The soil sample collected from the experimental site and analyzed in EBSU soil science laboratory for the physical and chemical properties was texturally a sandy clay loam (Table 1)
Roots of the different tomato varieties which includes ‘Tiv local’, ‘Abakaliki landrace’, and ‘UTC Jos’ tomato exposed to the same level of root-knot nematodes in the field, varied in galling response to the nematode. UTC Jos was severally galled as the number of galls on its root system exceeds 30. Moderate root galling occurred on Tiv local tomato variety. Abakaliki tomato variety was lightly galled (Table 2).

4.2       LEAF AREA
Smaller leaf areas occurred on galled tomato varieties than their controls. Highest reduction in leaf area was obtained on UTC Jos tomato variety which was severally galled. This was followed by those of Tiv local variety and then Abakaliki local variety (Table 3).
4.3       PLANT HEIGHT
Plant heights for the uninfected were higher than those of the infected/galled plants. Least plant height was recorded on severely galled UTC Jos tomato variety. Abakaliki local variety had the highest plant height.
Abakaliki local which was lightly galled produced the highest number (5.75) of fruits per plant. The severely galled UTC Jos variety produced the least (1.75) number of fruits per plant (Table3)
Table 1:  Soil Physical and Chemical Analysis

SOIL PROPERTIES                                                       

pH                                                                     5.75
ORGANIC CARBON                                                                 1.20%
ORGANIC MATTER                                                                  2.07%
NITROGEN                                                                                0.105%
CALCIUM                                                                                   4.00C mol/100g
MAGNESSIUM                                                                          20.80C mol/100g
PHOSPHORUS                                                                           22.50 mg/kg
POTASSIUM                                                                              0.14C mol/100g
SODIUM                                                                                     0.096C mol/100g
TOTAL POROSITY                                                                      40.26%
BULK DENSITY                                                                           1.53cm³
MOISTURE CONTENT                                                               12.0%
SAND                                                                                           54.6%
CLAY                                                                                            17.6%
SILT                                                                                              20.91%
TEXTURAL CLASS                                                                      SANDY CLAY LOAM

Table 2: Galling Index on Tiv Local, Abakaliki Landrace and UTC
      Jos Tomato Varieties.

                                                                                      PER VARIETY                     

TIV LOCAL                           3                                              17.25                                                                

ABAKALIKI                         2                                              4.75   

UTC JOS                               4                                                30.5                                                                   

Table 3:          Effect of the Tomato Varieties on Root-Gall Responses, Leaf
Areas, Plant Height and Fruit Yields.


TIV LOCAL                17.25             3                   0.95              63.0                    3.0

ABAKALIKI LOCAL     4.75             2                 1.53                   90.1                 5.75

UTC JOS                     30.5            4                   0.95                    61.9               1.75

F-LSD (0.05)                                                              0.08                  8.4                   1.21

4.4       DISCUSSION
The result of these study showed that the UTC Jos tomato variety are more susceptible to root – galled nematode, because high number of root – galls were recorded in them. Also, they show significant difference in the leaf areas and plant heights. Kirkpatrick et al, (1991) reported that the xylem vessels of infected roots are disrupted and consequently interfere with absorption and translocation of water and nutrients on the shoot region of the infected plants.
Fruit yield:  the experimental results, showed that there was reduced fruit yield associated with root-galling on the different tomato varieties which could be as a result of nematode feeding on the root system and reducing the ability of the plant to obtain water and nutrient from the soil. (Agu, 2008). It could also be as a result of excessive lateral roots which tend to use up available nutrients supposed for the plant growth and development (Hague, 1980).

