The area of interest in this work (research) centers on the problems and prospects of financing small-scale enterprises in Nigeria, a case study Bida local Government Area of Niger state.
            In carrying out this research, the researcher selected three small-scale enterprises in Bida Local Government Area of Niger state, they are good health pharmaceutical company Ltd, Lady Flora beauty salon and Ennack computer business centre.
            The purpose of selecting them is to sample diverse ideas and views about the topic.
            The class of personnel of this study runs through different levels of management, mainly from the top management staff to the middle level of management.      
            The dimension of the study will not exceed the use of questionnaire and personal interview, though the researcher will also request for other relevant and available documents from the different establishments as the case may be.


For the purpose of this study the researcher deemed it fit to make use of data from both primary and secondary sources.
a.                              PRIMARY SOURCE: primary source are collected for specific purpose, owing to the fact by obtaining such data, the exact information wanted is obtained. Data were gathered through questionnaire and personal interviews of staff of the selected small-scale enterprises.
b.                              SECONDARY SOURCE: these are mainly in the form of written, documented and already published and unpublished information relating to the subject of this study. For this research, extensive use was-made of libraries.
Since a lot of material write-ups have been written on this topic, the researcher therefore availed herself the opportunity of cross-checking (examining) the contribution made by other authors.
Also the techniques used in this research are preferred because, it enabled the researcher to satisfy all the demands of this study by providing a wide range of information in the topic, they include;
i           QUESTIONNAIRE: The questionnaire were presented so as to collect information specifically for the study. It is considered as the most satisfactory method for data collection.
ii          PERSONAL INTERVIEWS: The researcher also had face to face interview with the managers and some staff involved in the management of the enterprises. Also, personal interview was also conducted on the working of the three selected enterprises.
            The researcher also engage in some kind of brief discussion and in each case, question that border particularly on the topic of the study were asked. The aim of this, however, was to supplement this information obtained from questionnaires in order to satisfy properly all demands of the study.
3.2             POPULATION OF STUDY
The population of study encompasses all the staff that is conversant with in the business premises. The number of staff the questionnaire was distributed to was 50 both from the class of top managerial staff to the middle level management from the three selected enterprises.
The questionnaire was constructed and presented in such a way and pattern as to provide answers of specific question and then receive the attention of the respondents. It is because of this vital consideration that all the questions that touch the state hypothesis are carefully designed to allow for broad response on the research question.
Also, it is divided into two parts namely section A&B, section A- has to do with the respondents’ personal data while B has to do with or encompasses question of all kind and manner on the study.
The questionnaire comprises of twenty-one items and forty-four(44) copies were distributed.
            The essence of having the questionnaire forms containing all the items is to ensure the continued understanding and response to the questions by the respondents’ as the test hypothesis are adequately represented in the questionnaire form.
            Also, the forty-four copies of this questionnaire were distributes to make room for wide coverage of study area as well as to make up for the short falls that might result from mistakes and defaults in the return of these form by respondents.
            A specimen of the questionnaire form is attached at the end of the work as one of the appendix.
            To obtain a representative sample, each unit must be selected from the total population. However, the researcher tried to sample his population over different sectors of the firm. To facilitate his empirical objective of arriving at some purposeful research findings, the researcher restricted the research to mainly selected workers of the enterprises. This is due to the fact that the topic “problems and prospects of financing small-scale enterprises in Nigeria” is a serious problem that need to be solved, and the solution will only come from those who are fully engaged in small-scale business because there would be able to give relevant information needed for the research work.
3.5       SAMPLE SIZE 
            The sample size for the study was systematically determined using Yaro Yamani formula
            Yamani: (1964:p.280)
                        The formula is stated thus:
                        n =     N         
                                    1+N (e)2
                Where n – overall sample size
                           N – total population size.
                            I – constant
                            e – margin of error.
            We chose 5 per cent as the margin error. Therefore, since the population is 50 using an error margin of 5 per cent.
                            n    =   N 
                                    1+N (e)2
                n         =               50
                                    1+50 (0.05)2
                        =                     50
                n         =        50
                n    =    44.44           i .e sample size = 44
This is the technique used in processing data collected into information required for the research, the research or used simple percentage method (in analyzing the responses), the simple percentage used is to enable the researcher explain the data in the questionnaire.
For the purpose of convenience and clear understanding of the study, numerical description and tabular presentation were adopted to analyze the different data collected.
            The use of percentage method is also necessary to explain changes between the statistical data obtained and to put qualitative characteristics into numerical form theory reducing the problem of comparison.
(a)              Factor Analysis: Factor analysis and grouping were use top reduce the number o factors discussed and this allowed efforts to be concentrated on discussing and recommending on major factors, since respondents to the survey were sealed to “Yes” or “No” or “Don’t know.
In view of the nature of the research, a population estimated, which is greater than 5o percent, confirmed each hypothesis. The point being that more than 50 percent of the population can be generalized as having possessed the required characteristics of the population. The therefore warrant the use gross tabulation analysis by the researcher and which makes use of percentage based on the identified dominant characteristics of the population. It is on this basis that each hypothesis tested is either confirmed and accepted or rejected.
(b)              Statistical Test for significance: To further confirm and validate the acceptance or rejection of the hypothesis, all the hypotheses identified already in chapter one and which have been already established were tested using the chi-square distribution test (x2).
The chi-square (x2) is defined as “the different between a set of observed frequencies”. (Osuala 1987). “it is aimed at meansuring the extent of agreement between the observed and expected frequencies”. (Ezejelue 1990). It is a sample statistic and it is compound as follows:
X2 =å  (0-e)2
i   =1
Where x2 = chi-square
            O =observed frequency
            E = Expected frequency
å = Summation size
n = number of observation of sample size studied.
1 = Each number of n.
c.         test for goodness of fit: the chi-square test can be used to determine whether a set of theoretical or expected frequencies such as frequencies obtained from normal or abnormal distributions from ideal methods, fit corresponding set of observed frequencies of a sample. The number of degree of freedom from this type can of  test can be observed as follows: df = g- n
where d.f = Degree of freedom.
g  =      Number of component of the observed or expected frequencies in a sample
m = the number of known constant values which are used as constraint for finding the expected frequencies of the sample.
d.         Decision Rules: the decision rule is based on the level of significance, either for two-tailed test or for a one –tailed test. If the calculated chi-square is less than the chi-square from the table you accept the null hypothesis and if calculated chi-square is more than the chi-square from the table you accept the alternative hypothesis.
Thus, If calculated x2< x2 from table = accept Ho.
            If calculated x2> x2 from table = accept H1.
Share on Google Plus


The publications and/or documents on this website are provided for general information purposes only. Your use of any of these sample documents is subjected to your own decision NB: Join our Social Media Network on Google Plus | Facebook | Twitter | Linkedin