DRUG ABUSE: CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES IMPLICATION ON THE SOCIETY AND THE WAY FORWARD



OVERVIEW OF DRUG PROBLEMS IN NIGERIA
          Within the last decade, the involvement of our youths in drug abuse sub-cultivate has taken a wide and frightening dimension studies conducted by the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) from inception till date revealed that adolescents and youths of both sex and between the ages of 13-35 years constitute the high-risk group for drug abuse in our society. Also the Rapid Situation Assessment of Drug problem in Nigeria conducted by NDLEA in collaboration with the united Nations Office for Drugs and Crimes (UNODC) revealed that the vulnerable groups for drug abuse include students, the unemployed, artisans (craftsman), commercial sex workers, long distance drivers, and street children.

          An evidence has shown that the youths of Ebonyi state are involved in drug abuse between 2008 and 2010, about 619kg of cannabis were seized, while about sixty one (61) drug dependent persons were counseled and rehabilitated. In the year 2011, about 293kg of cannabis, 16g of Heroin and 6g of cocaine were seized, while about 21 drug dependent persons were counseled.
          It is a known fact that the future of any society depends largely on the quality of her youths. It is therefore highly regrettable that our youths are exposed to the dangers inherent in drug abuse in their formative years. This calls for serious concern and intervention from all and sundry.
          In the early eighties, some unpatriotic Nigerians entered the international scene of trafficking in narcotics drugs. The spate of arrests of Nigerians abroad for illicit drug trafficking, increased number of drug abusing youths and the growing public outcry resulted in the enactment of Decree 48 of 1989, which established the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA). Basically, the agency is charged with the dual responsibility of (1) controlling the supply of and (2) reducing the demand for narcotics drugs and psychotropic substances in Nigeria. These two main objectives are in consonance with the theory of Demand and supply, which states that without demand, there would be no supply.
Meaning of Some Key Words:
Let us know the meaning of some key words
DRUG: Drug is defined as any chemical substance which when taken into the body affects one’s mood, behaviour and/or state of mind. In other word, any substance that changes the way the body or mind functions (the way someone feel, think, see, taste, smell, hear or behave) is a drug. By this definition, drug is all encompassing, ranging from the socially acceptable drugs (alcohol, caffeine and Nicotine) through prescription drugs (Amphetamine, Lexotan, valium) to the illicit drugs (Cocaine, Heroin, Marijuana).
DRUG ABUSE:     Drug is abused:
Ø    When it is not medically necessary. Like some of us who take Panadol, vitamin C etc anyhow when it is not necessary
Ø    When it is excessively used as in the case of socially acceptable drugs such as alcohol and cigarette. Therefore the use of any drug in a manner that deviates from medically approved way of use constitutes an abuse.
PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS:       These are drugs that when used exert major action on the brain thereby producing such effects as sedation, stimulation, and change in mood or behaviour. Such drugs possess habit forming properties which can lead to dependency.  
ILLICIT DRUG:     These are drugs that are prohibited by the law. Prohibition include the manufacture, cultivation, possession, sale and use of such drugs. Examples of such are cannabis, cocaine and heroin.
LICIT DRUG:        These are drugs that are not under any form of legal prohibition for example alcohol, tobacco and prescription drugs.
PATTERN OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG YOUTH IN NIGERIA
TOBACCO: Tobacco is the dried leaf of tobacco plant and it is in different forms, for instance cigarette, pipes, snuff and cigar. It has different street names such as feg, cigar, stick, and taba. The most powerful ingredient in tobacco is Nicotine, which is an additive substance. Tobacco is socially acceptable and easily available and it is the most common drug of abuse by youths especially students.
ALCOHOL:  Alcohol is widely and commonly abused by youths and adults. Alcohol comes in different forms and it is the psychoactive ingredient in beer, whisky, spirit, wine,lighor and locally brewed alcolohl beverages such as palm wine, pito, barikutu kwaya and ogogoro. The effects of alcohol are similar to all other substances of abuse as it affects the central nervous system ( C N S). alcohol is readily available and tolerated. Youths indulge in alcohol consumption so as to belong to a group and or to be seen as sociable.
