Bambara groundnut (Virgnea substerenea) also known as Nyiro beans in Zimbabwe and Jugo beans in south Africa are under utilized Africa legume widely cultivated in sub-sahara Africa. It is centrent of origin near tumbuktu, it is indigenous Africa crop believed to have been domesticated in west Africa from its presumed wild ancestor (Fery 2002, Heller et al, 1997 and Linnemann, 1990).
It is also said that bambara groundnut has its origins from African content (Dalzied, 1937, Jacques, Felix, 1946 Rassel, 1960, Hepper 1963 and Begeman 1988). Bambara groundnut is a major source of protein in the sub Africa (Brink et al, 2002, Adu,-Dapaah and Sangwan, 2004). and constitute a major part of the local diet. (Heller et al; 19

Bambara groundnut is primarily grown for human consumption, but it has other uses as well. The seeds of the crop make it a complete food, with sufficient quantities of carbohydrate, protein and fats (Olivera 1976, Linnemann 1987). On average the seeds contain 63% carbohydrate, 19% protein and 6.5% oil. The gross energy value of bambara groundnut is said to be greater than that of other common pulses such as cowpea and pigeonpea (fao, 1982). Bambara groundnuts are eaten in many ways. Immature pods can be boiled and consumed. How ever, at maturity the seeds become harder and require boiling for alongtime. Seeds can be pounded into flour and used to make stiff porridge (Nsima). Recently, a trial of bambara groundnut milk those milks prepared from cowpea, pigeon pea and soy bean (Brought et al, 1993). Bambara groundnut was rated first and its lighter colour was preferred. This crop may also be used as animal feed. The haulm was found to be palatable (Doku and Karikari 1971a). and the leaves were suitable for animal grazing (Rassed 1960).
Bambara groundnut is one of the lesser known and utilized legume that can be used in various food formulation such as in bakery products and other flour confectionery because of its high protein content (Obizoba, 1983, Otunoba et al, 2004). Like other legume it’s a rich source energy, carbohydrates and is relatively low in fat (Brough and Azim All, 1992). Bambara groundnut locally called Kwaruru in Sokoto is used as component of weaning foods. (Sellscop 1962).
Processing bambara flour for making mom-mom Olapade and Adetuyi.

Is a species of legume native to East Asia (multilingual Multiscript plant name Database. Retrieved February (6, 2012). Widely grown for its edible this has numerous uses. The plant is classed as an oil seed rather than a pulse by the food and Agricultural organization (FAQ).
The genus name Glycine was originally introduced by Carl Linnaeus (1737) in his first edition of genera plantarum.

Soybean occur in various sizes, and in many hill or seed coat colours, including black, brown blue, yellow, green and mottled. The hull of the mature bean is hard, water resistant, and protects the cotyledon and hypocot (germ) from damage. If the seed coat is cracked, the seed will not germinate. The scar visible on the seed coat, is called the hilum (colour include black, brown, buff, gray and yellow, and at one end of the hilum is the micropyle, or small opening in seed coat which can allow the absorption of water for sprouting. Soy varies in growth and habit many people have claimed soybeans and Asia were historically only used after a fermentation process, which lowers the high phytoestrogens content found in the raw plant. How ever terms similar to soy milk have been in use since 82CE.

