CHAPTER ONE1.0 BIOLOGICAL ROLES OF ENZYMES
First what are enzymes? Enzymes are large biological molecules responsible for the thousands of chemical interconvertion that sustain life. They work by binding to one or more specific molecules called reactants or substrates Wenger D.A., Rafi M.A. Luzip, Datto J., Constantino-Ceccarini E. Krabb disease, genetic aspect and progress toward therapy. Mol.genet metab. 2000 May, 70(f) 1-9.
Today in the world as the case of be in medical sciences, the use of enzymes in the diagnosis of disease is one of the important benefits derived from the intensive research in biochemistry since the 1940.
Enzymes have provided the basis for the field of clinical chemistry. It is however only in the recent past few decades that interest in diagnostic enzymology has multiplied.
In an industries genetic engineering, scientists have began putting genes that makes up enzymes from human being into food crops in a dramatic extension of genetic modification. The move which is causing disgust and revision among critics, is bound to strengthen accusations that GM technology is crating "Frankenstein foods and drive the controversy surrounding it to new heights.
Note: In the industry and practical examination by the scientist enzymes are proteins that participate in cellular metabolic processes with ability to enhance the rate of reaction between biomolecules.
1.1 ENZYMES CLASSIFICATION
Enzymes are classified according the reaction they catalyze. The six classes are:
1 . Oxidoreductases
1. Alcohol dehydrogenase: An oxidoreductase converting alcohols to
3. Aminotransferases: Transferases catalyzing the amino acid degradation
by removing amino groups.
by removing amino groups.
3. Pyruvate decarbotylase: A lyase that removes €02 from pyruvate.
Amj Hum Genet. 1971 September; 23(5): 513-532. PmCID: PmC1706762.
Amj Hum Genet. 1971 September; 23(5): 513-532. PmCID: PmC1706762.
1.2 ROLES OF ENZYMES ON MEDICAL SCIENCES:
Enzymes has been identified that may be a powerful new tool for fighting Alzheimer's disease. (BACEZ) is the enzyme that has been found to destroy betaamyloid, a toxic protein fragment that litters Alzherimer patient's brains. The most common memory disorder is Alzheimer's disease affecting over 5.5 million Americans. Scientists have yet to discover any effective treatments.
1.3 THE USE OF ENZYMES IN MEDICINE
Enzymes are produced by living cells they are substances the fact as a catalystin living organisms, increasing the rate at which reactions take place without itself being effected in the process, without them, reactions in cells would proceed at a too slower rate to sustain life
The uses of important enzymes is medicine include killing diseases causing micro organisms, prompting wound healing, and diagnosing certain diseases. Enzymes are used heavily in medicine. These applications include using enzymes as direct pharmaceutical products.
The first example I will look at is the use of enzymes in medicine is analytical tests. Enzymes can because to detect and measure amount of glucose in blood. The amount of glucose in the blood urine is a crucial indicator in the diagnosis of diabetes, this is when there is a deficiency of insulin resulting in high glucose levels in the blood . It is detected using the enzyme glucose oxidase which is impregnated onto a strip of paper, and a biosensor. This instrument uses glucose oxidase as its biological system.
The enzyme catalyses the reaction between glucose and oxygen to gluconic acid. The biosensor then uses the amount of gluconic acid produced to indicate the quantity of glucose and oxygen there was in the blood this is indicated by a colour change.
2.0 INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH ON ENZYMES
In the field of biotechnology there are many industrial application that result in biotech products that we use everyday at home. Some of these are food science applications that utilize enzymes to produce or make improvements in the quality of different foods.
Rouault TA, Tong WH. Iron-Sulfur cluster biogenesis and human diseases.
Nends Gennet, 2008 August, Review: enzymes and their roles in the industry are milk contains proteins, specifically caseins that maintain it liquid form. Proteases are enzymes that are added to milk during cheese production, to hydrolyze caseins.
Enzymes have several valuable industrial and medical applications,. Due to the catalytic activity of enzymes they are able to be used in a variety of ways; examples are in the fermenting of wine, the paper industry, starch industry, leather industry , baking industry, beer brewing industry, washing detergent industry and diagnostic industry
For many years we have used enzymes to produce the things we rely on for example in cheese, bread, wine beer and yogurts Now due to our much more diverse commercial applications for example using enzymes in industry the sale of enzymes is a multibillion pound industry.
Enzymes an replace acids in the starch processing industry, and alkalis or oxidizing agents in fabric desizing reduces the use of sulfide in tanneries
Allow for more complete digestion of animal feed leading to less animal waste and remove stains from fabric clothes can be washed at lower temperature, this saves energy ,,
Enzymes can be used instead of using chlorine bleach for removing stains on cloth. The use enzymes also allows the level of surfactants to be reduced and permits the changing of clothes in the absences of phosphates
Enzymes also contributed to safer working conditions through elimination of chemical treatments during production processes for example, in starch, paper and textile processing , less, hazardous chemicals are required when enzymes are used.