SEDATIVES AND DEPRESSANTS: substances in this category depresses the central nervous system by slowing down the activity of the brain. These substances are often medically prescribed but are abased for their intoxicating effect. Examples are valium, and Librium.
STIMULANTS: stimulants are used medically but have a high abuse potential. In this class are substances such as cocaine, amphetamine and related substances like Ritadin, and Methedrine. Amphetamine such as prophus  has found favour with students particularly during examination period in order to keep awake at night. Students refer to it as pep pills or superman pills.
CANNABIS (INDIAN HEMP): cannabis remain the only illicit drug cultivated in Nigeria. Studies show that youth between the ages of 12-35 years were admitted into mental health hospitals because of history of cannabis abuse. Cannabis has both stimulating and depressing effects. The most active ingredient in cannabis is tetra- hydro cannabin which makes the user high. It has several street names such as Igbo, stone, weed, wee- wee, Garja, Grass, Marijuana, Pot, Kaya, and Morocco.
NARCOTICS: Narcotics refer to a wide range of chemical substances used clinically to decrease pain but have a very high abuse potential. They include heroin , morphine, pethidine and other morphine likes substances common of them all. It is usually in powder form and may be white or dark brown. Heroin can be injected , inhaled or smoked. Some of the street names include Big H, Heroin is made from opium poppy plant cultivated in Asian countries of Burma, Lois Afghanistan Thailand, India, and Pakistan.
VOLATILE SOLVENT (INHALANTS): these are diverse group of chemical substances which produce psychoactive vapour that can be sniffed or inhaled. The vapour goes straight from the nose or mouth to the brain, heart, and lung. They include household products such as acrosols, gasoline, glue, gum, petrol dye, nail polish removers, insecticides, hair spranys, deodorants, rubber solution and so on. Rubber solution is a common substances of abuse among artisans including mechanics
ANABOLIC STEROIDS :these are synthetic compounds used in enhancing muscle development and strength in sporting activities particularly by football players, weight lifters track and field athletes. They include Donabol Androl, winstrol, and oreton . youths take steroids for the false notion that the substance enhances performance.
HALLUCIONGENS :these are diverse group of substances that consistently produce changes in thought, perception and mood. Under the inherence of Halluiciongens the senses of direction distance and time are distorted. Hallucinogens include L S D  (lysergic acid diethylamide) mescaline and phencyclidine (PCP )
UNCONVENTIONAL DRUG: there are number of local substance which are not under any local or international control. They are abused for their effects that are similar to the conventional drugs. Such substances include excreta of lizard, paw- paw leaves, vapour from pit toilet etc
PREDISPOSING FACTORS
WHY DO PEOPLE ABUSE DRUGS?
Common causes for drug abuse in Nigeria are
a.       peer group pressure: characterized by the desire to be accepted among friends and or in social circles.
B       social pathologies. Such as unemployment and parental deprivation
C       Emotional and psychological stresses, such as anxitety, frustration, and economic depression people always take drug or drink alcohol in order to forget their problem when they are provoked.
d.       the desire to achiever  success I a competitive word. Youth take performance enhancing substances in order to out wit others in sporting activities.
e.       Warped (Materialistic) value system in the society such as craves to get rich quick.
F.       Availability of drugs: increased availability of drugs has been associated with increased usage.
h.       Personality defects which refers to low salt esteem, low motivation arising from disturbed developmental and environmental factors such as broken homes lack of adequate drug sub- culture: A situation where the parents are drugs abusers. Because there is an Igbo adage that says ‘ Nne Ewu n ata alihia, nwa ya n ele ya anya n onu”
j.        Ignorance: ignorance has been found as a predisposing factor to drug abuse among young people.
k.       Need for excitement: just for the fun of it
l.        Advertisement: youth are sensitive to advertisement and copy quickly. The glamour in advertising alcohol and cigarette smoking make the youth want to be the way the advert depicts