For human consumption, raw soybeans including the immature green form, are toxic to humans swine chicks, and infact, iH monogastric animal (Allan 1972). I)
Soybeans are considered by many agencies to be a source of complete protein (Henkel, John May-June 2000). A complete protein is one that contains significant amounts of all the essential amino acids that must be provided to the human body because of the body’s inability to synthesize them for this reason, soy is a good source of protein, amongst many others, for vegetations and vegans or for people who want to reduce the amount of meat they eat. According to the US food and Doug Administration.
Soy protein products can be good substitutes for animal product because, unlike some other beans, soy offers a complete protein profile of soy protein can replace animal-based food- which also have complete protein but tend to contain more fat, especially saturated fat-without requiring major adjustments elsewhere in the diet (John May-June 2000). More over, soybean can produce at least twice as such protein per acre than any other major vegetable or grain crop beside hemp, (Soy benefit”. National soy bean research laboratory. Retrieved February 16 20 12).
Consumption of soy may also reduce the risk of colon cancer, possibly due to the presence of sphingolipids symolon H; 2004. Soy based infant formula, (SBIF) is used for infants who are allergic to pasteurized cow milk proteins. It is sold in powdered, ready-to-feed and concentrated liquid forms. Some reviews have expressed the opinion that more research is needed to determine what effect the phytoestrogens in soybeans may have on infants. (Soyatech retrieved February 18, 2002) diverse studies have concluded there are no adverse effects in human growth, development, or reproduction as a result of the consumption of soy-based infant formula, one of these studies, published in the journal of Nutrition (Merritt, Russell J. 2004) Concluded that there are---no clinical concerns with respect to nutritional adequacy, sexual development, neurobehavioral development, immune development, or thyroid disease. SBIFS provide complete nutrition that adequately supports normal infants growth and development. FDA has accepted SBIFS as safe for use as the sole source of nutrition.

Soybean can be processed in a variety of ways, common forms of soy include soy meal, soy flour, soy milk, tofu, textured vegetable protein (TVP, which is made into a wide variety of vegetarian foods, some of them intended to imitate meat tempeh, soy lecithin and soybean oil soy bean are also the primary ingredient involved in the production of soy sauce (Shoyu). Archer daniels midland (ADM) is among the largest processors of soy products ADM, along with Dow chemical company, dupont and Monsanto company.

Is a species in the legume or “bean family (Fabaceae). The peanut was probably first domesticated and cultivated in the valleys of Paraguay. (World Geography of the peanut”. University of Georgia. 2004- 01-02. Retrieved 2009-08-18). It is annual herbaceous plant growing 30-50cm. Peanuts are known by many other local names such as earthnuts, groundnuts, goober peas, monkeynuts, pygmy nuts and pignuts (Webster’s Dictionary” Retrieved 2010-12-12. Dictionary, die net “Retrieved 2010-12-12, “Bird feeding on about
corn” Retrieved 2010-12-12 Despite its name and appearance, the pea is not a net, but rather a legume. The domesticated peanut is an amphidiploid or allotetraphoid, meaning that it has two sets of chromosomes from two different species, thought to be A. duranensis and A. 1 paensis. These likely combined in the wild to form the tetraploid species A. monticola, which gave rise to the domesticated peanut(Seijo Guillermo 2007).

Groundnut has an oil that is often used in cooking, because it has a mild flovour and a relatively high smoke point.
Due to its high monounsaturated content. It is considered more healthy than saturated oils, and is resistant to rancidity. There are several types of peanut oil including: aromatic/roasted peanut oil, refined peanut oil, extra virgin or cold pressed peanut oil and peanut extract in the United states, refined peanut oil is excempt from allergen labeling laws “food allergen labeling and consumer protection Act of 2004” (Fda. gor. Retrieved 2011-05- 30). peanuts are used in the Mali meat stew maafe in Ghana, peanut butter is used for peanut bUtter soup “nkate nkwan”
(Ghanaian Cuisine) Crush peanuts may also be used for peanut Candids “nkate cake” and kulikuli as well as other local foods such as Oto (Ghanaian Cuisine). Peanut butter is also an ingredient in Nigeria’s “African Salad”.

Peanuts are rich in nutrients, providing over 30 essential nutrients and phytonutrients: peanuts are a good source of niacin, folate fibre, magnesicum, vitamin E, and phosphones. They are also naturally free of trans fats and sodium, and certain about 25% protein (a higher proportion than in an true nut) New research shows peanut rival the antioxidant content of blackberries and strawberries, and are far richer in antioxidants than carrots or beets Research conducted by a team o university of floride scientists published in the journal food chemistry, shows that peanuts contain high concentrations of antioxidant polyhenols, primary a compound called pcoumaric acid, and that roasting can increase peanuts p-coumaric acid levels, boosting their overall antioxidant content by as much as 22% (Whfoods. com. Retrieved 2009-08-18 peanut allergy has been associated
with the use of skin preparation containing peanut oil among children, but the evidence is not regarded as conchesine (Lack G, Golding J.N Engl J Med 2003).

