Main turning points in the pace of the use of quantitative methods are mentioned: the scientific management revolution of the early 90s in last century, initiated by Frederic Taylor
Operations research, or operational research in British usage, is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions' ft is often considered to be a sub-field of mathematics. The terms management science and decision science are sometimes used as synonyms.
            Employing techniques from other mathematical sciences, such as mathematical modeling, statistical analysis, and mathematical optimization, operations research arrives at optimal or near-optimal
solutions to complex decision-making problems.
Because of its emphasis on lluman-technology interaction and because of its focus on practical applications, operations research has overlap with other disciplines, notably industrial engineering and operations management, and draws on psychology and organization science. Operations research is often concerned with determining the maximum (of profit, performance, or yield) or minimum (of loss, risk, or cost) of some real-world objective. Originating in military efforts before World War II its techniques have grown to concern problems in a variety

            Operations Research (OR) encompasses a wide range of problem-solving techniques and methods applied in the pursuit of improved decision-making and efficiency, such as simulation, mathematical optimization, queuing theory and other stochastic-process models, Markov decision processes econometric methods, data envelopment analysis, neural networks, expert systems, decision analysis, and the analytic hierarchy process.
            Nearly all of these techniques involve the construction of mathematical models that attempt to describe the system. Because of the computational and statistical nature of most of these fields. OR also has strong ties to computer science and analytics. Operational researchers faced with a new problem must determine which of these techniques are most appropriate given the nature of the system, the goals for improvement, and constraints on lime and computing power. The major sub-disciplines in modern operational research, as identified by the journal Operations Research, are:
Computing and information technologies
Environment, energy, and natural resources
·        Financial engineering
·        Manufacturing, service sciences, and supply chain management
·        Marketing Engineering
·        Policy modeling and public sector work
·        Revenue management
·        Simulation
·        Stochastic models
·        Transportation
·        Historical origins
            The modern field of operational research arose during World War II. Modern operational research originated at the Bawdsey Research Station in the UK in 1937 and was the result of an initiative of the station's superintendent, A. P. Rowe. Rowe conceived the idea as a means to analyze and improve the working of the UK's early warning radar system, Chain Home Chain Initially, he analysed the operating of the radar equipment and its communication networks,  expanding TateTfo Include ffie operating personnel's behaviour. This revealed unappreciated limitations of the Cl 1 network and allowed remedial action to be taken.
            Scientists in the United Kingdom including Patrick Blackett (later Lord Blackett OM PRS), Cecil Gordon, C. II. Waddington, Owen Wansbrough-Jones, Frank Yates, Jacob Bronowski and Freeman Dysori, and in the United States with George Dantzig looked for ways to make better decisions in such areas as logistics and training schedules. After the war it began to be applied to similar problems in industry. Operational research is also used extensively in government where evidence-based policy is used.
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