SIGNS OF DRUG ABUSE: How do you know that some one is abusing drugs?
a.       Drug paraphernalia:
- Possession of drug- related paraphernalia such as pips, rolling papers, small decongestant bottles.
- Possession of drug, peculiar plant or butts, seeds, or leaves In ashtrays or clothing pocket.
-Odour of drugs, smell of in cense or other  “Cover up” Scents.
b.       Identification with drug culture:
- Drug –related magazines, slogans on clothing
-Hostility in discussing drugs.
c.       Signs of physical Deterioration:
- Memory lapses, short attention span, difficulty in concentration
- Poor physical, slurred or incoherent speech unhealthy appearance, indifference to hygiene and grooming.
-Bloodshot eyes, dilated pupils.
d.       Changes in Behaviour.
-Distinct downward performance I school or work place
-Increased absenteeism, chronic dishonesty, lying, cheating, stealing.
-Changing of friends, evasiveness in talking about new ones
- Increasing and inappropriate anger, hostility irritability, secretiveness.
- Reduced motivation, self- discipline, low self- esteem.


CONSEQUENCES AND IMPLICATION OF DRUG ABUSE ON THE INDIVIDUAL FAMILY AND THE SOCIETY
The implication of drug abuse on the individual, family and the society is quite enormous and include the following.
PHYSICAL EFFECTS: Drug abuse damages the central nervous system that is the major organs of the body thereby resulting to brain damage, Liver damage, damage to respiratory organs, excessive heartbeat, hypertension, chronic bleeding damage to unborn babies, and premature death. Drugs also weaken and or destroy the immune system making the users susceptible to opportunistic diseases.
PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS: Drug abuse causes sleeplessness, anxiety, depression, psychoses, craving desire, withdrawal symptoms, disorder of thinking, illusion, hallucination, impaired judgenent , memory impairment and invariably premature death.
SOCIAL EFFECTS: The family is the basic institution in any society and the abuse of drug by any member of the family has the potential of shattering the unity of the family . Where will be neglect and possible violence, such as wife battering, rape, murder etc. Drug abuse brings about the risk of loosing the quality of education in any society. Let us take a look at cultism in the Nigeria Educational system. It has been reported that most cult members are involved in drug abuse leading to violence and terror on the community Drug abuse creates social problems ranging form truancy to delinquency among our youths to family disintegration and destitution, Drug abuse youths are used to things and paid assassins by politicians. Drug abuse brings about communal crisis, accidents on our read, home and at work place. Young girls under the inherence of drugs parade themselves at night as prostitutes thereby exposing the much dreaded HIV/AIDS.
          In the same way, a drug abuse is likely to disperse with the amoral values of the society, and consequently his religious values.
ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES: The labour force is threatened as youth who ought to have engaged in productive activities are infested with drugs. Drug abuse brings about industrial losses, loss of job and deterioration in workers productivity. This in turn affects the development of the economy. Also drug abuse create environment not conducive for investment and consequently retards economic growth and development of nation.
EXTRA- BUDGETARY SPENDING: The economic impact of drug abuse also manifest in the health budget of any society. Drug control is a very costly venture. Nations all over the word are spending Lange sum of money to fight drug trafficking and abuse with little success. The national health budget especially on drug abuse related projects/ programmers is on the increase and difficult to maintain. This is because increased funding is required for the treatment and rehabilitation of drug dependent persons at the detriment of other sectors of the economy.
CRIME RATE: It is a know fact that drugs aggravate the crime rate within any particular society. Abuse of drug brings about armed robbery which in most cases results in murder, assassination, assault and rape. Observation and interrogation of arrested criminals revealed that they relied on hard drugs to execute their devilish activities.