Is one out of 6 major cultivated vigna species which in turn is one of the 25-36 cultivated legumes in the family of leguminosae of which there are over 18000 species (Okigbo, 1986). Cowpea originated from west and central Africa (Faris, 1965). Though the crop originated from Africa, it estimated to be grown on over 8 million hectares world-wide (Okigbo, 1986).
Grain cowpea is mostly grown in the drier climate of the North than in the humid south, where high humidity cause diseases and drying problems (Aggarwal et al; 1982).
In the South-Eastern Nigeria, the traditional farming systems have evolved the vegetable cowpea which shows remarkable adaptation to the prevailing humid climatic condition (Ezuch and Nwoffiah, 1984). Two genotypes of vegetable cowpea exist in the farming systems of south-Eastern Nigeria namely those with climbing habit called V. Unguiculata subspecies sequiped alis (Redden, 1981). Commonly called “Akidi enu” and those with prostrate habit referred to as V. Unguiculata subspecies dekintiana and mensensis (Steek and Mehra, 1980) Common known as ‘Akidi ani”. Most of the information on cowpea in Nigeria is on the grain cowpea. Vegetable cowpea belongs to the group called neglected legumes.
They are grown by resource-poor farmers and information on the crop is scarce and mostly on the agronomy (Udealor, 2002, Ano, 2006). There is no literature on the nutrient composition of this crop which is playing an important role in the diet of many families in south-Eastern Nigeria.

Is a species of flower-in tree in the mulberry family, moraceae, growing throughout South east Asia and most pacific ocean Island its name is derived from the textured of the cooked fruit, which has a potato-like flavor similar to fresh baked bread.
Bread fruit is closely related to the breadnut and the Jack fruit. Bread fruit is a staple food in many tropical regions they were propagated far outside their native range by Polynesian voyagers who transported root cuttings and air-layered plants over long ocean distances. They are very rich in starch, and before being eaten, they are roasted, backed, fried or boiled. When cooked, the taste is described as potato-like, or similar to fresh-baked bread.Bread fruit trees usually produce large crops at certain times of the year, preservation of the harvested fruit is an issue. One traditional preservation of the harvested technique is to bury peeled and wasted fruits in a leaf-lined pit where they ferment over several wks and produced a sour, sticky paste. So stored, the product may last a year or more, and some pits are reported to have produced edible contents more than 2Oyears later (Balick, M and Cox, p. 1996). Fermented Bread fruit mashgoes, by many names such as Mahr, Ma, Masi, Fura and bwiru, among others.
Most Bread fruit varieties also produce a small number of fruits throughout the year, so Bread fruit is always, available hut some what rare when not is season. Bread fruit can be eaten once cooked, or can be further processed into a variety of other foods. A common product is a mixture of cooked or fermented Bread fruit mash mixed with coconut milk, and baked in banana leaves while fruits can be cooked in an open fire, then cored and filled with other foods, such as coconut milk, sugar and butter, cooked meats, or other fruits. The filled fruit can be further cooked so the flavour of the filling permeates the flash of the Bread fruit. Bread fruit is roughly 25% carbohydrates and 70% water, t has an average amount of vitamin C (20mg/100g). Small amounts of minerals (Potassium and zinc) and thiamin (100mg/100g). Nutrition fact for Bread fruit. Bread fruit was widely and diversely used among pacific Islanders its light weight wood (Roger G Skolmen 1989).
Bread fruit is used in traditional medicine to treat illnesses that range from sore eyes to sciatica (Bread fruit institute).
Share on Google Plus


The publications and/or documents on this website are provided for general information purposes only. Your use of any of these sample documents is subjected to your own decision NB: Join our Social Media Network on Google Plus | Facebook | Twitter | Linkedin