DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP THEORIES

Path Goal theory
This theory posits that 
(1) leaders behavior will be acceptable and satisfying to the subordination to the extent that it is seen as an immediate source of future satisfaction.
(2) Leaders behaviour will improve subordinates efforts if they perceive effective performance as a means of satisfying or attaining desired outcomes.
According to House and Co, an effective leader is required to manifest four (4) different style of behaviour.

These are:-
(a) Directive leadership
(b) Supportive leadership
(c) Participative leadership
(d) Be achievement oriented

Though the leader is expected to exhibit each of these four style which may lead to different outcomes, the major problems is, where should he use which style?
This depends on some situational factors. This theory deals with how subordinates or workers perceive leaders behaviour, how he assesses the extent to which leaders behaviour facilitates workers goal attainment and how it motivates them.

Mutual-Influence Theory
The theme of this theory is on the dynamics of the two way influencing process in the leadership worker relationship. Herold (1977), had conceived leadership as dyad or a reciprocal influence process.
Though the leaders has more powers than the subordinates, but as the leaders behaviour influences leaders subordinates behaviour, subordinate behaviour also influences the leaders behaviour.
Danseur et al (1975) identified three characteristics of workers which are relevant in a vertical dyad linkage model. These are
a) Their skills and competence.
b) The extent to which the worker can be trusted especially when the leader is absent.
c) Subordinates or workers motivations to assume responsibility in his section.

Vroom- Yetton contingency Theory
This theory concentrates on the expected leader behaviour as it relates to decision-making process. The theory is normative in nature. In other words- it tells the type of behaviour the leaders is expected to exhibit. And this behaviour centres on participative leadership.
Factors, in this theory as proposed by vroom and yetton therefore include;
(a) Quality of decision
(b) Acceptance of decision by subordinates.
(c) Time needed to take decision. These are the criteria which are used to assist the leader select decision making strategy.

Cognitive- Resource Utilization Theory

This theory was proposed by fielder and Gracia (1987). They focused attention on the condition under which a leader could be effective using his attributes.
This theory attempts to combine both personal and situational factors in problems solving. Cognitive resources refers to intelligence, technical skills, competence and job related knowledge acquired by the leader.
According to fielder, a leader has two basic resources which can be applied in problem solving. These are prior experience and intelligence. The contention here prior experience in solving organizational problems since he cannot use his intelligence effectively. However, once stress is effectively managed. To because possible then to use intelligence in full.

Charismatic Leadership Theory .
This theory was proposed by House and single, (1987), this theory, refers to leadership in terms of articulating and focusing of vision and mission, creating and marinating a positive image in the minds of followers, setting challenging expectations, sharing confidence in and respect for followers and believing in a manner that reinforce the vision and mission. According to House and single, the major trust of his theory is on followers. Self esteem, trust, confidence in their leaders and workers motivation to person above the call for duty. The theory implies that leadership is a trait factor which cannot be learned through training. One either possesses it or not. Leadership is therefore perceived as personality characteristics of a leader which provides a work with a vision of the futures with promise of better and meaningful life.

Attribution Theory of Leadership
This deals with people trying to make sense out of cause- effective relationship. When something happens, they want to attribute it to something. In the context of leadership researchers have characterize leaders as having such traits as intelligence, outgoing personality, story verbal skills, aggressiveness, understanding and industrious. At the organizational level, attribution frame work accounts for the conditions under which people use leadership to explain organizational out comes. These conditions are extremes in organizational performance. When an organization has either extremely negative or extremely positive performance, people are prone to make leadership attributions in explaining the performance. This helps to account for the vulnerability of (∑0S) when their organization suffer a major financial set back regardless of whether they had much to do with it. It also accounts for why these (∑Os tend to be given credit for extremely positive financial results- again, regardless of how much or how little they contributed.

Theory of Perceived Organizational Support Social Exchange Theory

Social exchange interpretation of employer- employee relationships maintain that workers trade effort and loyalty to their organization for such tangible incentives as pay and fringe benefits and such socio emotional benefits as esteem, approval and caring.
Contributing to this exchange process may be the norm of reciprocity which holds, that the receipt for benefits incurs an obligation to repay the donor. On the basis of reciprocity norm, employee receiving greater resources would be expected to compensate their employers with higher levels of exchange theory, organizational actions favourable to employees should contribute more to POS if the employees view them as voluntary rather than as the result of external constraints such as government regulations unions pressures, or competitive wages paid by alternative employers. The favourableness of job conditions such as promotion practices, reward systems, fringe benefits and training opportunities was found to have a stronger relationship with POS. when employees believe that these conditions represented discretion actions of the organization rather than being the results of external constraints. Work –related outcomes found positively related to POS include effective organizational commitment.
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