DRUG ABUSE PREVENTION:
          WHILE THE Government has set the ball rolling by establishing a body charged with the responsibility of controlling the supply and demand for drugs in Nigeria, Drug abuse prevention in our society is everybody’s business and not the responsibility of the government alone. The entire community made up of the family, parents, political office holders, religious and community leaders, teachers, students, professionals etc should be involved in drug abuse prevention.    
          Before looking at the way forward, let us have a look at some of the programmes put in place by the government.
          The drug demand reduction Directorate of the NDLEA is saddled with the statutory responsibility of initiating policies and programmes aimed at reducing the demand for drugs. In order to achieve this objective, the following programmes are in place.
>        Data Collection and Research:    Data are collected from patients on admission at the treatment centres for drug related problems and suspected traffickers in NDLEA pre trial cells across the country. These data were analyzed and produced as Annual Research Reports (1999-Date), while the findings serve as baseline in the initiation of culturally relevant intervention measure.
>        Collaboration with NGOS/Other Stakeholders:
The NDLEA Collaborates with Governmental/Non Governmental Organizations involve in the prevention of drug abuse an has evolved excellent working relationship. Also a comprehensive Register of NGO in DDR has been compiled.
>        Drug Awareness Programmers: In order to sensitive and create awareness to the general populace and especially the youths, Lectures, Drama competition, Anti Drug talk on television and Radio, work place Drug Awareness Programme, Seminars, workshops, conferences etc are organized.
>        School Based Programmes:  Having realized that youths are the vulnerable group in drug abuse and trafficking subculture, series of youth programme aimed at giving factual information are put in place for instance: Preventive Drug Education was infused into the school curricular at the primary and secondary school levels of education. Drug Free Clubs were launched in Primary and Secondary Schools across the country. Anti drug abuse and trafficking lectures are delivered in schools across the country.
>        Treatment referral and rehabilitation of drug dependent persons: In the light of the above, drug dependent persons were counseled and re-integrated back to their families and the larger societies while those with manifestations of physical symptoms where refereed to treatment centres.
>        Printing & Distribution of Public Enlighment Materials:
Also enlighten materials in form of posters, handbills, stickers, notebooks, T-shirts, Face caps, with anti drug illustrations are distributed during programmes, and to NGOS as a form of support.
THE WAY FORWARD
*        Government commitment: The government must show strong commitment and increased interest in the prevention of the drug scourge. Drug abuse prevention activities should be sufficiently captured when preparing budget and allocating fund. Fund should be allocated for sustainable drug abuse prevention programmes in view of the fact that there is strong relationship between drug abuse and all other societal vices.
>        Initiation of Policies and Programmes:
          Greater emphasis must be placed at policies and programmes aimed at reducing the use/abuse of drugs. For instance, initiation of relevant intervention programmes such as enlighten and sensitization programmes geared at different target groups especially the youths.
>        Counselling, treatment and Rehabilitation of drug dependent person:
          Drug abuse is a health problem and as such drug dependent persons must be helped to stop the use and or abuse of drugs by way of referral for treatment, provision of counseling and rehabilitation centres for their reintegration to their families and the larger society.
>        Intensive Drug Education: Preventive Drug education by way of giving factual information on the dangers inherent in drug abuse should be carried out targeting youths in schools, principals, teachers, counselors, school administrators etc.
>        Reporting Drug Dealers to Appropriate Authorities: Availability of drugs has been mentioned as predisposing factor to drug abuse, so any person caught as a drug dealer should be reported to the appropriate authorities for necessary action.
>        Provision of Employment opportunities by the government: Government  should make a provision for employment especially for our youths, since majority of them involve themselves in most of the social vices mentioned before due to lack of job. Creating job opportunities will go a long ay in preventing drug abuse because theme is an adage that says “An idle mind is a Devil’s workshop”
*        Community Mobilization: This will imply “to mobilize human and material resources of our communities in order to reduce the incidence of drug abuse and trafficking and its devastating consequence thus communities and other social problems generated by drug abuse.
*        Parent role Models:       Parents have a major role to play in the prevention of drug abuse among the youth in our society. Parents must live by example. A parent that is involved in drug abuse/ drug trafficking has no moral right or justification to ask a child not to.
*        Parents must be knowledgeable about the drug issue:  Parent should inculcate drug abuse resistance behaviour to the youth by teaching them how to say No when offered drugs. Information, educative, and communicative materials on drugs should be provided to the youths.
*        Parent should from the habit of spending time with their children and wards. It has been realized that parents hardly spend time with their children behaviour.
*        Organization of community based workshops and seminar, making youths the target audience.
CONCLUSION
          There is no doubt that a society confronted with drug abuse menace is likely to experience very serious social, political, economic and physical consequence. It is our collective responsibility to tight the problems. I therefore appeal on everybody to join hands and also pray always for our youth that God will continue to direct them on the right way to follow and also to adhere to instructions on anti-drug abuse. For this will bring greater enlistment in our societies and nations.
 
