EFFECT OF PROCESSING METHOD ON PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PALM OIL AND STORAGE STABILITY



ABSTRACT
This paper examines the quality of palm oil samples obtained from different processing methods in terms of their physicochemical properties. The results obtained showed that for a storage period of 6months the saponification value (SV) varied from 181.42 – 350.31mgKOH/g for palm oil for fermented palm fruits (fermented process) and 175.91 – 189.54mgkOH/g for palm oil from boiled palm fruit (boiling process) for the same six months period. The free fatty acid (FFA) of the palm oil samples ranged from 22.56 – 45%, 3.384 – 10.152% for fermentation process and boiling process respectively, peroxide value (PV) varied from 3.50 – 5.80meq/kg for fermentation process and 1.50 – 4.05meq/kg for boiling process, specific gravity ranged from 0.910 -0.925 for fermentation process and 0.912 – 0.913 for boiling process and the iodine value (IV) 26.141 – 37.0548Wiji’s for fermentation processed palm oil and 3.807 – 34.7706Wiji’s for the boiling process.

 The melting point was in the range of 29 – 30oC for fermentation process and 29 – 37oC for boiling process while the freezing point ranged from 26 – 28oC for fermentation process  and 23 – 24oC for boiling process. The results obtained after the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the specific gravity, freezing points, and peroxide value of the palm oil samples. However, there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the melting point, saponification value, and free fatty acid values of the palm oil samples respectively. On the basis of the oxidative as hydrolytic stability, this work recommend the use of the boiling process to produce palm oil especially if it is to be stored above 4months.

EFFECT OF PROCESSING METHOD ON PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PALM OIL AND STORAGE STABILITY

DEPARTMENT OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (B.SC)

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page…………………………………………………………..    i
Certification………………………………………          ……………ii
Dedication: ……………………………………… ……………….     iii
Acknowledgement:………………………………………………..     iv
Abstract…………………………………………………………….    v
Table of content:……………………….…..……. ………………..    vi
List of tables……………………………………………………….    vii
List of figure………………………………………         ……………viii

CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION:……………………….…………………. 1
1.1     Justification of the Study…………………………………..     4
1.2     Objectives of the Project……………………………………    5

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1     History of palm oil: ……………..………………………….    6       
2.1.1 Processing Technology: ………………………………….        6       
2.1.2  Traditional Wage process:…………..……………………       7
2.1.3 Mechanization of small scale process:.………………….         9
2.2     Methods of production: ……………………………………    11
2.2.1  Steps involved in palm oil production:…………………..      15
2.3     Physico-chemical properties of palm oil:…………………      15
2.3.1 Chemical properties of palm oil:………...…………………     18
2.3.2 Physical properties of palm oil:……………………………..   20
2.3.3 Characterization of palm oil: ……………………………         21
2.4     Uses of palm oil:…………………………………………..      24
2.4.1  Edible uses of palm oil:……..……………………………       24
2.4.2 Non edible uses of palm oil: ………………………………      25     
2.5     Standard Specification:…………………………………….     26
CHAPTER THREE
MATERIAL AND METHODS
3.1     Sources of raw material:………………..……………………  28
3.2     Method of preparation:………………………………………. 28     
3.2.1  Boiling processing method:…………….……………………   28     
3.2.2  Fermentation method: ………………………………………   29     
3.3     Physico-chemical properties analysis:…………………….     29     
3.3.1  Special gravity:……………………………………………….  29     
3.3.2 Acid value determination:…………………………………..     30     
3.3.3  Iodine value determination:……………………………….     30     
3.3.4 Saponification value determination:………………………      31     
3.3.5 Determination of peroxide value: ………………………...      32
3.3.6 Melting point:………………………………………………..    32     
3.3.7 Freezing point:………………………………………………     33     
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0     RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1     Results………………………………………………………..   34     
4.2.    Discussion Of Results………………………………………    40     
4.2.1  Effect of processing method and storage time
on the specific gravity of palm oil sample……………        40 
4.2.2: Effect of processing method and storage time on the
 Free Fatty Acid of palm oil sample……………………          41
4.2.3. Effect of processing method and storage time on the
peroxide value of palm oil………………………………         43
4.2.4. Effect of processing method and storage
time on the Iodine Value palm oil……………………….        45
4.2.5. Effect of processing method and storage time
on the Saponification Value palm oil……………………        46
4.2.6. Effect of processing method and storage time on the
Freezing point of palm oil………………………………..        47
4.2.7    Effect of processing method and storage time
on the Melting Point of palm oil…………………..........         48
4.2.8  Effect of processing method on stability of palm oil……       49
4.3     Conclusion And Recommendation………………………        52
Reference:………………………………………......       55
Appendix…………………………………………….     60

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Composition of palm oil:……………………….………16
Table 2: Component fatty acid of palm oil………………..…….      17
Table 3: Glycerides component of palm oil:…………………….17
Table 4: Physical Properties of palm oil:………………………..      21
Table 5: Quality standard of palm oil:……………………………27
Table 4.1: Variation of physico-chemical properties of palm
oil with processing method and storage    time……      34     
Table 4.2: Variation of stability with process method  using
oxidative and hydrolytic stability criterion…………35

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 4.1.       Variation of specific gravity of palm oil with
processing method and storage time. ………..     36
Fig 4.2.       Variation of Free Fatty Acid of palm oil with
processing method and storage time. …………   36
Fig 4.3.       Variation of peroxide value of palm oil with
processing method and storage time. ………….  37
Fig 4.4.       Variation of iodine value of palm oil with
processing method and storage time. ……………. 37
Fig 4.5.       Variation of saponification value of palm
oil with processing method and storage time. …38
Fig 4.6.       Variation of Freezing point of palm oil with       
processing method and storage time. ……………38
Fig 4.7.       Variation of melting point of palm oil with
processing method and storage time. ……………39
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