravated by this was again aggravated by lack of finance.
3.      Reluctance and inability to fill in appropriately by the respondents were also militating against the researcher in spite of all set backs, the researcher kept a look on success which was the research target.

                 This Literature review is meant affect many areas as regards the research topic hinder consideration. Many unites have written on the issue of low male enrollment of students. Some writers did without porting to the principal things that promote this issue of low male enrollment in Secondary schools. The chapter with many other issues be reviewed under the following sub- headings, theoretical frame work of low male enrollment
-                     Conceptual frame work of low male enrollment
-                     Causes of low male enrollment
-                     Low male enrollment in secondary schools and its effect on, children parents and the society
-                     Proven of empirical revised studies
-                     Summary of Literature review
Theoretical framework of low male enrollment in secondary schools. The following theories are applicable to low male enrollment as a societal factor              -           Evolutionary theory (social Darwinism)
      -           Structural function theory (functions)
      -           Conflict theory (Marxism)
    - Symbolic interaction theory (interactions)
Evolutionary theory or social Darwinism associated with the serological connotation and concerned with long term change salesman and cushion 1948), social Daninism is a biological theory transformed form Charles Drains biological idea that all living thing and to improve and become complex, move and move they develop and transformation  was done by Augusta comet Herbert Spencer,  etc.
Therefore in this research work low male enrollment in secondary schools has become a problem as man has just discovered hence a long term evolution in man has made some people who ordinary would have married to stint thinking to twain than children in schools alone.
The assumption of evolutionary theory is that evolution bring about change and not just man, hence this change embodies in itself both food and bad ones. This is why this issue of low enrollment in secondary school has to be looked as a molester as it continues to spread .social-economic problem in the family and society at large.
Structural transitional theory (factionalism) structural functional theory is some time refereed to as functionalism equilibrium theory or social system, simply meaning the contribution that each pant of the family or society makes to the whole system. This is mainly focusing on social integration, stability, order and co-operation. (Alum ode 2002) This is to define society as composing of many parts/ organs which family child and society are structure of its own and need to be preparedly cared for. This is to say that low male enrollment into secondary school does not only affect the child’s development but also affects the development of the entire society negatively there will be little or no sound development in such society.
They assumed that social integration is a prerequisite owing that a change in one pant (One Person) means a change in the whole. Thus, the low male enrollment in a particular Local Government Area or community drastically affects the social development system of other made up the nation or country. The low male enrollment has because the society to change and that is what we are experiencing today has filed the society with help baked citizens in lzzi Local Government Area in Ebonyi State in partial and the nation as a (Marxism) .According to karl Max founded conflict theory on the emphasis laid on competition change and constraints within a society (Nwachi C.C 1991). (Baniks. 01995) This is a medical affiant alternative to functionalism as the of both opposes themselves as max supposed that society on economic structure and order parts of the society on the economic just to say that out male enrollment.
Symbolic Interaction theory (interactions) contrary to maxims and functionalism which deals on macro sociological orientations interactions focuses on individuals in society in general (Alum ode 2002) To take to the background development of any state or nation low male enrollment in secondary schools among other binges about educational set back poor economy and low stand and of political development the population of the study was dragon form the following secondary schools in lzzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
1                lzzi high school lshieke
2                Community secondary school mbeke-Ishieke
3.               Ishieke Graman school Ndioke
4.               Community sec. school Nwofe
5.               Special science school Igbuagu
6.               Iboko Boys secondary school Iboke
7.               Community sec. school Ojiegle
8.           John Kelvin sec. school Offinks                   

                                  CHAPTER THREE
                                          RESEARCH METHOD
The researcher used a descriptive method to collect relevant information needed form the respondents. This was done through the use of structural questionnaire visit to the secondary school in lzzi Local Government Area, personal and oral interview were also used .the research was designed to elicit information on low male enrollment in secondary school in lzzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
Design of the Study
This study design: can be refereed to as a descriptive surety. This design according to Ebuka (2003) is the one in which data are collected from a relatively Large number of people or items conceded to be representing of the group. He asserted also that descriptive survey is concerned with description of events is they are.
                                                Area of the study.
 The study or research on the low male enrollment of in secondary school is Limited to Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
Population of the Study
The population was sampled using random techrngue. The total number of three hinders persons. The following population or respondents were used. One hundred and fifty fifty, (150) students, fifty (50) teachers twenty- fine (25)parents fifteen (15) staff of Local Government Education Authorities and ten (10) principal and fine (5) V. principle Administration form the secondary school. Sample and sampling techniques the research made use if simple random sampling techniques to darns out the response required or needed for the study. However in carrying out this research work four secondary schools  was used as a sample out of the total number of ten (10) secondary school sleeted thus the size of the sample is three (300) hundred respondents which by implication or application represents 30% of the target population.                             
Instrument for Data Collection
The instrument used in obtaining information for the research work included the structured questionnaire as well as oral or personal face to face interview. The questionnaires were constructed in such a form that it helped to elicit the relevant information needed for the research work or study.
 However the questionnaire item has both content and faces validity. This was successful with the assistance of the precept supervisor who ever ready to offer his assistance at any need period than as regard, content, validity; the items were well and carefully structured in accordance to project topic, which on the side face validity the sentences and words was carefully structured without grammatical errors. Four research questions were directly constructed to obtain information required for the work or study. Therefore, as regards the administration of the questionnaire the research skill foully explored the use of hand delivery method as the shortest means. The total of three (300) hundred copies of the questionnaires distributed were returned and not only that; they were correctly and mealy returned.
Validation of the Instrument
The drafted instrument was firstly presented to the project supervisor, who after going through made necessary corrections with respect to the Language content and sentence structure the instrument was there after presented to four (4) other servitor lee tuners in the department of Arts and social science Education, and other two (2) Lecturers in Administration and planning at college of Education Ikwo.
The sentence structure were carefully and prow fully vetted, one after the other by these Lecturers as shown in Appended
Ii          Therefore based on their exertions and suggestions of these experts were in corporate in the final questionnaires as reflected or shown in the Appendix.
Method of Data Collection
Mean which before the administration of the questionnaires which was carefully construction and examined by the project supervision to solicit the needed information form the respondents, the researcher equally solicited for the assistance and co-operation of the teaches principal and students of the secondary schools in veined.  Parents and local Government Education Authorizes, who are congenial because of time factors and their official engagement, 
Method of Data Analysis
Thereafter the data collected were analyzed by the researcher through the use of means and frequency distribution lattés, in frequency distribution tables were developed which means computed. The means were calculated thus;
Where            x = means
                        å = Sum of
                        F=   frequency
                        N=   Total number of scone
A cut –off point of 2.5 was used as the decision rule. A mean scone up to 2.5                                
Was regarded as positive while mean scone below 2.5 were considered rigatoni. thus cut –off of 2.5 was obtained by adding the sun of the normal rating d indeed by the number of the rating items for instance  
Strongly Agreed (SA) ===4Pomls
Share on Google Plus


The publications and/or documents on this website are provided for general information purposes only. Your use of any of these sample documents is subjected to your own decision NB: Join our Social Media Network on Google Plus | Facebook | Twitter | Linkedin