       


TOPIC: CLASSES OF FOODS AND TYPES OF FOOD FOR VARIOUS AGES
INTRODUCTION:  Our nutritional needs changes with different life stages. To be fit and healthy therefore, it is important to take into account the extra demands placed on our bodies by these changes or stages.
          The foods we eat contain chemical substances called nutrients, these nutrients gives us energy, support growth, and help build and repair our body tissues.
          Nutrients also play important roles in numerous metabolic functions in the body.
          To meet your body’s regular nutritional needs therefore, you should consume
-              A wide variety of nutritious foods.
-              Take plenty of water on a daily basic.
-              Take enough carbohydrate foods for energy.
-              Adequate protein for cell maintenance and repairs.
-              Take fat-stubble and water-stubble vitamins
-              Essential minerals such as iron, calcium, zinc, and foods containing plants-demised photochemical which may protects against Heart diseases, Diabetes, some cancers, arthritis and osteoporosis. A variety of diet that concentrates on fruits, vegetables, whole grain, Legumes, dairy foods and lean meats can meet these basic requirement.
Food: Food is any substance usually of animals or plants origin, consumed to provide nutritional support for the body, in an effort to produce energy, maintain life or/and stimulate growth.
Classes of Foods:  Basically there are of classes of food namely:
>        Carbohydrate
>        Protein
>        Fat
>        Vitamins
>        Minerals
>        Water, and
>        Fibre
1.       Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are organic compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates are the body’s preferred source of fuel (energy), for muscles, brain, and nerrous system. Plants are the major sources of carbohydrate and they are eventually broken down to glucose in the digestive tract, then convened to glycogen, and stored in the muscles and liver. The body can store about 350g of glycogen and once storage capacity his been reached, extra carbohydrates are converted to fat and stored as/in adipose tissue.
Example of foods rich in carbohydrates are; pride, bread, potatoes, flour, and sugar, etc.
Carbohydrate is basically divided into 3 groups.
1.       Monosaccharide
          -        Glucose
          -        Fructose
          -        Galactose
2.       Disaccharides
          -        Maltose (Glucose + Glucose)
          -        Sucrose (Glucose + Fructose)
          -        Lactose (Glucose + Galactose)
3.       Polysaccharide
          -        Starch
          -        Cellulose
          -        Glycogen
2.       PROTEINS:  Proteins are organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
Proteins are made up of amino acids that are essential for growth, maintenance and repairs of body tissue and other vital processes. Proteins are needed for the formation of enzymes, hormones, hemoglobin and antibodies.
          There are 20 amino acids eight of which are said to be essential because they are gotten directly from foods. Foods from animal sources like meat, eggs, fish and dairy etc contain all eight essential amino acids and are said to be complete proteins. Plants contains some amino acids, but rarely contain all eight essential amino acids.
Sources: Milk, eggs, chicken, fish, and bean curd etc.
3.       FATS
          Fats also contain compound like carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
They are usually found under the skin or around adipose tissue. Fats are made up of fatty acids that help to regulate blood pressure, inflammation and blood clothing. Fats provide energy and helps absorbed or transports fat-soluble vitamins, like vitamins, A,D,E and K.
          Fats are necessary for hormone production, insulation and protection of vital organs. Fats are obtained form both animal and plants-sources. Excess fats in the body are stored as adipose tissue.
4.       Vitamins
          Vitamins are organic compounds that come from plants, and are considered micronutrients because the body needs them in small amounts. Humans get vitamins either directly form plants, or by eating animals who have eaten plants. Vitamins are subcategorized as fat-soluble vitamins are A,D,E and K and can be stored  in the body, but can be toxic if ingested in excessive amount.
Water-soluble vitamins are B and C, they an flushed out of the system if not needed and must be replenished. On a regular basis. Vitamins supports a number of metabolic functions in the body.

