DEPT:                  MARKETING

Accessibility of agriculture marketing in Nigeria…………………..  1
Major crops…………………………………………………………   2
The role of agric marketing in Nigeria……………………………..   3
References………………………………………………………….    12


          Agriculture in Nigeria is a major branch of the Economy in Nigeria providing employment for 70% of the population. The sector is being transformed by commercialization at the Small Medium and Large Scale Enterprise Levels.

Major crops include;
Beans, Seasame, cashew nuts, cassava, cocoa, beans, grandaunts, gum Arabic, kolanut, maize (corn, Melon Millet, palm kernels, palm oil, plantains, rice, rubber, sorghum, soya beans and yams.
          In 1990, 81 million hectares out of Nigeria’s total land area of about 91 million hectares were found to be available, although only 42 percent of the cultivable area was farmed. Much of this land was farmed under the bush follow system, whereby land is left idle for a period of time to allow natural regeneration of soil fertility. 18 millions hectares were classified as permanent pasture, but had the potential to support crops. Most of the 20 million hectares covered by forest and wood-land are believed to have agriculture potential.
          Agricultural holdings are small scattered, and farming is carried out with smile tools. Large scale Agriculture is not common agriculture Contributed 32% to GDP in 2001.
          The country’s agricultural products fall into main groups, food crops produced for home consumption and exports. Prior to the Nigeria civil war, the country was self-sufficient in food but increase steeply after 1973. Bread made from American wheat replaced domestic crops as the cheapest staple food. The most important food crops are yams and manioc (cassava) in south and sorghum and millet in the North.
          Cocoa is the leading non-oil foreign exchange earner but the dominance of small (holders and lack of farm labour due to urbanization hold back production. In 1999, Nigeria produced 145,000 tons of coca beans, but has the potential for over 300,000 per year.
          Rubber is the second-largest non-oil foreign exchange earner.
(The Case of Agriculture as the Only Saviour to Nigeria’s Doing Economy)
According to the “Economist”, Nigeria displays (truly) the characteristics of an economy – a modern sector heavily dependent on oil earnings overlays a traditional agricultural and trading economy. During the colonial era, cash crops were introduced, harbours, railways and roads were developed, and a market for consumer goods began to emerge. At independence in 1960 agriculture accounted for well over half of our Gross Domestic product (GDP), and was the main source of export earnings and public revenue, with the agricultural marketing boards playing a leading role, but today, this leading role in the economy has been taken over by the national oil company, the Nigeria National petroleum company (NNPC).
          According to the central Bank of Nigeria’s data (2003), oil still accounts for our major revenue (Hearing towards 80%) and almost 100% of our export earnings.
          Although Agriculture (Particularly forestry, livestock and fishing) is shown to serve as the major activity of the majority of Nigeria, it is clear that we indulge in agriculture purely as personal survival strategies rather than as a calculated effort to warning the engine of our countries economy.
          This is really where our National economic problem lies. The gospel of economic salvation cannot be preached without due regard to agricultural development. Agriculture is the major and most certain path to economic growth and sustainability. It encompasses all aspect of Human activities-being the art, act a cultural necessity and science of production of goods through cultivation of land and management of plants and animals which creates an activity web-chain that satisfies social and economic needs. Agriculture is the mainstay of mankind, therefore wise nations all over the globe give it a priority by developing and exploiting this sector for the up keep of their teeming populations through the earning of remove for development purposes, as well as employment for the stemming down crimes, corruption and other forms of indiscipline which work against all factors of life, living and most of all economic production.
          While many nations in the world are working hard and reaping their harvest in this direction, Nigeria happens to belong among the free that have greatly retarded form their past glorious heights in agriculture, down to a near zero scale of agricultural production. Surely, this neglect is because of irresponsible and ill-purposeful leadership.
          With an expensing landmass covering 923 – 771 km2, an estimated availed land of about 68 million hectare, abundance of natural forest and rangeland covering 37 million hectares.  Varieties of livestock and wide  life, an agricultural friendly climate, coastal and marine resources of over 960km shoreline, expansive rivers and lakes covering 120,00 square kilometer and large  consumer market as depicted by National population of over 120 million in 1991 (now estimated to be about 200 million) large regional and continental markets, as well as the ever increasing world market exist for the reaping of the potentials that agriculture can offer any potentials that will outpace oil and gas on the long run.  That not wills tending the country has had a history of Agricultural process in the past, so, If it could work then, it surely will work better now, if judiciously and positively articulated. This is only possible if our oil-misdirected governments can start looking inwardly for other sources of revenue other than oil with an honest bid to boost agricultural production.
          The importance of Agriculture cannot generally be over-emphasized in Africa or particularly in Nigeria with poverty having finally taken resident permit in Nigeria in although we were warned against it by Professor Pat Ulomi in 2003, we cannot get out of it today by just relying on oil and gas. We cannot pretend to neglect the importance of agriculture in the economic forward-wheeling of our nation. Would Bank (2003) data show that more than &0% of Nigeria line below poverty line (which is les than a dollar per day) implying that there has been an astronomical growth in the levels of poverty of Nigeria form independence to toady. This is something we all should be ashamed of, yet is a situation that can be remedied.
          Nigeria is blessed with a wide variety of agricultural potentials, ranging form varieties of crops to varieties of animals and plants and natural agricultural- supportive factors like forest, waters, sands and most of all human resources that are being under-used (or not even used as at now).
          We have it all, yet we lack it all and that is why we are hungry in the face of plenty to eat. How can our modern grow well if we cannot castrate and manufacture our own foods. How do we in tend to carter for the ever growing Nigeria population if we cannot confidently feed them to face life’s ever trying activities?