5.0                                                    CONCLUSION
UTC Jos tomato varieties were highly susceptible to root-knot nematode attack in Abakaliki agro-ecology. This was followed by Tiv local variety. The Abakaliki local was least susceptible to the nematode. The degree of susceptibility of the different tomato varieties affected both the growth parameters and yield.
‘Abakaliki landrace’ tomato variety should be used for planting in Abakaliki agro-ecology because it showed more resistance to root-knot nematode than others which were more susceptible and consequently yielded lower fruits.
Addoh (1971) Problems of root-knot nematode in tropical region such as Francophone West Africa.
Agrios, S. O. (1969) Plant Pathology, Academic press, New York and London 629pp.
Agu, C.M (2008a) Root-gall nematode disease of pineapple as affected by seed material, amount and type of organic soil amendment.Plant Science Research 1(2) 36-39.
Agu,C.M (2001) Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne javanica  and Rhizoctoria Solani on soybean in Ferruginous tropical soils of Eastern Nigeria Int.J.Agric and Rural Development 2:59-64.
Agu,C.M (2003) Effect of urea fertilizer on root-galled disease of Meloidogyne javanica in soybean. Jounal of sustainable Agriculture,20:95-100.
Agu,C.M and Ogbuji (1996) Soybean resistance to the root-knot nematode as influenced by potassium nutrition. E. Afri. Agric & For. Journal 61 (3) 273-276.
Anwar, S.A., Gorsi, S., Anwar-ul-Haq, M., Rehman, T. & Yousuf, P. (1991). Plant parasitic nematodes of some field,vegetable, fruit and ornamental crops. J. Agri. Res.,29:233-249.
Asoegwu,S.N (1988) Estimation of leaf area of two okra (Abelmoscus esculentus) Journal of Agricultural Science 58(11)862-863.
Daulton,R.A.C and R.F Curtis (1963) The Effect of Tagetes spp in Meloidogyne javanica  in Southern Rhodesia. Nematological 9(2)357-362.
Ekanayake, H.M.R.K, Vito,M.D and N. Vovlus.(1938) Histopathological changes caused by Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato roots. Tropical Agriculturist 1-14,89-97.
Fisher, R.A (1948) Staistical Tables for Biological,Agricultural and Medical Research. Olivier and Royal.Edinburgh and London pp145-152.
Fourie,H. & McDonald, A.H. (2000).Nematode ARCLNR Leaflet.Crop prot.ser., 18:4.
Freekman, D.W and Caswell ,E.P. (1985) The Ecology of nematodes in Agro-Ecosystem. Annual review of Phyto-pathology 23:275-296.
Hague,N.G.M(1979) A guide to nematode damage Rothamstead Expt. Sta London pp 2-3.
Jain, R.K. (1992) Nematode pests of vegetable crops. In: Nematode pest of crops (eds) Bhatti, D.S and Walia, R.K. CBS Publishers & Distributors, Delhi, India. 77-79pp
Jepson, S.B. (1987). Indentification of root-knot nematodes (meloidogyne species). CAB. International Wallingford, UK,265pp.
Jones, J. B., Jones, J.P., Stall, R.E & Zitter, T.A. (1991). Compendium of tomato diseases, Ameri. Phytopatho.soc. st. Paul,MN.U.S.A.73pp.
Kirkpatrick,T.L,Oosterhuis,D.M and Wuashchleger, S. D. (1991).Interaction of Meloidogyne incognita and water stress in two cotton cultivars.Journal of nematode 23:4-462-467.
Luc M. Silkora, R.A. and Bridge, J. (1990) plant parasitic nematodes in subtrophical and tropical Agricultural C.A.B. international institute of parasicology
Nelson,D.W and Sommer, L.E (1992) Total carbon organic matter.In page A.I. Miller,R.H and Keeney, D.R(eds) methods of soil analysis plant2.Am Soc agron Madison W.L pp 539-579.
Noel, G.R & Edward, D.I. (1989) Nematode diseases pp 63-65.
Obi,I.U (1995) Introduction of factorial experiments for Agriculture,Biological and social science research.2nd edition.Dept. of crop science,university of Nigeria Nsukka,Nigeria.
Ogbuji R.O (1979) Effect of two Meloidogyne spp on growth and reproduction of Bambara groundnut (Vandzier Subterranea in Nigeria Der Tropenland Wirt 80:47-51.
 Ogbuji R.O and E.C Diarua (1978) Weed host of a root knot nematode,Meliodogyne incognita in Nigeria.Nigerian J. of plant protection 4:27-29.
Ogbuji, R.O (2004). Soil depth distribution of the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) from two farmlands in a humid tropical environment.Geo Journ, 5:79-80.
Ogbuji, R.O. & Uwakah, C.T. (1979). Outlook on farming systems and root-knot damage to crops in Eastern Nigeria.Geo Jour., 3:567-570.
Olson,S.R and Sormmer, L.E (1990) Phoshorus in page A.L. (eds) Methods of soil analysis part2,Agron,monogr. No 9 madison, W.L pp 403-431.
Rutazky, V.E and Yamanaguchi M. (1997) World vegetables, principles production and nutritive values.2nd Ed. Lutter. Thomson pub. New York pp 681-686.
Sasser J.N (1989). Plant parasitic nematode: the farmers hidden enemy North Canstina state university USA. Pp 13.
Sasser,J.N(1971) over view of project. Principal goals and objective and implementation schedule in proc of the res. Planning confi on root-knot nematodes,Meloidogyne spp.IITA June 7-11.
Siddiqui, M.R (1998) Techniques and Methodologies for nematode disease Diagonsis and nematode identification. FAO Corporate document respository-not yet
Sleeth, B. &Reynold, M.H. (1978). Root-knot nematode infestation as influenced by soil texture. Soil sci,80:459-461.
Soil survey division staff. soil survey manual 1993. Chapter3,selected chemical properties, soil conservation service. U.S dept. of Agriculture handbook 18.Retrieved 2011-03-12.
Steel,G.O and Torrie J.A (1981) Principles and procedures of statistics, Biometrical Approach. Second edition Mc. Graw. Hill Book co. Inc. New York.pp633.
Taylor, A.L. Sasser, J.N. & Nelson, L.A.(1982) Relationship of climate and soil characteristics to geographical distribution of Meloidogyne species in agricultural soils. Dept. of plant pathology, North Carolina State university, Graphics, Raleigh NC.,55pp.
Taylor,T.A (1974) Insects associated  with okra, Hibiscus esculentus (L) in Nigeria. The Nigerian Agricultural Journal 11:108-112.
Trudgill, D.L and Philips, M.S (1998) Nematode population Dynamics Threshold level and estimation of crop losses, plant and soil,102:175-186
Share on Google Plus


The publications and/or documents on this website are provided for general information purposes only. Your use of any of these sample documents is subjected to your own decision NB: Join our Social Media Network on Google Plus | Facebook | Twitter | Linkedin