CHAPTER THREE3.0 POLLUTION
Pollution from the industrial processes can be reduced by enzymes previously only a small range of enzymes have been available for the chemical industry. The U and C researchers are the first to produce an enzymes capable of speeding up oxidizing processes.
The new enzymes will be important in sensitive processes such as those involved in medicine production in the pharmaceutical industry.
Environmental pollution is growing more and more due to the in discriminated and frequently deliberate release on hazardous, harmful substances research efforts have been devoted to develop new, low-cost, low-technology , eco-friendly treatment capable of reducing and even eliminating pollution in the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the soil environment.
Enzymes could be developed to clean up pollution by explosives. The quality of life on earth is linked in extricably to re overall quality of the environment . unfortunately progress in science, technology and industry a large amount ranging from raw sewage to nuclear waste is let out or dumped into the ecosystem hereby posing a serious problem for survival of man find itself on earth
In the past, wastes were traditionally disposed by digging a hole and filling it will waste materials. This made of waste disposal was difficult to sustain owing to lack of new place everything to dump . New technologies waste disposal that use high temperature in creation and chemical decomposition (eg base –catalyzed dechlorination, ultra violet oxidation have several drawbacks).
These methods are complex, uneconomical, and lack public acceptance. The associated deficiencies in these methods have focused efforts towards harnessing modern day bioremediation process as a suitable alternative.
The pollution from the industrial processes can be reduced by enzymes, previous only a small amount of enzymes have been available for the chemical industry .
Enzymes play a reasonable role in harvesting energy from the survival photosynthesis , perform a wide range of roles in the technology of pollution treatment by using biological systems to transform and convert various pollutant
3.1 REDUCES POLLUTION OXIDIZING
Processes the bases of all chemical oxidizers are often dangerously unrefined, often requiring high temperatures, extreme pressure and corrosive surroundings.
They can be designed to be unbelievable specific and are able to operate under moderate conditions unlike their traditional chemical counterparts.
Drugge U, Holmberg M, Holmgren G, Almay B.G, Linder -Holm H., Hereditary Myopathy with Lacti acidosis, Succinate dehydrogenase and aconitase deficiency in northern Sweden, a genealogical study. Imed Genet.
1995 May; 32(5):3447.
4.0 GENETIC ENGINEERING
Enzymes used in laundry detergent and medicines such as insulin. Genetic engineering also called genetic modification of an organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be a genetically modified organism (GMO). The first GMOS were bacteria in 1973; Gm mice
were generated in 1974, Insulin-producing bacteria were commercialized in 1982 and genetically modified food has been sold since 1994.
Genetic engineering techniques have been applied in numerous field including research agriculture, industrial biotechnology, and medicine. Enzymes used in laundry detergent and medicines such as insulin and human growth hormone are now manufactured in GM cells.
4.1 GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM
Plant, animals 'or micro-organism that have changed through genetic engineering are termed genetically modified organism or GMOS. Bacteria were the first organisms to be genetically modified. Plasmid DNA containing new genes can be inserted into the bacteria will then express those genes. These genes can code for medicines or enzymes that process food and other substrates. Plant have been modified for insect protection, herbicide resistance, virus resistance, enhanced nutrition, tolerance to environmental pressures and the production of edible vaccines.
Genetically modified animals have been used for research, model animal and the production of agricultural or pharmaceutical products. They include animals with genes knocked out, increased susceptibility to diseases, hormones for external growth and the ability to express protein in their milk.
4.2 BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERING
Is the application of engineering principles and practices to the purposeful manipulation of molecules of biological origin. Biomolecular engineers integrate knowledge of biological processes with the core knowledge of chemical engineering in order to focus on molecular level solution to issues and problems in the life science related to the environment, agriculture, energy, industry, food production, biotechnology and medicine.
Biomolecular engineering deals with the manipulation of many key biomolecules. These include, but are not limited to, proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and lipids. These acid are basic building blocks of life and by controlling, creating and manipulating their form and function, there are many new avenues and advantages available to society.
ROLE OF ENZYMES IN THE REMEDIATION OF POLLUTED ENVIRONMENTS
Environmental pollution is growing more and more due to the indiscriminate and frequent deliberate release of hazardous, harmful
1. ENZYMES IN BLOOD CLOTTING
Enzymes are vitally important in preventing excessive blood clotting and reducing the tendency for platelets and red blood cells to 'clog'. Because of enzymes part in removing metabolic waste and improving circulation proteases for example; Trypsin and chymotrypsin can be used in fibrinolysis, this a process that dissolves blood clots. One use is in the case of thrombosis, this is when blot clots form in damaged blood vessels, if these clots are carried to an small artery and may become blocked a heart attack or stroke can be caused. This can be treated by enzymes such as trypsin and protease. Digestion of the insoluble fibrin clot takes place and because the enzymes are proteins this results in a conversion to amino acids, consequently freeing the trapped blood cells and eliminating the clot. This process is called fibrinolysis. Opposite to the prevention of clotting; the enzyme protease can be used as a debriding agent they are used to clean the wound and accelerate the healing process.