          For instance, it is will known that the level of animal protein consumption per individual in Nigeria is very low-the reasons being that not much of attention has been placed in this area. With the increasing awareness of Nigerians on the need to take of least one egg per day (with population projected to be gearing towards 200 million) our animal protein in take per head is grossly low. But how many Nigerians can afford to put an egg, (which is truly viewed as a luxury good)  on their tables without necessarily check if this way; an egg will cost an average Nigeria about N20 (about 16% of a 81) to buy considering that an egg cannot be considered to be a main food an average Nigeria (who practically lives under N130 or &1 per day) therefore cannot soccour, taste and flavour (but surely less nutritive value). That our masses therefore cannot afford eggs local is part of why we should ashamed of our oil-bugged economy.
          Our liability to have good meal is what increases the size for buying embalmed chicken imported from other parts of the world banks to (Dr. Dorah Akunyere’s War) for our meals, thereby poisoning our system and our mentalities.
          However, while the present government widely and rationally banned the importation of these chicken corpses, nothing has been truly put in place to practically encourage poultry and other kinds of farming in this country. At limes, one wonders if President Olusengu. O. thinks the more than 3,000,000 eggs/day production output from his Otta farm will service the online Nigeria. Efforts to encourage the Nigeria. Effort to encourage the Nigeria with finance and other agricultures incentives have only given individuals and corporate bodies with political loyalty to the reigning government access to exploitation the ordinary farmers. Such incentives usually get to for farmers who use the fund for something else other than for agricultural purposes. Since transparency is lacking in the system, real farms hardly get the incentives but false farmers do no and at the end of the day the economy losses the impact that such incentives were made create.
          This happens because ours is a nation that ignores such primary issues as agriculture which should be a heavy serious tool needed to over turn the sufferings of our masses by providing food, shelter, employment decorum, revenue etc as well as to propel the general growth and development of the nation to a sustainable level. The truth is that the agricultural sector of this nation is still being given ill-attention. Something needs to be done. It needs to be resuscitated because Agriculture is truly the hen-that-lags-the-golden-egg of any economy.
          The present Government came with a lot of promises to revitalize the agricultural sector of our economy which had once fed this nation and nations far and wide with her. Cocoa, groundnut, palm oil (not crude oil) rubber hides and skins etc. Amos six (6) years now, one cannot confidently claim that mush of these promises are being kept in the agricultural sector, even in the face of some new “wonderful” polices. The economy of Nigeria for now is more of a literature of controversy than a statistically reliable one. Gross Domestic Product’s (GDP) data usually released by the present government have been superfluous but when interpreted or translated into the livelihood of the Ordinary Nigeria, it at best appears to be more of nonsensical economic expression that protect the image of the country in the international scene. That a true growth in the economic. Nigeria with GDP growth of 7.1% (2004 estimate) and Agriculture providing 70% of labour force (1999 estimate) economist how been warning over the truism of these estimates and many have even accused the Government of fingering with figures to boost its face.
However, whatever the outcome, what is on ground and well known to all is that Agriculture has not been made apriority in Nigeria by the government and the Nigeria poverty needs urgent attention the largely subsistence. Agricultural sector has failed to keep up with rapid population growth thereby forcing our Africa’s most populous country (a country once a large net exporter of food to importation of food).
The Government has lacked the will of discipline to either implement a social-oriented reform or even the much-talked about market oriented reforms urged by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) such as lo modernize the banking system (thanks to the Professor Charles (Soludo agenda) to curb inflation by blocking excessive wage demands, and to resolve regional disputes over the distribution of earnings from the oil industry. To achieve a stable food-economy. Agriculture must be given its rightful place in the national development effort. This important due to the menace and distraction being caused by our more than 4 trillion Cu m card 27 billion bbl gas and oil reserves respectively.
Too worrying to our Nation today is even the generally dwindling calls for the immediate revitalization of the agricultural sector. It is a situation where many pro-agricultural sector. It is like situation where many pro-agricultural voices are being out because of frustrations form the government by not giving enough heed to their calls in the past and present.
Agriculture as the Engine House of world economics needs to be overhead and serviced in order that the tears of the Nigeria masses may dry up. This can only be possible when the government starts investing substantial capital into the sector. Also the banks insurance companies, co-operatives and individual, groups and co-operate investors should be encouraged to invest in this sector. In fact the Nigeria Banks particularly cannot be allowed to define their over- organized and over- advertised ‘Universal Banking system” without relation to Agriculture.
Insurance firms truly have to start pricing interest in the areas of Agriculture to give it some safety and confidence. The farmers have to start having long-standing visions that can excel in growth terms to a sustainable private and public economy. Our legislators need to start thinking pro-activity on ways to enact economic laws that encourage and boost agricultural production, as well as laws that create enabling environment for its sustainability and safe practice. The polities of oil and profligacy and the unwarranted I know it all mentality in governance cannot lead us to economic glory for now.
Not turning to Agriculture will imply our continuous dependency on crude oil and unnecessary reliance on importation of goods that could have otherwise been manufactured at Kaduna, Aba, Nnewi, Ibadan, Port Harcourt, Kano and Onitsha.

Olumola, Ade S. (2007) Strategies for managing the opportunities and challenges of the cawen Agricultural commodity Booms in SSA” in seminar papers on managing commodity booms in sub-Saharan Africa. A publication of AERC senior policy seminar ix. African Economic Research consortium (AERC), Nairobi, Kenya.
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