Types
Sources
Functions
Deficiency diseases
A
Milk, butter, egg yolk carrot, tomato, green vegetables.
-  Night vision.
-  Health skin.
-  Night blindness.
-  Skin defection.
B
Feast, Eggs, Liver.
-  Releases energy from
    carbohydrates.
-  Healthy nervous system.
-  Formation of red blood cells.
-  Beri-beri.
-  Anemia.
C
Fresh fruits and vegetables.
-  Healing of wounds
-  Resistance to disease
- Rickets (soft bone
   and dental decay).
D
Butter, Fish oils, Eggs.
-  Strong bones and teeth.

E
Cereals, Green vegetables.
- May be needed for reproduction.
- Helps to fight against disease.
-  Sterility
K
Milk, butter, Egg yolk, carrof tomatoes, green vegetable.
-  Clotting of blood
-  Prolonged bleeding


MINERALS
Minerals are organic compound needed in the body in small amount for healthy growth and development.
S/NO
MINERALS
Sources
Functions
Deficiency diseases
1
Calcium
Cheese, milk egg, green vegetables.
-  Strong bones and teeth,
-  Blood clothing.
-  Muscles and nerves
   activities.
-  Rickets, osteoporosis.
-  Prolonged bleeding,
-  Muscles cramps.
2
Sodium
Table salt cheese, meat.
-  Maintains body fluids.
-  Proper functioning of nerves.
-  Muscle cramps.

3
Iron
Meat, eggs, green vegetable.
-  Needed to form hemoglobin
   in red blood cells.
- Anemia.
  
4
Iodine
Seafood, iodized salt.
-  Needed to make hormones
   of the thyroid gland.
-  Goiter.
5
Phosphorus
Egg, meat, milk, cheese, vegetable.
-  Strong bones and teeth.
-  Muscles contrition,
-  Stores energy
-  Rocket,
-  Weakness of the
   bloody.
6
Potassium
Meat, Nuts, Bananas
-  Maintains body fluids,
-  Proper functioning of nerves.
-  Regulation of heart beat.
-  Muscle weakness,
-  Paralysis.