Enzymes can also be used in drug manufacture where the synthesis of drugs is difficult therefore enzymes are used to perform the .chemical procedure. Enzymes can also be used to aid digestion where they are used to supplement amylase, lipase and protease produced mainly by the
pancreas. An example is lactose intolerant people where they require actose as their bodies are not producing it. Mold Penicillium notatum The last point in enzyme application in medicine I will talk about is the production of antibiotics in particular penicillin. The major pharmaceutical; products produced using enzyme technology are the antibiotic, semi-synthetic penicillins.
Antibiotics are chemical substances produced by micro organisms which are effective. In dilute solution in preventing the spread of other micro organisms. Most inhibit growth rather than kill the micro organism on which they act. One of the best known antibiotics is penicillin -discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928. It was found that it acts on growing bacteria, killing them and preventing their growth. It is believed to compete with paraaminobenzoic acid for the active site of an enzyme. In this way they do not kill the bacteria but simply stop them from reproducing.
Although it has been very successful since its discovery in 1928 and has had an enormous influence on the control of disease, antibiotics have one serious drawback this is that due to the development of resistance towards antibiotics by pathogens there is a continuing need to find new types. Each time a new one is used resistant strains of micro organisms arise which further drugs have to be developed. In my opinion new developed drugs should therefore be used with much more restraint and discrimination and more time should be used searching for natural antibiotics to the development of new strains using genetic engineering.
In this term paper I have outlined and explained only a small number of the uses of enzymes in medicine however there are many more successfully developed uses. Examples include, in the treatment of genetic defects, the development of artificial' organ function, neoplasm, anti-inflammatory reagents, drug manufacture, the removal of choral components and to aid digestion.
In the 20th century the use of enzymes in pharmaceutical and industry is limited to a low number of very successful applications. However it is the very success of such applications that continues to help pave the way for new developments and it is clear that there is no shortage of ideas. After having an insight to the application of enzymes in the medical and pharmaceutical problems I have realized that it is an exciting and promising field that is ripe for development in the near future.
2. THE ROLES OF ENZYMES IN GENETICS
So far only around 3000, enzymes are known in the human body, but many thousands more which have not yet been discovered are felt to be responsible for keeping us alive. Their importance is enormous. They represent our life energy! What is there origin? How far can we go to trace this enzymatic life force activity for a single person? This book reviews the role of enzymes in the origin of life and their specialization through evolution.
The genes passed parents and present along the chromosomes determine the actual coding. The DNA molecules within the chromosomes constitute the actual memory of the cell. Within a single cell there are roughly 100000 genes, the majority of with code for enzymes. Each gene, whether structural, receptor, etc, is associates with an enzyme action, and is predetermined to perform a specific function.
3. THE ROLES OF ENZYMES IN REPRODUCTION (MITOSIS)
With the help of enzymes the numerous cells reproduce by division ever second to form new cells with exactly the same genetic composition. These will replace older ones. At the same time, many older cells are dying. All of required labor for the renewal and elimination is performed by the enzymes encoded in those genes. Although the limited number of other cells do not actually divided to forms new once, such as some brains cells and the ova within the ovaries, they are maintained in a state of good health by our enzymes.
Am J. Hum Genet. 1971 September; 23(5):513-532pmcid:
Drugge U. Holmberg M. Holmgren G. Almay B.G. Linderholm H. Heredity Myopathy with lactic acidiosis, succinate dehygronase and aconitase deficiency in northern Sweden. A genealogical study. J.med genet 1995 may; 32(5):344-7.
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Rouault T.A., Topy W.H. Iron-sulphur cluster biogenesis and human disease. Trends Genet 2008 Aug. 24(8). 398-409. Epub 2008 Jul. 5 Review.
Wenger D.A., Rafi M.A., Luzip, Datto J., Constantino-Ceccarini E. Krabb Disease: genetic aspects and progress toward therapy. Mol Genetmetab.2000 May; 70(1): 1-9
Kollerg G. Tulinius M., Meiberg A. Darinto Anderson O.,
Holngren D., Oldfors A. Home E. Clinical manifestation and a new iscu mutation in iron-sulphur cluster deficiency myopathy.
Brain-2009 Aug; 132 '(pt. 8): 2170-9 doi:10, 1093/brian/awp
152. Eub 2009 Jun. 30.