6.       Water
          Water is fundamental to human health, it makes up over 70% of our body mass. Beside being part of the body tissue, water transports Oxygen and nutrients to and waste products from body cells. Water helps to regulates body temperature and facilitates digestion of food.
          Because water is continually being lost form the body through sweat; urine, faeces and breath, it must be continually be replamished.
          Water is gotten from foods, beverages, and drinking water.
7.       FIBRE
-        Fibre is also known as roughage
          -        Fibre is made up of cellulose form plant cell walls.
          -        Fibre cannot be digested in the body but they holds a lot
of water so that our faeces remains soft and can be pass easily form the body.
          -        Fibre prevent Genstyation.
TYPES OF FOODS FOR VARIOUS AGES
BABIES (FROM BIRTH TO SIX MONTHS) & INFANTS.
          Infants usually double their length and triple their weight between birth and one year of age. Breast milk generally supplies a baby with the required amounts of nutrients, fluids, and energy up to about six months of age. It is therefore recommended that infants be exclusively breastfed up to around six months of age.
          Breast milk is preferred to infant formular where possible, as it contains many protective and immunological factors that benefit the babies development.
          Fruit juice is not recommended for infants under the age of six months.
          Breast milk of correctly prepared infant formular provides enough water for a healthy infant to replace any water losses, However, all infants needs extra water once solid foods are introduced.
SIX 10 12 MONTHS OF AGE (WEANING PERIOD)
Semi-solid to solid foods should begradually introduced around six months of age to melt the infants increasing nutritional and developmental needs.
          However, breastfeeding should continue until twelve months of age and beyond, or for as long as the mother and child desire.
          As a baby is gradually weaned from the breast or bottle and new solids are introduced, there may be reduced body store of irons. To maintain nutrient’s body store, therefore give the baby foods that are rich in iron and zinc such as iron-enriched infant cereals,, pureed  meats and poultry distress, cooked plain tofic and legumes/soy beans/ centrals. Salt, sugar and/honey should e avoided in the baby’s food.
-        Avoid cow milk as a drink in the first 12 months, but small amount can be used in cereals and custard, and should be pasteurized milk.
-        Whole fruits is preferable to fruit juice.
CHILD 4-11 YEARS
          This age is referred to as pre-school age, children at this stage develop faster and needs a variety of diet containing lots of nutrients to stay healthy and active.
          Protein is needed for growth and iron is necessary for alertness in school. Calcium and vitamins D are needed at this stage to help build stronger bones and teeth. Children at this state should avoid too many surgery food and snacks, instead they should eats plenty of free fruits and vegetables through out the day which provides them with a range of important vitamins and minerals.
          They should not be given too much fatty foods such as drips to avoid problem in later life.
ADOLESCENT: 12-19 YEARS
          Children at the stage needs a balance diet to help them concentrates in school and keep them fit for all the sporting activities. Many teenagers particularly girls don’t get enough won in their diets, so they should be encourage to eat plenty of meat, fish and leafy green vegetable.
          Teenagers should limit alcohol intake, reduce the amount of fat and salt food rich in iron and calcium. They should be encourage to establish a healthy eating habit that will be carried on to adulthood.
          Protein is important particularly during teenagers growth sport, as do calcium and vitamins C and D Because they needs lots of energy in their diets, foods like pasta and bread should be encouraged since they are high in carbohydrate. Teenagers needs at least six to eight glasses of water everyday

ADULTS:    20-64 YEARS
Adults in the other hand sometimes are net very active during the day since they spend most of their time in the classroom and in offices, therefore, they have to lower energy requirement than their teenagers group. However, like teenagers adult do need a well balanced diet to provide all the nutrients necessary for the maintenance and repairs of body tissues. Both adult men and women should take particular care not to eat too many high fat foods. It is also important for them to engage in regular physical activities throughout their lives.
PREGNANT WOMEN
It is important that pregnant women pay particular attention to their diet because what they eats can affect the heath of their group or developing babies or feature.
While a balance diet ensures they obtain a wide range of important nutrients, they also needs to avoid contain foods which could potentially harm them and their unborn babies. Such food like raw eggs and soft cheese which could contain food poisoning bacteria should be avoided. Certain food nutrients like folic acid, vitamin A, iron and calcium should be taken in high quantity to ensure proper growth and prevent any birth defects. Many foods like alcohol, tea, coffee and fish with high mercury levels should be avoided as far as possible during pregnancy.
65 YEARS AND ABOVE (AGED)
Older people are not active and so needs less energy diets. Cutting down on energy-dense high fat foods is a good way of helping them to prevent putting on too much weight. Calcium is important for aging banes, as is iron to prevent anemia.
It is important that older people eats foods which are easy to digest, and eat plenty of fibre to avoid constipation.                        
              


Share on Google Plus

Declaimer - MARTINS LIBRARY

NB: Join our Social Media Network on Google Plus | Facebook | Twitter | Linkedin